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Jackson, Mississippi 

Printed for the Society 



332 Mississippi Historical Society. 

latitude for doctoring and, if necessary, falsifying the voting, 
is made plain in the following from the election order : 

II. In order to secure as nearly as possible a full expression 
of the voice of the people, the election will be held at each pre- 
cinct of every county of the state in the district and — as required 
by law — under the supervision of the county board of registra- 
tion. The method of conducting the election in each county will 
be as follows. Immediately upon receipt of this order, each 
board of registrars will meet — divide the whole number of elec- 
tion precincts of their respective counties into three portions as 
nearly equal in number as possible, and assign one of the shares 
thus made, to each registrar, who will be responsible for the 
proper conduct of the election therein. Thereupon each regis- 
trar will appoint a judge and clerk of election, who, with himself, 
will constitute the "commissioners of election" for all the pre- 
cincts of his district. Each registrar will provide himself with a 
ballot-box, with lock and key and of sufficient size to contain the 
votes of all the registered voters in his largest precinct. Each 
registrar will give full and timely notice throughout his district, 
of the day of election in each precinct, so that he, with his judge 
and ckrk, can proceed from precinct to precinct of his district, 
and hold election on consecutive days — when the distance between 
precincts will permit. 

III. Judges and clerks of election will be selected by regis- 
trars, preferably from among the residents of their respective dis- 
tricts, but if they cannot be obtained therein, competent and qual- 
ified under the law, then from among the residents of the county, 
and if not attainable in the county, then from the state at large. 

The election, marking the negro's first exercise in political 
equality, was held generally Nov. 5th, though in some counties 
it was strung out the remainder of the week. It passed without 
serious disturbance, the more easily as the whites remained 
away from the polling places, except in a few white counties 
where the plan of the constitutional union party was rejected. 
As calculated, many negroes were prevailed upon to remain at 
home. The handling of the returns, the delay in announcing 
the result, gave rise to strong suspicion that the ballot boxes 
were tampered with. The official promulgation of the election 
figures was held back for a month. "We were informed by one 
of the registrars," said the Vicksburg Herald, two days after 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNcily. 333 

the election, "that the votes will not be published until it .is 
seen whether a sufficient number of votes have been cast to 
accomplish their purpose." For such a scheme the manner of 
the election was favorable. On the 14th, the same paper asked 
for the result to be promulgated and said: "We strongly sus- 
pect that the contents of the ballot boxes are being kept secret, 
with a view, if necessary, to stuff them up to the proper num- 
ber." On the 26th of November it leaked out that the conven- 
tion had been defeated, the Herald announcing from a "very 
well informed source," that only 62,000 of 133,000 registered 
Voters had voted, or over 4,000 less than half. "This," said the 
Herald, "seals the fate of the Mississippi state convention." 
Much rejoicing that was proved unwarranted was indulged in. 
By hook or crook, by fair means or foul, a convention was se- 
cured, and on December 8 general order 37 recited that "a ma- 
jority of the registered voters having voted on the question of 
conventions, the convention will be held as provided by act of 
congress, March 23, 1867, at Jackson, January 7, 1868," and that 
"the list of delegates and the full vote will be published as soon 
as practicable after they are correctly ascertained. The article 
is quoted : 

II. Irregularities in the conduct of the election in certain pre- 
cincts of the states composing the district, having been reported 
to these headquarters, and the vote in those precincts having been 
suspended, to await official investigation, renders it impracticable 
to promulgate at the present time the list of delegates elected to 
the respective state conventions, as also "the total vote in each 
state for and against a convention." 

The vague reference to "irregularities," the delay in a full 
and final promulgation of the election results, added to the 
suspicion of unfairness and juggling, that returns were held 
back to the end that there tould be an inside ascertain- 
ment of the vote interchanged between the election officials. 
No one thought that the general in command, or any of the 
military in control were cognizant of any crooked work, if any 
there was. But throughout the registration and election, it 
was apparent that the officials conducting the same were re- 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 

334 Mississippi Historical Society. 

chiving directions and had effected an understanding from 
Washington quite independent of the military. The Recon- 
struction Committee was not trusting to Gen. Ord for details 
or results. ' 

Immediately on the official announcement of the election, 
December 11th, 1867, a convention of the constitutional union 
party was called for January 15th, 1868. An address was is- 
sued reciting that great evils threatened the citizens of the 
state in all their governmental rights, that the states of the 
South were foredoomed to become African provinces, civil or- 
der was paralyzed by the sword and all industry was demoral- 
ized. For the purpose of thorough organization, consultation 
and action — to restore constitutional government and order, 
and for perpetuation of the union, the people of the various 
counties were urged to meet together and send delegates to a 
state convention. The gravity of the occasion was not over- 
stated. This threatened a feeling of despair to allay which the 
call was well timed. It gave assurance that in a period of dark- 
est portents, of doubt and danger, the ship of state was not go- 
ing to be abandoned to the fury of the elements of evil without 
a struggle. The particular motive of organization was for 
defeat of the constitution when framed and submitted for rati- 
fication by the "black and tan" convention. 

December 27th, or nearly two months after the election, the 
list of delegates chosen was officially promulgated. Of 139,327 
registered votes in Mississippi, 76,016 were alleged to have 
been polled, or a majority of 6,253. Of the total vote cast 6,277 
were against the convention. Had these voters remained away 
from the polls, according to the policy adopted, the convention 
would have been defeated. 

The point of this dispute and all others proved to be of no 
consequence. Other states that had no black voting majorities 
to strive against — Arkansas, North Carolina and Georgia — 
failed to elect a majority of anti-radical delegates to their con- 
vention. White voters of Mississippi took the only way that 
offered a possibility of defeating the reconstruction scheme in 
la. black state; that of having a majority of the voters remain 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 335 

away from the polls. It was calculated that with the solid 
white vote following this plan, enough non-voting negroes 
might for individual reasons, or persuasion, be counted on to 
make it successful. The plan failed through its rejection by 
some six thousand white voters. But it was shown afterwards 
that such a plan of evading the net was fallacious. Alabama 
was successful in thus defeating her convention. But in the 
ensuing congress the law was retroactively amended ; the pro- 
vision of the reconstruction scheme requiring a poll of a ma- 
jority of the registered voters to hold a convention, was 
changed to a majority of the vote cast. Then Alabama, which 
had defeated the reconstruction program according to the re- 
construction law, was forced under the yoke with the other 
southern states. 

The minority or conservative vote had the good effect of 
electing 19 delegates opposed to negro suffrage. The remain- 
der of the hundred was divisible into three classes ; the native 
white or scalawag, the Northern adventurer, or carpet' bagger, 
and the negro. Of the latter there were only 17. At that early 
period of reconstruction, the black pupils were tractable to the 
wish and will of their white teachers, and were easily per- 
suaded as a rule, to give place and precedence to their "bene- 
factors." When friction arose, it was amicably adjusted — usu- 
ally cheap for cash. A Bolivar county case will exemplify the 
rule. A negro nominee for delegate was traded or tricked out 
of his nomination by a carpet bagger, who blew into the county 
about the time the election was held. The name of him — the 
Rev. Jehicl Railsback — as well as the transaction, were sugges- 
tive of Puritan ancestry and training. The Rev. Jehiel's name 
was printed on the ticket, and the change was ratified at the 
polls without opposition. There were a few men, a very few, 
of this motley crew, of some honesty of purpose — possessed of 
an earnest, but sadly misguided faith, in the latent fitness of 
the negro for political equality. But by a large majority they 
were unscrupulous and venal, fit ushers in of the era of loot 
which the state was fated to pass through. 

336 Mississippi Historical Society. 

The effect of the triumph of the freedmen over their late 
owners, their object lesson in the power of the ballot, was 
marked and ominous. Work on the plantations had been largely 
given up for night meetings and discussions of their new preroga- 
tives. Conceptions of the changed conditions grew into ideas 
of confiscation ; that the whites were to be dispossessed of 
their lands and belongings, which would be bestowed upon 
their late slaves. This expectation received sustenance from 
the proposed confiscation bill. In some localities the evil seed 
germinated in a show of violence. In Lowndes county there 
was a mob demonstration upon Columbus, with the intent of 
pillage. The presence and attitude of the company of soldiers 
stationed in the town averted a race collision. General Ord 
acted promptly to check such symptoms of disorder. He con- 
ferred with Gov. Humphreys concerning the situation, and as 
a result of their conference, the Governor issued a proclamation 
December 9. He referred to communications received both by 
himself and General Ord and "referred to him for action by the 
department commander." "The communications," he said, 
"conveyed information of serious apprehension of combinations 
and conspiracies by the blacks to seize the land, expecting 
Congress to arrange a plan of division, but unless this is done 
by January 1, they will proceed to help themselves, and are de- 
termined to go to war." The proclamation assured the negroes 
that such expectations came from "gross deceptions, and if car- 
ried to the extent of outbreaks and insurrections there would 
follow the destruction of your hopes and the ruin of your race." 
The proclamation "to carry assurance," it said, embraced Gen- 
eral Ord's instructions to General Gillem, which were peremp- 
tory and stringent. He was directed to send for and inform 
leading freedmen of their delusion and to arrest "all incend- 
iaries falsely advising the freedmen" and that the "soldiers 
would put down violence by arms, that is. killing, if necessary." 
Governor Humphreys was assured that "the military will try to 
afford protection where civil authorities were defied and are 
too weak to protect." General Ord gave orders through Gen- 
eral Gillem "for the arrest of all persons engaged in unlawful 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 337 

enterprise, and of all white men who should advise negroes to 
unlawful acts." Governor Humphrey's proclamation especially 
referred the negroes to the order of the military commander, 
that "you may ho longer be deceived by restless spirits, white 
or black, that lure you to your ruin. You will now know that 
the military authorities are not in sympathy with any emissary 
that urges you to violence." He closed with an earnest appeal^ 
to the right thought of both races. The whites were enjoined 
"as they prized constitutional liberty for themselves, so they 
must accord to trie black race the full measure of their rights 
and liberties under the constitution and the laws of the land to 
deal justly and in no case undertake to redress wrongs except 
where authorized by law." 

The manifestations of disorder on which the information 
leading to Gen. Ord's order and the Governor's proclamation 
was founded, were sufficient to warrant precaution, but they 
had not reached the stage of "combinations and conspiracies." 
The information came mainly through the military and bureau 
authorities, and was conveyed to Gen. Ord, who passed it up 
to Gov. Humphreys, whose proclamation was timely in nipping 
in the bud any contemplation of violence. The unrest was not 
altogether the effect of political delusions. The material con- 
ditions of the people, and especially of the black counties, con- 
tributed to the demoralization. The condition of destitution, it 
is true, was largely brought on by neglect of crops for politics. 
The situation was thus referred to by Gen. Ord, and quoted in 
the Governor's proclamation: "The reverses of the past two 
years, the want of confidence in the future, of money, credit 
and food to support a large and unocdupied population, 
threaten the coming year to produce discontent, perhaps out- 
break and violence, among the distressed. All such dangers 
should be anticipated, and the true lover of the country use his 
stronger mind to meet and provide for the emergency." This 
well timed and patriotic admonition was supplemented, as 
shown above, by similar counsel from the civil Governor. The 
honorable co-operation of the two heads of Mississippi govern- 
ment, at such a time of sectional intolerance and mistrust. 

338 Mississippi Historical Society. 

forms one of the few pleasing features of reconstruction — one 
reflecting credit on both. On December 17th, in general order 
No. 27, the disorganized state of plantation labor received fur- 
ther notice from military headquarters. It gave notice that 
"all freedmen who are able will be required to go to work on 
the best terms that can be procured, if it furnish a support only. 
Otherwise they would lay themselves liable to arrest and pun- 
ishment as vagrants." The civil authorities were urged to act 
in the matter, and were assured of being sustained by the mil- 
itary "in any just action." The effect of this order was whole- 
some upon a most depressing situation. The outlook was at 
this period particularly gloomy in the river counties. On the 
brink of ruin and collapse, though they were, the planters were 
forced to raise a fund for repair of the breaks in the levees from 
the overflow of the previous spring. A committee of citizens 
waited upon Gen. Ord to petition that their local tax for this 
purpose would not be interfered with. He assured them that 
there was nothing to fear of this sort, and that he only regret- 
ted that he was not empowered to render them assistance. 

A year before the question was to secure money on which 
to grow a crop, and as far as possible, replace war's waste 
places. Now the supreme problem was to find the means of liv- 
ing. The debts representing the year's losses, piled on those 
existing at the close of the war, must wait. Fortunately, per- 
haps, debtors had not the least desire to foreclose — as an in- 
vestment, nothing was less inviting than cotton lands. The fol- 
lowing from the Jackson Clarion is a fair general reflection of 
Mississippi conditions : 

Our planters of cotton are in the midst of another season of 
profound disappointment and depression. Commencing the 
year's business after the utter failure of the one which preceded 
it, with money obtained at the ruinous rate of twenty-five per cent 
to purchase supplies, they have so far approximated the closing 
of the year's operations as plainly to see that their imagined pros- 
pects of remunerating results have disappeared; and worse, that 
they have realized nothing whatever from their investments and 
labor, and worse still, in very many instances, that they are clos- 

t Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 339 

ing up heavily in arrears to the merchants and capitalists from 
whom their accommodations were obtained. 

This is not an overdrawn picture, thousands of men who are 
reputed to be the most frugal, thrifty and successful planters, are 
in precisely the condition we have last described. Very few can 
say that they are so fortunate as to have escaped without actual 
loss; and none we presume upon a fair balance of 'profit and loss 
will ascertain that the preponderance is on the profit side. 

We need say nothing- about the inefficient labor. Not a great 
deal was expected of the freedmen, and therefore on this score 
expectations have not generally been disappointed. 

But there was "disappointment." The 1866 failure of crops 
was wholly due to the unfavorable summer and the army worm. 
The negroes w r orked better than expected. But in 1867, while 
the season was unpropitious and the army worm was destruc- 
tive, a calamity year was crowned by political excitement 
which reduced negro efficiency far below 1866. "In Wilkinson 
county/' according to the Republican, "the cotton crop which 
had fallen from 40,000 bales in 1860 to 8,000 in 1866, would yield 
no more than 4,000 in 1867." And that "the average would not 
reach over a bale to the hand." But this does not tell the whole 
story. Cotton was several cents lower than the year before. 
The crop failure was worst in the black counties where politi- 
cal activity was greatest. The following further reflection ot 
planting conditions is quoted from the Vicksburg Herald and 
Madison (La.) Journal, respectively: 

"Previous to the war we had the control of sufficient labor to 
work the lands, but things are quite different now, every one, we 
believe, who has attempted to raise large crops of cotton with the 
present system of labor, have become fully satisfied that it will 
not pay, and now, we would ask what the landholder intends or 
expects to do with his surplus land, allow it to grow up in weeds 
and depreciate in value every day, as it certainly has done for the 
past few years? It is no use to offer it for sale, the country is 
so thinly settled that no purchasers can be found. Now the only 
remedy we see for these evils is to increase the white population 
of the country."— Herald. "From present indications, there will 
be very little cotton planted next year, and consequently very lit- 
tle demand for labor. How our people are to be subsisted God 
onlv knows. The subsistence is not in the country, nor the means 

340 Mississippi Historical Society. 

for obtaining it. Every bale of cotton must go to pay for the 
supplies of last year, and then a large balance will be left stand- 
ing against the crop. We cannot expect merchants to make ad- 
vances to us after having so signally failed for two years in suc- 
cession, with our levees in no better condition than last year, and 
with no prospect of amelioration of any of the causes which have 
operated against successful planting." — Madison Journal. 

The condition of the state materially was as deplorable as af- 
fairs political were forbidding. The crop failure had been 
quite as complete as the previous year. Inhabitants of the 
Delta, agriculturally a garden spot of the South, were in actual 
want for the necessaries of life. A Vicksburg paper of Decem- 
ber 14, published that "Washington and the Delta counties are 
in a more deplorable condition than any other portion of the 
state. The planters generally have utterly failed in corn and 
cotton crops, and are unable to provide labor for the coming 
year. Negroes are now offering to work for food and clothing, 
and in many instances for food alone." A" story 'published 
from Noxubee county, in the eastern part of the state, read 
that "on twenty-three plantations where the ante-bellum crop 
averaged 7,500 bales, 2,500 have been raised this year. The 
clear loss in their cultivation, without counting land rent, is 
over $200,000." But this was rather better than in the west- 
ern part of the state. In Wilkinson, the lower river county, 
the situation was thus told in the county paper: 

"It is estimated that there is not enough ^breadstuff in the 
county to last its inhabitants three months. This forces the re- 
flection, what are people to do? The whites have not the money 
to buy food for the negroes ; their capital has all been spent in the 
attempt to raise cotton the past two years. It looks as if the 
government, which forced freedom on the negroes, disorganizing 
them as laborers, and bringing on want and threatened suffering. 
does not come to their aid, many must starve. The land owners 
have been impoverished and they have nothing but their lands, 
and most of them are covered deep with mortgages. It is but 
right and proper that the government, which brought all this 
about, should come to their rescue." 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McXcily. 311 

While the season had been unfavorable, political absorption 
was very largely chargeable for the farming breakdown. On 
this point the same Woodville paper, of December 14, 1867, is 
quoted : 

"One year ago relations between employers and freedmen 
were of the most amicable nature. Since then a most deplor- 
able and ruinous change has been brought about by radical emis- 
saries. The harm done can never be eradicated. Mutual dis- 
trust and ill-feeling have taken the place of helpfulness and 
good-will. The country is overrun with negroes seeking employ- 
ment, which the planter, under the experience of last year, with- 
holds. Stealing is of nightly occurrence, and the hunger fever 
has taken the place of political fever. It is useless to say the ne- 
gro is getting no more than he deserves. The ax cuts both ways. 
In addition to disorganizing the labor of the South, the Govern- 
ment has crowned all the ills with the iniquitous cotton tax. 
Here relief could be joined with justice by refunding it. Such 
an amount distributed to the persons who paid the tax would go 
far towards removing want. In the year 1866 Wilkinson county, 
poor and impoverished as the planters were by war and, its re- 
sults, paid internal revenue tax to the amount of $180,000, and 
the most of it by far is this unconstitutional tax." 

Like accounts of disaster and distress came from all over the 
state. Driven by hunger, the negroes so depredated on cattle 
and hogs as to threaten complete destruction to that kind of 
property. Public meetings were held to suppress such steal- 

The following report of General Gillem, as commissioner for 
Mississippi of the Freedmen's Bureau, is a faithful record of 
conditions prevailing: 

Condition of the Blacks in Mississippi — Official Report 

of Major General Gillem — Bureau of Refugees, Freed-. 

men and Abandoned Lands. 

Office Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, 

Vicksburg, Miss., Dec. 10, 1867. 
Major-General E. O. C. Ord, Commanding Fourth Military 
District : 
General — I feel it incumbent upon me as Assistant Commis- 
sioner of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands for this 

342 Mississippi Historical Society. 

state to represent to you the present condition of the freedmen 
and planters, and their prospects for the future. 

At the close of the war cotton, heretofore the great staple of 
the South, commanded what was regarded an enormous price, 
say from forty to sixty cents per pound, the result of which was 
to cause a large amount of capital from the North to be invested 
in the production of cotton. Labor, of course, commanded a 
price comparatively beyond what had hitherto been known in the 
planting and farming districts, ranging from $15 to $20 per 
month, with rations for first-class field hands. 

The short crop of 1866 dispelled the illusion entertained by 
many capitalists of rapidly accumulating a fortune, and in many 
cases utterly ruined planters and adventurers, who had invested 
their all in a single crop. Yet there was a sufficient number who 
regarded their losses as the result of an exceptional season, added 
to the number of landlords who determined to risk the results 
of another year's planting to maintain the high rate of wages 
of the previous year, and the contracts, where wages were the 
consideration, ranged from fifteen to twenty dollars per month; 
and where land was tilled on shares the planters agreed to fur- 
nish the land, animals, utensils, and in many cases forage, the 
freedmen furnishing the labor. In most of these cases the la- 
borer, having no subsistence and no credit, the planters agreed 
to become responsible for the supplies necessary for the laborer 
and his family, the amount to be deducted from the share of the 
laborer when the crops were gathered. 

In consequence of the dry weather and worms the crop of 1867 
has not exceeded half of what was reported as an average crop, 
and that has commanded but one-half of the price of the previ- 
ous year, thus reducing the proceeds to one-fourth of what was 
anticipated by the planter and freedmen as the proceeds of the 
year's labor. The result is the financial ruin of the planter and 
the capitalist and discontent of the laborer. 

In cases where laborers worked for stated wages there is but 
little complaint or discontent on the part of the freedmen, remun- 
eration having generally been received by the laborer, either in 
money or supplies, or if not paid the claim can easily be ad- 
justed and adjudicated, and if the planter has the means the 
claims can be collected. Where the laborer has worked for a 
share of the crop endless litigation has been the consequence. 

The laborer, without means, has generally been furnished the 
necessary supplies by the planter or on his security. On gather- 
ing the crop it has in a majority of cases been ascertained that 
the share of the laborer does not pay his indebtedness for sup- 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 343 

plies advanced, and instead of receiving a dividend he is in debt. 
This causes great discontent, and a conviction, perhaps welL 
founded in some instances, of dishonesty and false accounts on 
the part of planters, but this cannot generally be the case. In- 
stances have occurred where the planters have entirely aband- 
oned the crop to the laborer, losing their time, the use of their 
animals and implements and the supplies advanced: Cases have 
been brought to my attention of planting where not only the en- 
tire crop has been turned over to the laborers to satisfy their 
claims, but also the mules and implements used in their produc- 
tion. The result of this condition of affairs, is the almost uni- 
versal determination of planters to abandon the culture of cot- 
ton, and even if they wished to prosecute it another year it would, 
I apprehend, be impossible for them to procure further advance 
of the necessary supplies from any merchant, so prevalent is the 
conviction that cotton cannot be produced at the present prices. 

The next year the land in cultivation will be almost entirely de- 
voted to corn, which requires but about one-fifth of the labor de- 
manded by cotton, therefore four-fifths of the laborers required 
last year will be thrown out of employment, and, of course, there 
will be a corresponding decrease of wages. This the freedmen 
do not appreciate, considering it the result of a combination to 
defraud them of what they consider just wages. The conse- 
quence is they almost universally decline entering into contracts 
for the year 1868 on the terms offered by the planters. 

The crop of 1867 having been gathered, the freedmen are now 
idle, and without, in a great majority of instances, means of sup- 
port. The result is great complaints from every section of the 
state of depredations being committed on live stock, hogs, sheep 
and cattle. This is now the condition of affairs in the state of 

Planters are without means, having little left them except their 
lands. Capitalists beyond the limits of the state refuse to make 
advances from the unsettled condition of affairs. The freedmen 
being to a great extent discontented refuse to enter into contracts 
for the coming years. The remedy to be applied demands most 
thorough and immediate consideration. For the military, either 
through the Commanders of the troops or agents of the bureau, 
to reach all sections of the state, to see that all persons able to 
earn their support are compelled to do so, and that all those who 
do labor receive compensation for the same, is simply impossible. 
The care of the poor and the duty of seeing that contracts are 
faithfully executed properly devolves upon local magistrates and 
higher courts. 

3-M - Mississippi Historical Society. 

How far it is safe, under the peculiar condition of affairs ex- 
isting in this state, to trust the civil authorities with this duty it is 
for you, to whom the act creating the district intrusts "the secur- 
ity of life and property," to judge. To empower the local magis- 
trates to arrests as vagrants all persons without visible means of 
support would, no doubt, lead to acts of injustice; but the civil 
authorities being recognized and intrusted with the execution of 
the civil law, collection of taxes and the care of the poor, it would 
seem to be a necessary consequence that, as a protection to the 
country, they should have authority to compel all who are able to 
support themselves, and thus prevent them from being a burden 
on the country. To deny the civil authorities the exercise of 
their right is to place the freedmen above the recognized govern- 
ment of the state. 

It is a matter of very grave doubt whether in the present con- 
dition of affairs, the civil authorities, unaided by the military, will 
be able to maintain order and execute the law. Civil process can 
only be served in the ordinary manner where offenders are the 
exception and the law is sustained by public opinion ; but in the 
, present ruined condition of labor in this state thousands are with- 
out labor and must subsist ; consequently depredation is the rule 
and honesty the exception ; while, on the other hand, to treat as 
'vagrants four-fifths of the community is simply impracticable. 

But these are matters for your consideration, and of the law- 
making power rather than for me, whose functions are entirely 
executive ; and to you I submit the case merely with the surmise 
that it will be impossible to inaugurate any system for the relief 
of the blacks which is unanimously approved by the whites. 

There is another subject worthy of attention in this connec- 
tion. There seems to be a widespread belief which is daily in- 
creasing among the freedmen, that the land in this state is to be 
divided and distributed among them, and in some sections of the 
state this illusion is assuming a practical form by the freedmen 
refusing to contract for the next year or to leave the premises 
they have cultivated this year. 

It is to be feared that this course, induced by evil-disposed ad- 
visers, may lead to collisions, the extent and result of which it is 
difficult to surmise. 

I receive almost daily petitions and memorials asserting the ex- 
istence of organized companies of freedmen, and asking the pres- 
ence and protection of troops, and although I am satisfied that 
these representations are generally the result of fear and exag- 
gerated rumors, yet the commanders of troops and agents of the 
bureau have been instructed to urge upon the freedmen the abso- 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 345 

lute necessity of abstaining - from armed demonstration;, that they 
will 'be protected in their rights, but that they must not seek re- 
dress by force or violence. 

In order to avoid, as far as possible, bringing the races in col- 
lision with each other, I have advised whenever practicable, the 
"posse" summoned to assist in an arrest shall be of the same race 
as the person arrested. 

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Alvan C. Gillem, 
Brevet Major General, Commissioner. 

This report throughout, bears testimony of the weakness 
and odium of the condition dictated by blind groping, and vin- 
dictiveness. It tells this further story: That the Southern 
people were honestly seeking to adjust themselves to it — to 
make bricks without straw. General Gillem makes and im- 
plies, no charge or statement of violent practices, of a spirit 
of hostility toward the negroes by the sorely tried whites. 
These things came after as fruits of the rapacity and frightful 
misrule to which they were subjected. 

The destitution and dejection of the Southern people at- 
tracted scant sympathy at Washington, or in the North. Based 
upon a recommendation by Commissioner of Internal Revenue 
Welles for the repeal of the cotton tax, that question was the one 
of chief congressional consideration from the opening of the 
session until the adjournment for the holidays. The report of 
the commissioner is quoted from : 

Washington, Nov. 23. — Commissioner Welles' report shows 
that when cotton was taxed three cents the price was forty cents, 
and when taxed two and a half cents the price was twenty-five. 
The cotton tax was called for and only defended on the ground of 
necessity, and should be repealed when its continuance should 
prove a serious impediment to home production, or an undesirable 
stimulus to foreign cultivators. The contingencies are now im- 

The whole amount of internal revenue derived from the tax on 
raw cotton for the fiscal year, is given at $23,S79,07S.S0; and al- 
though this sum comprises nearly all the revenue derived from 
the Southern section of the country and constitutes an amount 
that can ill foe spared from the Treasury ; yet, under all circum- 

346 Mississippi Historical Society. 

stances, the Commissioner has no hesitation in recommending 
the immediate passage by Congress of an act repealing the en- 
tire tax upon raw cotton and the corresponding existing duty on 
imported cotton — the same to take effect on its passage." 

The commissioner's recommendation was supported by peti- 
tion and representations of eastern mills, exporting houses and 
several boards of trade. Appeals were made for repeal as a 
relief to the need and destitution of the negroes of the planting 
country. The tax bore with double severity through the low 
price to which cotton had fallen ; the minimum price of the pre- 
vious year's crop having been 32 cents, while that of 1867 was 
15J4. Asking for bread the South was given a stone — repeal 
was defeated by an amendment to take effect with the crop of 
1868. This was accompanied by reproaches and revilings. 
"If the Southern people," said Mr. Conkling of New York, 
"had sacrificed swaggering and talking about representation in 
congress, and gone to work to build up their impoverished sec- 
tion they would today have been much happier, and so would 
we. If this tax was taken off it would wipe out twenty mil- 
lions of revenue, and we know not where to go to replace it." 

Radicalism was now supreme — the leaders united and de- 
termined to consummate and securely establish Southern re- 
construction on the basis of negro suffrage and political ostra- 
cism of the "disloyal." The entreaties of the vanquished and 
the remonstrances of Northern conservatism were vain. Con- 
gress was resolved upon a policy of vengeance. The President 
having appealed to the country and lost, and having fully test- 
ed his impotence in the previous session, could only protest in 
appeals to the constitution. While this duty was performed 
with dignity and ability, through his message there sounded a 
note of despair. Confident in their power to override his votes, 
the opposition of the chief executive met with contempt. This 
feeling was so little checked by respect for the presidential 
authority that the secretary of the senate and the clerk of 
the house were encouraged to give vent to their aversion, while 
reading the message, by derisive comments and gestures. 
Their unseemly conduct, tacitly approved by the leaders, sug- 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 34? 

gests a comparison with the horse play in which Cromwell and 
other members of parliament engaged while the life and death 
poll was beings taken against Charles the first. The reply of 
congress to the message was a resolution of impeachment for 
high crimes and misdemeanors, based on report of the judiciary 
committee, which had been directed by resolution in the pre- 
vious session to investigate charges preferred against the Presi- 
dent. This was the second resolution of this character. But 
the time was not yet ripe. It failed, when brought to a vote 
December the 7th. 

Before the assembly of the convention, whose creation he 
had under the law directed, General Ord was relieved of the 
command of the district. The duties of his position had been 
both difficult and disagreeable for him. There were occasions 
in the performance where he had incurred very severe censure 
and complaint from the people and the press of the state. In 
the prevailing state of feeling, and in the operation of so re- 
pugnant a policy, one that outraged sense and sentiment/ this 
was inevitable. But fair and unprejudiced judgment will 
credit General Ord with having executed the law, and admin- 
istered the affairs of the state, with as much consideration for 
the rights and the feelings of the white people as his measure 
of discretion permitted. That he desired to exercise a larger 
leniency was shown in a restrictive order upon the powers of 
the county registers, which was promptly overruled by Gen- 
eral Grant. The spirit of General Ord's administration was 
reflected in the friendly relations between the military and the 
whites, during his command. The following is from the 
Woodville paper a few days after the election : 

"Marching Orders : The troops stationed here for some 
months past have marching orders for Natchez where they will 
go into winter quarters. We are sorry to lose Lieutenants Haller 
and Taylor and their company, which is one of the best and most 
orderly in the service. We wish them well wherever they go. 
There is a probability that an agent of the freedmen's bureau will 
be retained here supported by a guard under Lieut. Taylor. Our 
citizens will be glad to have him remain with us." 

348 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Since the passing of the years of war hate and sectional per- 
secution, no patriotic American has read their history with 
other feelings than humiliation and abhorrence of the leader- 
ship that shaped reconstruction. That the all powerful Xorth 
should have dealt out such treatment to her prostrate South- 
ern brother is cause of amazement as well. A confession of 
the cruel abuse of power that succeeded the Confederate col- 
lapse is quoted from a lecture a quarter of a century after, by 
an eminent citizen, who was a gallant soldier, the Hon. Charles 
Francis Adams ; delivered before the great English University 
at Oxford, in 1S90 : 

"Because, as the outcome of our War of Secession, and as a 
penalty for what was done by individuals in the course thereof, 
no blood flowed on the scaffold, and no confiscations of houses or 
Iands marked the close of the struggle, it has always been as- 
sumed by us of the victorious party that extreme, indeed unprece- 
dented, clemency was shown to the vanquished ; and that, subse- 
quently, they had no good ground of complaint or sufficient cause 
for restiveness. * 

"That history will accord assent to this somewhat self-compla- 
cent conviction is open to question. On the contrary, it may not 
unfairly be doubted whether a people prostrate after civil conflict 
has often received severer measure than was dealt out to the so- 
called reconstructed Confederate States during the years immedi- 
ately succeeding the close of strife. • 


"The Confederate, it is true, when he ceased to resist, escaped 
this visitation in its usual and time-approved form. Neverthe- 
less, he was by no means exempt from it. In the matter of con- 
fiscation, it has been computed that the freeing of the slaves by 
act of war swept out of existence property valued at some four 
hundred millions sterling; while, over and above this, a system of 
simultaneous reconstruction subjected the disfranchised master to 
the rule of the enfranchised bondsman. For a community con- 
spicuously masterful and notoriously quick to resent affront, to 
be thus placed by alien force under the civil rule of those of a dif- 
ferent and distinctly inferior race, only lately their bondsmen and 
property, is not physical torment, it is true, but that it is mild or 
considerate treatment can hardly be contended. Yet this — slave 
confiscation and reconstruction under African rule, was the war 
penalty imposed on the states of the Confederacy." 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 3-1 <> 

The sketch is incomplete in omitting the carpet bag factor in 
the reconstruction policy — the basest of the Northern invaders, 
whose itching palms spoiled the prostrate states of millions. 
Though even as a famous Greek painter, while placing the deatli 
agonies of the slave of the rack on canvass, lamented that he 
could not paint a "dying groan," it is not possible to convey in 
words the greater than "physical torment" of the rule of a proud 
people by their former slaves. 

Apart from its brutality, "the penalty imposed on the states of 
the Confederacy" was so palpably vain and doomed to defeat it- 
self, as to eternally condemn the foresight, the statesmanship of 
those who imposed it. None but men blinded by vindictive re- 
venge, or a shallow and short-sighted partisanship, would have 
calculated on the staying quality of government of the Southern 
states that so wickedly disregarded feelings that were inseparably 
interwoven with the very life of the people. Hence they sinned 
against both nature and light. The underlying and everlasting 
principle they violated is eloquently presented by that great writer 
of the truths of political philosophy, Herbert Spencer. The 
following is quoted from a letter written to an American friend 
upon our government problems : 

"Everywhere I have contended, and I contend still, that feel- 
ings not ideas determine social results — that everything depends, 
not upon intellect, but upon character. When men are under the 
influence of profound feelings no amount of reason changes 
their behavior. A true theory of social progress is not a cause oi 
movement. The force producing movement is the aggregate of 
men's instincts and sentiments. These are not to be changed by 
a theory. You think I have got some message that staves off im- 
pending events : 1 have but one message : Be honest." 

These reconstruction acts ran counter to every dictate and 
prompting of this wise and noble message — '"feelings" were vio- 
lated, "instincts" suppressed, "character" mocked and trampled 
on at the behest of a hate inspired "theory." Honesty and truth 
were trodden under foot, in the fullness of time to turn like the 
worm upon the oppressors with resistless force. "On the use," 
wrote Macaulay of England's restoration of monarchy, "which 

350 Mississippi Historical Society. 

might be made of one auspicious moment depended the future 
destiny of the nation. Our ancestors used the moment well. 
They forgot past injuries, waived petty scruples, adjourned to a 
more convenient season, all disputes about the reforms which 
our institutions needed and stood together, Cavaliers and Round- 
heads, Episcopalians and Presbyterians, for the' old laws of the 
land against military despotism." This is a tribute — that their 
"ancestors used the moment on which depended the national des- 
tiny well" — that posterity will never pay to the political archi- 
tects and arbiters of 1866. Indeed before the last of them passed 
from the stage, they were made to realize that they had done evil 
in the land — the evil that lives after the evil doers are no more. 

We need not go to Macaulay for a historic contrast with the 
baleful and hate inspired policy to which the nation was irrevoca- 
bly committed in 1866, and that was written in the statutes and 
the organic law in the ensuing year. Tory hate was a fact that 
threaded the seven years of the war of independence. Many of 
the "renegades" served in the British army. Thousands of them 
fled the country, and were living abroad. Their property had 
been confiscated. And yet when peace descended on the land, 
"in one auspicious moment" in January, 1781:, immediately upon 
the conclusion of terms with Great Britain, "our (revolutionary) 
ancestors used that moment well." Congress settled the Tory 
status by the following nobly inspired resolution : 

"Resolved, unanimously, that it be and is hereby earnestly rec- 
ommended to the legislatures of the respective states to provide 
for the restoration of all established rights and properties which 
have been confiscated, belonging to real British subjects. * * * 
And it is also hereby earnestly recommended to the several states 
to reconsider and revise all their acts and laws regarding the 
premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consist- 
ent, not only with justice and equality, but with that spirit of con- 
ciliation which, on the return of the blessings of peace, should 
universally prevail." 

At the time when emancipation was proclaimed Louis Agassiz, 
one of the world's foremost scientists, and then filling the chair of 
natural historv at Harvard, wrote a letter of warning which was 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 351 

published, of the negro's inefficiency and unfitness for social and 
political equality. Its close is quoted : "No man has a right to 
what he is unfit to use. * * * I deny that it is just or safe 
to grant at once to the negro all the privileges which the whites 
have acquired by long struggles. History teaches us what ter- 
rible reactions have followed too extreme and too rapid changes. 
Let us beware of granting too much to the negro race in the be- 
ginning lest it be necessary to deprive them of some of the priv- 
ileges which they may use to their own and our detriment." 
Commenting on this letter, historian Rhodes said: "What the 
whole country has only learned through years of costly and bitter 
experience was known to this leader of scientific thought before 
we entered on the policy of trying to make negroes intelligent by 
legislative acts. And this knowledge was to be had for the ask- 
ing by the men who were shaping the policy of the nation." 

In the true historian, how appropriate would it have been to ex- 
tend the range of the Agassiz testimony. All Southern men of 
intelligence knew of their own experience and observation the 
truth to which this "leader in scientific thought" bore witness. 
And so knowing, their uncompromising though despairing op- 
position to the grant of "a right to the negro he was unfit to use," 
and that, while granted by the nation, its misuse, and the "ter- 
rible reaction" was to be at the eternal injury of the states, is jus- 
tified as patriotic and self-preservation duty. With all "this 
knowledge to be had for the asking," what a crime was its rejec- 

The convention devised by the radical congress, given force and 
effect by the military power, and endowed with official form and 
substance through the suffrage of the late slave population, as- 
sembled as called January 8, 1868. The chain of the long forg- 
ing links was finished and ready for shackling the prostrate state. 
The instruments of action were worthy of the architect, and 
the work proved worthy of both. The gathering of the evil con- 
trived body formed a spectacle for abhorrence and dismay, which 
was well sustained by deeds whose ills will long outlive the last 
survivor of the Mississippi constitutional convention of 186S. The 
convention and its record is alwavs to be remembered as con- 

3o'Z Mississippi Historical Society. 

ceived and created by Northern radicals — upheld by a vindictive 
sectional hate. In their infliction of acute and cruel punishment 
of a people, there is nothing like, or comparable with, the plan of 
negro rule over the Southern states — nothing in ancient or mod- 
ern history. In severity of moral torture, and as seeds of enduring 
ills, no exaction of blood atonement could have borne so heavily. 
That the agents of the cruel and cowardly policy finally trans- 
gressed beyond tolerance, furnishes no contradiction of the culpa- 
bility of the North for every crime and curse that was loosed 
from the reconstruction Pandora's box. No lies of logic and no 
lapse of time can obliterate this. The evil done the South forms 
the secret of the survival of sectional hostility in the North. The 
South would outgrow the sense of injuries done her, but when- 
ever a Northern conscience reflects upon the inexpiable baseness 
and outrage of reconstruction, remorse and shame will seek diver- 
sion in reviling the South. 

The 18G8 constitutional convention bore the first fruits of ne- 
gro suffrage. Upon the Northern aliens were then applied the 
stigma of carpet baggers. While the convention journal in- 
cluded no classified list in a record so scandalous that the mean- 
est of its architects did not view it with pride, the following is 
given from newspaper files : Nineteen conservative or Demo- 
cratic whites, seventeen negroes, some from the North, thirty- 
three "scalawags," or resident white radicals, and thirty-one car- 
pet baggers from a dozen or more of the Northern states. The 
first of the four divisions were futile obstructives. What a ma- 
licious mockery to delegate the making of the organic law of a 
state to the other three ! 

The chief descriptive of a memorable chapter of history, "car- 
pet bagger," hit the bull's eye of popular fancy and spread over 
the land almost in a day. Even as the term is destined to long 
life, it should, as far as possible, be stripped of error. It had, in 
fact, little literal application. The office seeking Northerners 
who were so dubbed proved themselves a tough lot. But in 
truth and in fact they were almost entirely composed of officers 
and soldiers who were stationed in the Southern states at the close 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 353 

of the war. Nine out of ten were far better acquainted with 
knapsacks than carpet bags. 

Many of the tribe, in fact the most of them in the river sec- 
tions, where the pickings were most lucrative, were discharged 
from the army late in 1865 or early in 18G6. Through their con- 
trol of negro labor they were sought as managers or became part- 
ners with the plantation owners. This was especially true of this 
state, Louisiana and Arkansas, where they were practically all en- 
gulfed in ruin in 1866, the most calamitous cotton growing year 
ever, if we except 1867. Up to this time it may in justice be as- 
sumed, they had no other thought than to cast their lot with the 
South, to become absorbed in her citizenship. Until the election 
of 1866, and the assembling of congress thereafter, negro suf- 
frage and Southern loot were remote and uncalculated contin- 
gencies. But as the visions and dreams of quick wealth through 
high priced cotton floated from them on the closing tides of 1866, 
congress held out to the stranded Northern waifs with their ne- 
gro and scalawag affiliates, a far more substantial and alluring 
cornucopia of the harvest of the future. 

In words that were not without passages of sinister and 
portentous significance, the motley crew of many climes was called 
to order by Alson Mygatt, a Warren county delegate, who be- 
longed to the scalawag contingent. "The last sand," he said, 
"has fallen from the glass of the old times dispensation, and they 
have gone to return no more forever. We meet then in this cul- 
minating hour under circumstances of great responsibility." The 
convention's central idea of responsibility was not slow of devel- 
opment. Among the first resolutions introduced was one for a 
committee to wait on the state treasurer and "learn what is pro- 
posed to be done in reference to the payment of the delegates of 
this convention, and report herewith." In the handful of con- 
servatives were men of quick wit, wise thought and strong 
character. Appreciation of the weight of their responsibility did 
not extinguish a sense of humor that found plenty of food in the 
performance of a most grotesque gathering. A resolution of 
thanks being offered to the congressional committee for a manual 
of the constitutions of the different states, Delegate Townsend, 


354 Mississippi Historical Society. » 

of Marshall county, moved to amend by a preamble reading that : 
"Whereas, in all the constitutions but" six the word white is given 
as a qualification for electors, and in three of the remaining six 
both an educational and a property qualification is required, that 
this convention, in adopting a constitution for Mississippi will 
imitate the example of nine-tenths of the states of this union." 
The amendment was not adopted. Another Marshall county 
delegate, Dr. Compton, came near being expelled for a satiric mi- 
nority report on the convention's fees and compensations. 

Supersensitive delegates had their pride of race and state seri- 
ously wounded, by the joint proclamation of the miltary and civil 
governor — noted on a previous page. A resolution appointing a 
committee to air their grievance elicited the following explicit 
statement of the circumstances under which the proclamation to 
which they excepted was issued: 

Executive Department, 

State of Mississippi, 
Jackson, Jan. 18, 1568. 

Sir — Your note of the 17th instant informing me of the appoint- 
ment of a committee by the convention, to investigate the truth 
of the rumor of combinations of evil disposed persons in the state 
to seize lands, etc., coming from persons of high social and offi- 
cial positions, upon which my (your) proclamation of Decem- 
ber S, 1867, was founded, and respectfully requesting me to fur- 
nish (us) the committee with whatever information I (you) may 
be in possession of touching the subject of said proclamation, and 
the names of the persons supplying mc (you) with the informa- 
tion above referred to, was handed to me late yesterday evening 
by the assistant sergeant-at-arms, of the convention. 

I presume you do not expect me to admit that the convention 
now in session in this city, by virtue of the "military bills, passed 
by congress, has any constitutional right to require me to account 
to it for my administration of the civil government of the state 
of Mississippi. I, however, acknowledge the constitutional right 
of all and any portion of the citizens of the state, in a peaceable 
manner, to assemble together for their common good, and apply 
to those vested with the powers of government for redress of 
grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address or re- 
monstrance, and the correlative duty of all civil officers to furnish 
them all the information in their possession that pertains to their 
welfare and happiness, when respectfully requested to do so. 


Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 355 

I have no secrets I desire to withhold from any class of our 
people, white or black. My proclamation of the 9th of Decem- 
ber, 1867, was issued at the urgent request of Gen. Ord, comman- 
der of fourth military district, and all the information I have on 
the subject you desire to investigate, was received from and 
through him, except a few letters received from prominent citi- 
zens, which I referred to him as soon as received, arid which I 
presume are now in his possession. 

For obvious reasons then, I must refer the committee to him, 
and if in his judgment a revelation of the sources of information 
will not be an act of bad faith to the informers, white and black, 
or prejudicial to the public service, and will authorize a publica- 
tion of all the communications, public and private, I will cheer-. 
fully comply with his instructions on the subject. 

$ Very respectfully, 

Benj. G. Humphreys, 
Governor of Mississippi. 
To A. Alderson, Chairman of Committee. 

The committee then proceeded to interrogate the military com- 
mander with the following result : 

Headquarters 4th Military District, 

Mississippi and Arkansas, 
Vicksburg, Miss., March 17, 1868. 
Hon. A. Alderson, Chairman Committee Constitutional Con- 
vention of the State of Mississippi : 
Sir — I am directed by the general commanding to acknowledge 
the receipt of your communication of the 24th ultimo., asking to 
be furnished with any information in his possession upon which 
the proclamation of his excellency, the governor, referred to by 
you was based, and in reply thereto, to inform you that the gen- 
eral commanding, upon due consideration of the character of the 
reports made to his predecessor, Gen. Ord, upon which the action 
was taken, finds that they partake of a confidential nature; also, 
with regard to the considerable evil and little good that would 
seem to result from their publication, he decides that it would be 
incompatible with his duty to comply with your request. At the 
same time, the commanding general desires to inform you that he 
never shared in the belief that insurrection was meditated by any 
class of the inhabitants of this state. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

John Tyler, 
First Lieut., 43d Inf., Brevet Major U. 

356 > Mississippi Historical Society. 

Early in the session the convention considered a bill of rights, 
two sections of which signified the alien and irresponsible charac- 
acter of the delegates. One of these, Section 24, declared, that 
"No person elected to any office of honor, profit or trust shall be 
required to give bond." Section 31 gave to the employee a pre- 
ferred lien on the property of the employer. 

The convention initiated the discharge of its responsibility by 
providing for a small army of placemen. A per diem of ten dol- 
lars was fixed for the delegates. This was eked out by munificent 
investment in all of the various articles listed as stationery. Each 
► member was voted five daily papers. On the basis of this pro- 
vision, and the fees for publishing proceedings, several Repub- 
lican papers were founded. The convention was afforded a tan- 
gible acquaintance with the "long looked for hour" whose arrival ' 
had been announced in the opening address, by a mileage fee of 
40 cents each way. The common idea of jurisdiction went far 
beyond the making of the constitution. Immediately after or- 
ganization a resolution, looking to a sale of all the State's public 
lands, was adopted. Had this proved practicable, it would have 
furnished great picking. By a vote of 59* to 29 the convention, 
on the fourth day of its service, adopted a resolution memorializ- 
ing congress "to confer on this convention the power to declare 
vacant all civil offices in this state, and to invest the appointing 
power in this convention, in order that all said offices may be filled 
by men of known loyalty to the government of the United 

The lengthy memorial recited that the "civil- government, so- 
called, organized in 1865, was administered by rebels, not in uame 
merely, but in heart, in head, in policy, indeed in all respects save 
open hostility." An amendment offered by Delegate Strickland of 
Tippah, proposed to change the preamble so it would read : "We, 
the carpet baggers and scalawags of Ohio, Vermont, Connecticut, 
Maine, Africa, etc., etc., do ordain and proclaim this to be the 
document on which we predicate all our hopes for the success of 
the radical party." But the memorial was not meant as a joke. 
A bill granting the power asked by the convention was introduced 
into congress by Congressman Benjamin F. Butler of Massachu- 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 357 

setts. It was not adopted, for while the memorial only asked 
what congress intended and had legislated for, it went too fast. 
The plan of the policy provided for alien local government, 
through and after the adoption of the state constitution. For 
this the "carpet baggers and scalawags" comprising the conven- 
tion, were too greedy to wait. 

Attempted transgressions by the convention provoked frequent 
clashes with General Gillem. One arose over a scheme for rob- 
bing the state through the tax ordained for defraying the expenses 
of the convention. The tax schedule that it embraced would have 
yielded a sum vastly in excess of even the extravagant scale of 
the cost of the convention. Fortunately for the state, President 
Johnson had assigned them a military commander who steadily- 
imposed his authority against the convention's schemes of spolia- 
tion. He being appealed to by a citizen committee against the 
tax ordinance of the committee, declined to interfere directly, but 
in declining suggested a resort to the courts. This course was 
adopted, and an injunction was granted on the ground that the or- 
dinance was in excess of the authority conferred in the recon- 
struction acts. Against this injunction the convention appealed 
to General Gillem. He refused to overrule the court, but stated 
that an ordinance that did not violate the act would be supported, 
and such an one was substituted for the other. General Gillem 
furthermore instructed that the collection of the convention tax 
be delegated to the county sheriffs and tax collectors ; the conven- 
tion to make places for another swarm of locusts, having provided 
for special collectors. Before accepting the admonition of mod- 
eration, the convention adopted a noteworthy resolution appoint- 
ing a committee of three "to proceed forthwith to Washington 
and confer with the general of the army, the secretary of war, and 
other heads of departments and represent to them the true state 
of affairs in Mississippi. And that the committee have full 
power and authority to request a loan of $100,000 from the 
United States for the use of the convention, to be refunded from 
the state taxes, and to pledge the full faith and credit of the state 
of Mississippi for the same." By resolution a letter was ad- 
dressed to General Grant February 13th, reciting that "the com- 

358 Mississippi Historical Society. 

mander of the district had postponed decision in enforcement of 
the tax ordinance, and as it was impossible to enforce the provi- 
sion of said ordinance without assistance and concurrence of the 
commanding officer of the district, the constitutional convention 
of the state of Mississippi, in convention assembled, respectfully 
ask that you issue an order commanding him to prohibit the courts 
from interfering in the collection of taxes levied by said conven- 
tion ordinance.'' This passage from the record sheds luminous 
light upon the convention's thirst for plunder, lack of conscience, 
or any right comprehension of the character of its duties. An- 
other memorial was sent up to congress, asking it to extend the 
life of the freedmen's bureau, which was limited by law to July 
1st, as the freedmen are yet subjected to much injustice and per- 
secution at the hands of former rebels and slave holders, and the 
freedmen, with but few exceptions, fail to receive justice." It 
was asked that if the petition were granted that there should be 
inquiry into ''the character and sympathies of many of the officers 
and agents." Showing that there were limits even to v this con- 
vention's fantastic tricks, a resolution further asking for concur- 
rent jurisdiction in the removal of political disabilities under the 
14th amendment, was rejected. 

Under pretense of relieving the hard times, there were a num- 
ber of measures framed by the reconstruction convention to 
make the white people of the state parties to their own shame. 
The robbery of private debtors under the cover of laws repudi- 
ating or staying the collection of debts was sought. Such at- 
tempts at legislation received no countenance from Gen. Gillem. 
After appointment of the standing committees, the convention 
devoted its sittings to promiscuous debates and wranglings. On 
the 21st day of the session Delegate Johnson of Warren was in- 
spired to introduce a resolution reminding the convention of what 
it was there for. That "its time had been wasted in idle discus- 
sion of topics very remotely, if at all, related to the subject of its 
call," and that a constitutional making committee be elected "to 
report in three days." Instead of adopting this direct, if sum- 
mary, order of business, the convention proceeded to declare 
"null and void" all the laws passed, all the acts and supplemen- 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 359 

taries which had been passed by the previous legislatures, and 
conventions of this state, except vested laws granted prior to 
the passage of the ordinance of secession and all laws relating 
to marriage contracts, and that an ordinance be reported accord- 
ingly. A resolution with a lengthy preamble appears in the 
journal denouncing the doctrine of states rights, and that the 
ordinance of secession is and always has been null and void. 
An ordinance was adopted concerning the names of Jeff Davis 
and Lee counties. Being named for "rebel leaders" they were 
"utterly abolished" and Jones and Lincoln substituted, and thus 
was fulfilled the fable of the sick lion kicked by the base donkey. 

The ideas of government taught the newly enfranchised by 
this convention was calculated to produce confusion worse 
confounded. The journal it left behind it is streaked with buf- 
foonery and turpitude. Delegate Gibbs, a Wilkinson carpet 
bagger, who afterward held the important office of auditor, in- 
troduced a resolution reciting that "whereas in many portions 
of the state employes were taking advantage of the destitute con- 
dition of the laboring class to make contracts abusing the rights 
and privileges of free men ; and prohibiting the laborers from 
attending political meetings, resolved that the committee on gen- 
eral provisions be instructed to prepare an ordinance declaring 
all such contracts null and void, and that any one making them 
shall on conviction be fined not less than 100 or more than 500 
dollars, and be disqualified from voting or holding office for five 
years. Another aspiring statesman, J. Aaron Moore of Lau- 
derdale, offered a resolution "to divide the police of every in- 
corporated town or city equally between loyal whites and col- 
ored citizens. It was significant that a resolution prohibiting 
intermarriage of the races under a heavy penalty was sustained — 
only ten votes being cast in favor of tabling it. Instinctive race 
proved stronger than politics. 

Another looting device was to raise a fund for relief of the 
distressed. A committee appointed to investigate the situa- 
tion submitted its report February 14. This told of an "alarm- 
ing situation of destitution among the laboring classes/' and 
"to some extent among other persons strangers to labor and 

360 Mississippi Historical Society. 

economy. * * * The number of suffering and destitute 
may be set down at 30,000." It was asked that "the poll tax 
collected or to be collected be held subject to the order of 
county commissioners, to be appointed by the convention, to 
be applied by them to the relief of the destitute." In declining 
to sanction the robbery of the state contemplated under the 
convention's plan of relief to the destitute, General Gillem 
stated that he had thoroughly investigated the subject, and 
while there was "destitution and perhaps some suffering 
* * * measures have been adopted which will relieve all 
actual suffering." The General's experience had taught him 
the danger of government relief — that unless applied with ut- 
most care it would add to, instead of alleviate, the unhappy 
condition, and he informed the convention that the main fea- 
ture of his plan of relief was that the demand for labor be fully 
met before making up a pauper list. Xo better method of re- 
lieving distress which was so largely a question of vagrancy 
could have been devised. Had the convention's plan been 
adopted, the state would have been converted into a vast poor- 
house. For one genuine case of suffering ten negroes would 
have been pauperized. Land owners would have been irre- 
trievably bankrupted, while the convention vultures would 
have fattened on the offal of ruin. For its instructive light on 
the industrial situation, General Gillem's letter to the convention 
and the accompanying documents are given: 

Headquarters, Fourth Military District, 

Mississippi and Arkansas. 

Vicksburg, Miss., Feb. 1868. 
Hon. B. B. Eggleston, President Mississippi Constitutional 
Convention, Jackson, Miss. : 
Sir — I am directed by the general commanding to acknowledge 
the receipt of a copy of a report of the committee of the Mississ- 
ippi Constitutional Convention on Destitution, adopted by your 
convention February 4, 1868, and also a copy of a resolution by 
your convention, requesting Brevet Major General Gillem to 
carry out the plan of relief recommended in said report, or "some 
other similar one," and in reply, to inform you that he is aware 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 361 

that, by the failure of the crops and the reduced price of cotton — 
the principal staple cultivated in some sections of this State — 
many landholders will be compelled to plant on a more limited 
scale this year than was done last, and that there is much destitu- 
tion, and perhaps some suffering among- the laboring classes. 
But, after a careful investigation by competent and reliable offi- 
cers and agents, the General Commanding is satisfied that the es- 
timate of your committee, which places the number of those ac- 
tually suffering at thirty thousand, is much too great. 

The subject of destitution has received the most careful con- 
sideration of the commanding general, not only in his capacity 
as district commander, but also as assistant commissioner of the 
bureau of refugees, freedmen and abandoned lands, and meas- 
ures, which, it is believed, will relieve all who are actually suf- 
fering, have been adopted. To this end the officers and agents 
of the bureau of refugees, freedmen and abandoned lands have 
been instructed to procure labor for all such as are able and 
willing to earn a support. The aged and decrepit and orphan 
children will be cared for in hospitals and asylums. 

It will be seen from the accompanying reports that the^ demand 
for labor exceeds the supply. While this is the case, it is not 
believed that any great degree of suffering can exist among the 
laboring classes. It will be seen from the accompanying order 
that transportation is furnished to laborers unable to procure em- 
ployment to points where their services are in demand. It may 
not be out of place to remark here that at this time letters are 
constantly received requesting aid in hiring laborers ; and five 
hundred laborers and their families could this day secure employ- 
ment at the office of the sub-assistant commissioner of the bu- 
reau in this city. 

The general commanding desires further to assure the con- 
vention that he will take every precaution to prevent suffering, 
and that he believes that with the means at his disposal, he will 
be able to accomplish this. 

With these convictions the commanding general deems it in- 
expedient to divert so large an amount of the revenue of this 
state as that derived from the poll tax, to the subject specified 
in your resolution. 

The attention of the convention is called to the fact that there 
are no funds in the state treasury, and that the state prison and 
lunatic asylums are now supported at the expense of the United 

362 Mississippi Historical Society. 

The commanding general, therefore, declines to authorize the 
sheriffs to dispose of the funds derived from the poll tax, as rec- 
ommended by the convention. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 

. Your obedient servant, 

John Tyler, 
Fifst Lieut. 43d Infantry, Bvt. Maj. U. S. A.', A. A. A. G. 

On Board Steamer Kate Kinney, 
Near Friar's Point, Miss., Jan. 13, 1868. 
. General — I write these few lines to inform you partially of 
the state of affairs at Greenville, as we found them. 

The amount and generality of the destitution has been very 
much exaggerated, even in Washington county, and I have no 
doubt that is the poorest county in the state today, as far as their 
ability to provide for the destitute is concerned. There were 
from 12,000 to 13,000 freed people in that county during the 
past year, and it is estimated that not more than half can be em- 
ployed during the coming season. 

In the vicinity of Greenville, I have found several families, 
numbering in all some sixty or seventy persons, houseless, and 
with only sufficient food to keep them for two or three days at 
the farthest. They had been recently turned out of the cabins 
they occupied last year, without means of any description. 
There are a great many similar cases throughout the country. 
They state that they have endeavored to get work, but without 
success. In view of these facts, and knowing it to be your in- 
tention to provide, in some manner, for the absolutely destitute, 
I authorized Mr. Preuss, the agent, to make some purchases of 
corn and meat as may be necessary to prevent starvation, until 
he receives definite instructions from your office. 

I would respectfully recommend that a detachment of twenty 
men be sent to Greenville (cavalry, if possible), in order to en- 
force the orders of the bureau, and for the general enforcement 
of order. I recommend this on account of the uncertainty of 
communicating with headquarters in case of difficulty. 

I do not anticipate any trouble, although some of the people 
fear it on account of the generally expressed determination on 
the part of the planters to eject all freedmen from their lands, 
except those they employ for the coming year. 

****** * 

I would state that I believe there is a combination on the part 
of a great many planters to hold off in respect to hiring labor- 
ers, expecting the government to compel them to work, and 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 363 

thereby be enabled to get them for their food and clothing alone. 
The order upon the subject is frequently quoted, and I believe 
many of them are endeavoring to create a false impression as to 
their resources and their ability to cultivate their places. 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

N. R. Williams. 
Lieutenant and A. I. G. 

Vicksburg, Miss., January 18, 1868. 
Lieutenant M. Barber, A. A. G., Bureau Refugees, Freed- 
men and Abandoned Lands, State of Mississippi: 
Lieutenant — I have the honor to report the condition of af- 
fairs in the counties bordering on the Yazoo river, as far as came 
under my observation, on a tour of investigation in that section 
during the past week. 

The freedmen are in a destitute condition, mainly because they 
will not hire out to the farmers and planters — a great number of 
the latter requiring their services. The reasons assigned for 
this are that the wages offered are too low, being about one-third 
of the compensation given last year. Also they (the freedmen) 
insist that upon the adjournment of the convention at Jackson 
the lands in the State will be divided out amongst them, and 
they ,can live until then. 

My belief is that if the freedmen will work they can find em- 
ployment, food and clothing for the present year. 

I saw no destitution among the planters or people generally, 
and believe that the many reports of such existing are greatly 
exaggerated. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. W. Scully, 
Brevet Colonel and A. Q. M., Inspector General 

Meritt Barber, 
First Lieutenant Thirty-Fourth Infantry, A'. A. A. G. 

Vicksburg Miss., February 12, 1868. 
To the Assistant Commissioner Bureau R., F. and A. L., 
State of Mississippi: 
Sir — In compliance with your orders of the 3d instant, I pro- 
ceeded to Grenada, Miss., and investigated the condition of af- 
fairs in that sub-district. As a general thing, the freedmen have 
entered into contracts for the present season, although I found 
more idlers and dissatisfaction among the laborers there than at 
any other point on my route. This is not due, however, to any 
lack of employment, for I was informed of several persons from 

064 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Tennessee and points in Mississippi having visited Grenada for 
the purpose of procuring- laborers, and offering excellent terms, 
without being able to secure a single hand. 

From Grenada I proceeded to the sub-district of Panola, and 
found matters in that and the late sub-district* of Hernando in 
a very satisfactory condition indeed. That section of the state 
being exceedingly fertile, a good crop has been realized, and la- 
borers have very satisfactory returns for the year's labor. 

The vigorous action of the agent in charge during his short 
term of service at Panola, has procured a settlement of nearly 
every case in controversy, and I was pleased to find that he has 
gained the confidence and respect of whites and blacks equally ; 
a very marked difference from the feeling entertained toward 
his predecessor, who was universally disliked by the one and sus- 
pected by the other, is perceptible. 

The laborers have all entered into contracts for the present 
year, and the agent in charge has applications for a large num- 
ber of hands, whom it is impracticable for him to furnish. 
There is no destitution or necessity for aid to be furnished to 
any, except perhaps to a few orphan children, whom I directed 
the agent to visit and make report and recommendation of such 
action as the circumstances of their condition might warrant. 

From Panola I proceeded to Holly Springs, delaying at Mem- 
phis for a day and a half, being misinformed as to the connec- 
tion of the train. 

At Holly Springs, as at Panola, I found everything in a very 
satisfactory condition. The laborers are settled with for their 
past year's labor; they have made good crops, and having con- 
versed with freedmen at every station through the sub-district, 
I co.uld not hear of an instance of destitution. All have con- 
tracts for the opening season, and the sub-assistant commissioner 
has applications for several laborers that he cannot furnish. Two 
schools have been established recently, and several more are in 

I have the honor to be, Sir, very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

Merritt Barber, 
First Lieut. 34th U. S. Inf. 

These reports checkmating the scheme to rob the state un- 
der the pretense of philanthropy, the convention turned its at- 
tention in other directions. On the 23d day the committees on 
the executive and judicial articles of the constitution presented 
their reports to the convention. Others soon followed, but 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 36o 

consideration was long delayed, by the taste of the convention 
for ordinances embracing all manner of schemes foreign to 
constitution making. One asked the commanding general to 
authorize a measure to send all negroes to their homes, or 
places of birth. It was refused by General Gillem, who stated 
that it would cost a million dollars to carry it out. An ordi- 
nance was adopted that "no contract should be valid which in 
any manner abridged or affected the right of franchise, and any 
person demanding such condition should be fined $5. If he 
dismissed any one for having exercised the right of voting he 
should be disfranchised for five years, as well as fined." A 
resolution was adopted approving the impeachment of Andrew 
Johnson "acting president." The proceedings were diversified 
by the trial and final expulsion of one of the delegates for as- 
saulting the doorkeeper, publishing false and libelous accusa- 
tions against members of the convention, and acts of dissipa- 
tion and disorders disgraceful to the convention. This is the 
only intimation in the journal that the convention entertained 
any respect for its dignity. The tax ordinance was a subject 
of long drawn out contention between the convention and Gen- 
eral Gillem. Having finally been trimmed so that he could 
approve it, it was promulgated, March 6th. During the long 
delay the pecuniary straits of the delegates had grown quite 
acute. On the 67th day of the session Mr. Stricklin, of Tip- 
pah, presented the following: 

Mr. President : I resign my seat as a member of this conven- 
tion, and tender it to some abler man. I do this first, because I 
believe the acts of congress under which we are assembled, are 
unconstitutional, unjust, tyrannical, and oppressive. Next, be- 
cause whether the acts of congress are unconstitutional or not, 
the members of this convention are transcending the limits of 
whatever power they may have derived by virtue of their consti- 
tutionality. Again, because this body is inflicting upon the peo- 
ple by taxation, a burden they are illy able to bear, and to which 
I do not desire to offer further contribution. Lastly, because I 
am totally disgusted with its nonsense. 


W. L. Stricklin, 
Delegate from Tippah County. 
flon. B. B. Eggleston, President, Etc. 

366 Mississippi Historical Society. 

The other conservative delegates held on for twenty days 
longer. On April 16, they resigned in a body. This action 
was precipitated by the adoption of the following "additional 
section" to the franchise article: 

"No person shall be eligible to any office of profit or trust, 
civil or military, in this state, who, as a member of the legisla- 
ture, voted for the call of the convention that passed the ordi- 
nance of secession, or who, as a delegate to any convention, voted 
for or signed any ordinance of secession, or who gave voluntary 
aid, countenance, counsel, or encouragement to persons engaged 
in armed hostility to the United States, or who accepted or at- 
tempted to exercise the functions of any office, civil or military, 
under authority or pretended government authority, power, or 
constitution within the United States, hostile or inimical thereto, 
except all persons who aided reconstruction by voting for this 
convention; but the legislature may, by a vote of two-thirds of 
each house, remove such disability." 

This restriction grossly exceeded the disqualifying provi- 
sions of the 14th amendment and the reconstruction act. It 
was bitterly resisted by the small band of conservatives, who 
were aided by the votes of quite a number of the more mod- 
erate radicals. Upon the adoption of the section, the distin- 
guished Judge J. W. C. Watson, the conservative leader, thus 
addressed the chair: "Then, sir, I am to understand that 
99-100ths of those who were citizens of Mississippi in 1860 are 
ineligible to office, and have no longer any interests in her gov- 
ernment. We are out of place here. We can do no good by 
remaining, and I for one tender my resignation." The morn- 
ing session then adjourning, the president of the convention 
was severely denounced for his partisan rulings by delegate 
Townsend — an ex-captain of the Union army. They came to 
blows, and other delegates and citizens were involved in the 
fray. The alarm was sounded that the radicals were about to 
be mobbed. The military garrison was called out, but under 
the appeals of those who foresaw the grave consequence of 
such a collision the disturbance was quieted. When the con- 
vention assembled in the evening, a formal and brief resigna- 
tion of the conservative delegates was received and accepted. 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 367 

They had abundantly signalized their devotion to the state, 
by intelligent and courageous opposition to placing the gov- 
ernment under the control of a negro electorate. They neither 
carried nor defeated any measures. But the service they per- 
formed in making up the record, in arresting attention at home 
and abroad to the initiation of a nefarious scheme, was signal. 
It would have been well could they have kept up the fight to 
the end. But the struggle seemed too fruitless — the vain sac- 
rifice too great. Thereafter, in the completion of their work, 
the carpet bag spoilers had full swing and sway. 

The franchise scheme, as a whole, was adopted on the ninety- 
second day of the convention by a vote of 37 to 13. The minority 
was made up in the main of delegates who were white residents 
of the state. It is interesting to note that the last amendment 
offered was a bill of "general amnesty," to be submitted to the 
popular vote in 1875. It was not carried, though in that year 
the amnesty was effected in a far different way than that ex- 
pected. Loath to turn loose its job^ the convention sat onu 
tinkering over its work and finding ostensible and remunera- 
tive employment and earning their per diem in discussing gen- 
eral principles, ordinances, etc. It was provided that the elec- 
tion upon the adoption of the rejection of the constitution 
should be held by officers to be appointed by the committee 
of five, which had been constituted to remain in session after 
adjournment. The authority of this provision being ques- 
tioned, the committee was directed to confer with General Gil- 
lem, and on the one hundredth day of the session the following 
report was made : 

To the President and Members of the Constitutional Conven- 

Your committee who were appointed to confer with the Gen- 
eral Commanding the Fourth Military District beg leave to sub- 
mit the following report : 

It is his opinion that if the convention imposes any restric- 
tions on electors other than those embraced in the Reconstruc- 
tion Acts, it must provide for a separate election for State of- 
ficers ; he has no authority for ordering such an election ; at the 

368 Mississippi Historical Society. 

same time he will not interfere if the convention sees proper to 
provide for a separate election. 

The General will appoint registrars and order the election in 
strict accordance with the Reconstruction Acts. 

If the convention sees proper or deems it necessary, it can ap- 
point commissioners to attend the election and be, present at the 
counting of the votes. 

He also states that thirty-five days after the adjournment Of 
the convention will give him time sufficient to order and hold the 
election. Thinks it would be advisable to have the time for hold- 
ing the election so arranged as to begin on Monday. 

W. H. Gibbs. Chairman, 
A. S. Dowd. 

The prolongation of the convention having become appar- 
ently a matter of per diem, on May 14 a resolution for sittings 
thereafter free of cost was adopted. But with the evening 
came reflection, and it w r as revoked. It had been ordered at 
the same time that the signing of the convention should be the 
special order for the next day. That, too, was rescinded in the 
evening. The convention devoted itself the ensuing days to 
a renewal of the effort to induce General Gillem to enforce the 
ordinance for adding to the revenues already provided, the col- 
lection of the railroad tax. In denying his sanction to that 
measure he had alleged that it was in violation of chartered 
laws and vested rights. A delegate was dispatched to discuss 
this question with the military commander, whose reply ap- 
pears in the convention journal. After citing authorities, 
General Gillenvs letter says: 

"Delegate Orr informs me that the convention does not rec- 
ognize any State laws or chartered rights, wherein real or mov- 
able property is exempted from taxation. The General Com- 
manding conceives there must be some misunderstanding in this 
respect. * * * He regret? that his conviction prevents his 
compliance with the wish of the convention." 

Thereupon the convention recouped itself through adopting 
an ordinance making the convention warrants receivable for 
all taxes and dues to the state. The last resolution introduced 
in this memorable body was characteristic. It proposed to 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McXeily. 309 

add 20 per cent, to the pay of all delegates and officials of the 
convention. It was beaten by a majority of one. As the per 
diem of delegates and officials had been at the rate of $1,250 
a day for 114 days, the one majority vote was quite a valuable 
asset to the taxpayers. The exact cost of the convention has 
never been stated, but it was little if at all below $300,000. 
The largest item of expenditure, next to the per diem, was 
printing, which was indulged on a lavish scale, an official journal 
and a half dozen or so organs in Jackson, Vicksburg, Meridian 
and other towns being maintained. 

January 15, 1868, the convention representing the white citi- 
zens of the state, met in pursuance to the call issued a month 
previously. Its purpose being simply preliminary or prepara- 
tory, the attendance did not represent a majority of the coun- 
ties. But the announcement of the purpose of organization. 
for the defeat of the then incubating constitution, brought forth 
a response of earnest determination from every section of the 
state. The preamble "declared that the Republican majority 
now controlling the legislative power in congress has estab- 
lished a military despotism over ten states of the union, in vio- 
lation of the federal constitution, in defiance of the executive 
and judicial power of the government, threatening the execu- 
tive power with impeachment, and the supreme court with 
abrogation of its powers, and showing a bold and persistent 
design to maintain partisan power by the entire overthrow of 
constitutional liberty.'' It was "resolved that the nefarious 
design of the republican party in congress to place the white 
men of the Southern states under the governmental control 
of their late slaves and degrade the Caucassian race as the in- 
ferior of the African negro, is a crime against the civilization 
of the age, which needs only to be mentioned to be scorned. 
And we therefore call on the people of Mississippi to vindi- 
cate alike the superiority of their race over the negro and their 
political power to maintain constitutional liberty/* 

February 20th a democratic convention was held at Jack- 
son. It was the first fully representative political gathering 
after the war, all of the counties being represented. Reso- 


370 Mississippi Historical Society. 

lutions were aodpted sanctioning or approving the action of 
the previous convention of Jan. 15th. Radicalism was ar- 
raigned for holding ten sovereign states under military des- 
potism for the purpose of their Africanization. The state con- 
stitutional convention was declared to be without constitu- 
tional authority, and the acts under which the delegates were 
elected were not within the delegated authority of congress. 
It was represented that the constituents of the convention were 
negroes, destitute alike of moral and intellectual qualifications, 
combined with a small minority of white adventurers, and that 
the projected acts of the convention demonstrated them to be 
products of the enemies of the people of Mississippi. The pre- 
tence of framing a constitution was in fact a wicked conspiracy 
to disfranchise and degrade the white people, and to rob them 
alike of their liberty and their property, and to finally place 
them under the yoke of negro government. The citizens of 
the state were called upon to organize for the defeat of the 
constitution, and a state central committee was named. Dele- 
gates to the national Democratic convention were appointed, 
but no nominations were made for candidates at the ensuing 
election. On this question opinion was divided. In the black 
counties there was a strong feeling for making defeat of the 
convention the sole issue. A provision in the supplemental 
act of congress for choosing officers under the constitution, at 
the same election it was submitted for adoption or rejection, 
was regarded as a device to weaken and divide the white vote. 
It was argued that in the white counties, where local govern- 
ment could be secured through election of white officials even 
if the constitution were adopted, efforts to beat that instru- 
ment w r ould relax. That apprehension was removed to a very 
large extent by the adoption of the ordinance that caused the 
conservative delegates of the state convention to withdraw. 
Its disqualifications were so sweeping as to render all old citi- 
zens ineligible to office. The effect was to practically solidify 
the white people in opposition to the whole radical scheme. 
The issue as it was presented is explained in an article in the 
Woodville Republican of April 8th, which, speaking from the 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily, 371 

black county viewpoint, expressed a "fervent hope that the 
convention would adopt a disfranchising clause as sweeping 
as that of Tennessee, to stimulate the uttermost degree of op- 
position to the constitution." And when "the fervent hope" 
had been realized, April 25th, the same paper welcomed the 
"additional ordinance" for the reason that it would "entirely 
neutralize the effect contemplated in the act of congress, of 
holding out offices of profit as a bait for the ratification of the 
constitution." It so proved in the carpet bag greed to exclude 
the native whites from official eligibility — the motive for de- 
feating the constitution was made irresistible. 

May 18th witnessed the final adjournment of the conven- 
tion, after a session of one hundred and fourteen days. The 
last week or more appeared to be marking time, pending the 
outcome of the impeachment proceeding at Washington. The 
trial of the President terminated in failure on May 17, and the 
convention quit the next day. Had the impeachment plot suc- 
ceeded, and Wade been made President, the convention would 
have perpetuated itself as the provisional government of the 
state. A congenial military commander would have succeeded 
General Gilleni, and chaos and confiscation would have ruled. 
The speeches of radical leaders and the journals of the times 
show that this was the intended aftermath of impeachment. 

The journal of the convention having been signed, the pre- 
siding officer, Beroth B. Eggleston, commonly and euphon- 
iously called in the prints of the day "Buzzard" Eggleston, for 
his keen sense for offal, delivered an appropriate address, and 
the curtain dropped on the never-to-be-forgotten Mississippi 
black-and-tan constitutional convention. It had brought forth 
an abortion of government so perverted and putrid that it 
would not have survived birth pangs, but for the incubation and 
prop of a national congress and the bayonets of the army. In his 
parting remarks, with an appetite made keen by his $20 per 
diem, Buzzard Eggleston announced that the "harvest is ripe." 
He appealed to the "honorable body to remember that the eyes 
of the people, not only of the United States, but the whole 
world, are upon us." He declared "the convention adjourned 

372 Mississippi Historical Society. 

to meet again under orders of the committee of five should our 
constitution fail to meet the approval of the people." And 
thus passed away, never to be reconvened, a body memorable 
only as a link in the chain of evil destiny which had been so 
long forging for the South. The collective quality of the ma- 
jority of the Mississippi aggregation of alien adventurers and 
home scalawags was recorded in numberless contemporary in- 
dividual sidelights, some of which are commemorated on the 
criminal dockets of the day. Jamison, the carpet-bag candi- 
date for lieutenant-governor, was disturbed in his canvass by 
an indictment and arrest for stealing three bales of cotton. 
Delegate Combash, black, went before his Washington and 
Sunflower constituents as a candidate for the state senate un- 
der an indictment for stealing $140 of convention warrants be- 
longing to his colleague and roommate, Dr. Stites. Of Abel 
Alderson, scalawag from Jefferson county — afterward appointed 
to the circuit bench by Governor Alcorn — quite a curious and 
edifying story was published. Under the ante-bellum code of 
Mississippi free persons of color were forbidden to reside 
in the state. As public sentiment winked at its evasion, 
the harsh law was very rarely enforced. Alderson brought 
suit thereunder, in 1858, to compel Mary Garnet, colored, to 
leave. She was a popular and successful boarding housekeeper 
in Fayette, and Alderson owed her a considerable board bill, for 
which she sued him. Whereupon he sought to evade payment by 
driving his creditor out of the state. She met this move by sell- 
ing herself to a citizen of the county rather than leave her old 
home. But as a slave she lost her right to sue, and Alderson 
beat his board bill. 

Strife at Washington reached its climax Feb. 21, 18G8, when 
the President attempted the removal of Secretary of War Stan-, 
ton, in disregard of the tenure of office act. That unwarranted 
measure, providing that removals by the President should not 
operate without the sanction of the senate, had been passed 
the year before. The unprecedented restriction of executive 
prerogative was vetoed as unconstitutional. It was passed 
over the veto under such circumstances as even Mr. Blaine, 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 3 TO 

the apologist for reconstruction, felt constrained to condemn. 
The President had sought to rid his cabinet of councilors of a 
member with whom he was at inveterate feud Aug. 27, 1867. His 
request for Stanton's resignation being declined, an order of sus- 
pension was made, and General Grant was appointed to the 
vacancy. President Johnson communicated this action to the 
senate when it assembled in December, and asked its concur- 
rence. The senate refusing to concur, General Grant vacated 
the office so that Mr. Stanton resumed charge. The President 
alleged that there was an agreement with General Grant to 
hold the office or to place his formal resignation in his hands, 
so that another appointee could be installed and the act tested 
through the courts. Mr. Johnson was bitterly disappointed 
when Stanton was allowed to repossess the office, and claimed 
that General Grant had acted in bad faith with him. A bitter con- 
troversy ensued. Beyond the personal bearing of the quarrel, the 
break in friendly relations between the two was most unfortunate 
for the South, and for the President. Until then, Grant, while 
veering toward the radicals, had been claimed and courted by 
both the President and congress. The quarrel carried him en- 
tirely over to the radicals. 

Secretary Stanton resumed his place in the cabinet Jan. 13th, 
1868. His presence became unbearable, as it was doubtless de- 
signed, and, as stated above, his removal was ordered. The act 
threw congress into a tempest of rage. The senate passed a reso- 
lution declaring the President had acted beyond his constitutional 
powers, and the house resorted to a resolution of impeachment. 
This w r as speedily adopted, and a committee appointed to 
draft the articles, Feb. 24th. The charges were presented to the 
senate March 5th. The President in the meanwhile submitted 
a nomination for the cabinet vacancy, of which the senate denied 
the existence. The trial before the senate wrought the country 
up to an unprecedented heat of factional and sectional fury. In 
no other political struggle were public men ever submitted to such 
pressure as was brought to bear upon the handful of Republicans 
who stood out against the fury of their constituents. 

3?4 Mississippi Historical Society. 


The trial was concluded May 15, in the failure of impeachment 
by a vote of 3G for to 10 against. A change of a single vote 
would have effected the President's impeachment with conse- 
quences too abhorrent to contemplate. Historic evidence quile 
warrants the statement that of those who voted for impeachment 
there were few who carried regret of its failure to their graves. 
Realization quickly came to the most radical, that such a triumph 
of partisanship would have severely shaken the foundation of re- 
publican government. 

Indeed there were among those who voted for impeachment 
some who in their hearts shrank from it for another reason. The 
thought of succeeding even President Johnson by the president 
of the senate, the violent South hater, Ben Wade, was unpal- 
atable to most of his colleagues. He took his measure as presi- 
dential timber in a campaign speech a few months later from 
which the following is quoted : 

"You remember we put a tax upon cotton, the only thing un- 
der God's heavei? by which we could get anything out of the reb- 
els, they having rendered it necessary that we should incur this 
great debt in defense of the Government; and they howled about 
the tax on cotton, and the whole Democracy of the North, out 
of Congress and in Congress, made such an outcry against it, 
that they induced soft-headed Republicans to repeal it. The 
year before we got about twenty-eight millions out of that cot- 
ton tax, and it came out of the very men, of all others, that should 
give some of their substance .to pay off that accursed debt that 
we were forced to incur. But we threw off that tax, and this year 
we did. not get one cent of it. I would not agree to it. It was 
magnanimity that degenerated into weakness. We ought to have 
made them pay it and this year we might have got $40,000,000, 
instead of $28,000,000, and 'let the Democracy howl." 

Wade's brutality and vindictiveness was commonly approved 
by Republicans as the patriotic zeal of a brave, blunt man. As 
full of South-hate as Stevens, he was by comparison a blusterous, 
blatant demagogue. But this served him well and carried him 
far, in a day of sectional turmoil. In one of his reconstruction 
diatribes he was charged by a Republican senator with favoring a 
government of the South like Poland, which was then being made 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNcily. 375 

to eat the bitter fruits of an unsuccessful revolt against Russian 
despotism. Replying to the objection that the North would re- 
volt at the expense of a military occupation such as he proposed, 
the President-in-expectancy, as quoted by this congressman, said: 
"We will not tax the North to keep a standing army in the South. 
W,e will require each state to support an army within iier own 
territory, and this will relieve our friends entirely." This is a 
true revelation of the fate the radical leaders intended for the 
South, and from which she was saved by the stubborn resistance 
of the President and the failure to remove him by impeachment. 
Northern conservatism was appalled by the breathings of threat- 
enings and slaughter from Washington that ensued. The New 
York Herald of April 7, 1868, thus predicted a reign of proscrip- 
tion and bloodshed : 

"The new indictment against Davis, with its numerous speci- 
fications of levying war against the United States, looks like 
business. It is framed to convict. The removal of Johnson 
will revive among the radicals a thirst for blood, as the execu- 
tion of Charles I. inflamed the Roundheads to bloody settlement 
with other parties, and as the beheading of Louis XVI. gave a 
new impulse to the Reign of Terror. By May 2 Johnson will 
be out of the White House, and old Ben Wade will be in. From 
that hour radicalism will be rampant. It will be inquired, while 
Johnson is beheaded for these petty offenses, how is it that Jeff 
Davis goes unwhipped of justice? The removal of Johnson will 
require the hanging of Davis, and Ben Wade as President is the 
man to see it done. He will not stand upon technicalities. His 
first great card to strike terror among unreconstructed rebels 
and revive the old John Brown spirit in the North, will be the 
hanging of Jeff Davis/' 

In another article on the Southern situation, this same paper, 
so lately converted from radicalism, said: 

"Here we have the full focus of negro efforts of civilization. 
In drawing the picture of Haiti we are only photographing on 
the American mind in advance the picture Congress is trying to 
impress on the United States by false and barbaric legislation. 
Radical rule means, down with the white, up with the black. 
Down with civilization, up with barbarism. Never in the most 
degraded days of Roman history, did they descend to force bar- 

37(5 Mississippi Historical Society. 

barism to the surface, that it might swamp intelligence. Never 
did statesmen before descend to the dregs of humanity to_ bathe 
their hands in its worst filth, that they might besmear with it 
such a civilization as we have now reached." 

The Ohio Democratic platform of 1868 recites that "the prac- 
tical effect of the reconstruction acts is to deliver' over the South- 
ern states to the political and social control of negroes, to place 
the lives, liberties and fortunes of the whites in the hands of a 
barbarous people." These are true statements of the design of 
the reconstruction acts — of what wo ( uld have ensued had Presi- 
dent Johnson been removed and full scope given to the Stevens- 
Wade policy. The following passage from a speech of Thaddeus 
Stevens expressed the plan of the Jacobins of reconstruction, a 
plan that only barely failed of a two-thirds vote in the impeach- 
ment trial: 

"The laws of war authorize us to take their property by our 
sovereign power. You behold at your feet a conquered foe and 
an atrocious enemy. We have the right to impose confiscation 
of all their property, to impoverish them. This is strict law and 
good common sense. To this issue I devote the small remnant 
of my life." 

Such was the fate, it cannot too often be repeated, from which 
defeat of impeachment of President Johnson saved the South. 

Another exceedingly disturbing question outcropped at this pe- 
riod, one that added no little to the intemperance of congress. 
The most disquieting reports were spread abroad from the su- 
preme court, in connection with the case of Colonel W. H. Mc- 
Cardle, whose arrest by General Ord has been mentioned in a pre- 
ceding chapter. Application for his release under a writ of 
habeas corpus was before the supreme court on appeal from the 
Mississippi federal circuit court. This again raised the question 
of the constitutionality of the reconstruction act, under which 
Colonel McCardle was arrested and held. A Washington even- 
ing paper published that "one of the judges had declared that the 
majority of the judges held the reconstruction law to be unconsti- 
tutional, and would so decide, in the McCardle case." With the 
memory of the Milligan decision in mind the radical leaders were 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McXeily. :)7l 

both alarmed and enraged. The publication was made the sub- 
ject of violent discussion in the house, and a resolution was 
adopted for the judiciary committee to "inquire" into the truth of 
the article, and to report whether it constituted impeachment mat- 
ter. What added to the anxiety of the radicals was" that the attor- 
ney general could not be relied upon to resist the appeal. That 
dilemma was met by the appearance of Senator Trumbull as coun- 
sel for the government. He was employed by General Grant, on 
the authority of Secretary Stanton, for a fee of ten thousand dol- 
lars. On a motion to dismiss the appeal for want of jurisdic- 
tion, Chief Justice Chase announced "there is ample law to take 
hold of the case, and on this ground the court declines to allow the 
motion to dismiss. With regard to the question of jurisdiction, 
the court is not now prepared to decide, and it is therefore re- 
served for consideration, and will be decided after argument is 
heard upon it, which will be on the first Monday in March." Ar- 
gument being heard, the chief justice announced that the motion 
was dismissed — the court having jurisdiction. The decision was 

Affirmance of jurisdiction was extremely ominous for the 
radicals. To avert the apprehended collapse of the congres- 
sional plan, Senator Trumbull, going from the court room to 
the senate chamber, introduced a bill to take away the juris- 
diction which the court claimed over the case. It proposed to 
bind all courts to accept acts of congress on political questions 
and to determine established state governments. The bill re- 
cited that ''no civil state governments exist in the excluded 
Southern states, and none should be recognized by either ex- 
ecutive or judicial power until congress shall so decide." The 
reconstruction acts were declared to be political in their char- 
acter, "the validity of which no judicial tribunal is competent 
to question, and the supreme court is hereby prohibited from 
taking jurisdiction of any case growing out of the execution of 
said acts in either of said states, until such states shall be rep- 
resented," et cetera. "And such cases now pending before that 
court shall be dismissed, and all acts authorizing an appeal, 
writ of error or habeas corpus, or other proceedings to bring 

378 Mississippi Historical Society. 

before said court for any case, civil or criminal, or rising out 
of the reconstruction acts are hereby repealed." A few of the 
Republicans manifesting an indisposition to support this ex- 
treme stretch of a despotic policy, it was decided to be unsafe 
to risk passing it over a veto. Only for this cause was it laid 
aside, for another and a devious way to the designed end. For 
its momentous consequence the further working of the plot is 
briefly narrated. On March 12, after argument in the case had 
been concluded, and a decision, which was confidently expected 
to be against the reconstruction act, was pending, a bill was 
called up in the house, to "amend the judiciary act of 1789." 
It was explained that it provided for extending to the supreme 
court certain appellate jurisdiction in cases of revenue offices. 
Unanimous consent was asked and given for the bill. But be- 
fore being placed on its passage, the chairman of the judiciary 
committee, Mr. Wilson, of Iowa, asked to amend by adding a 
section he had prepared to repeal "so much of the act of 1789 as 
authorized an appeal from the judgment of the circuit court to 
the supreme court, or the exercise of any such jurisdiction by 
the supreme court on appeals, which may have been taken." 
This attracting no attention, being regarded as of no particular 
moment, the bill passed with the Wilson amendment. 

Two days later, the bill having slipped through the senate as it 
did in the house, the character and purpose of the bill was de- 
tected and exposed. A lengthy debate ensued, but the trick was 
won. The only effect was to put in the record the achievement 
of an e\iil end through a covert way. There was quite an ex- 
hibition of pride by the radicals in their sharp practice — a pride, 
however, which can never be shared by honest readers of this 
sample of reconstruction methods. Mr. Blaine was one of those 
who had the hardihood to speak in its defense — taunting Demo- 
crats with not being "wide enough awake." But the link thus 
forged in the reconstruction scheme to prevent the chain from 
snapping is given no mention in this book. 

President Johnson vetoed the bill, saying: 

"I cannot give my assent to a measure which proposes to de- 
prive any person restrained in his or her liberty, in violation to 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McMeily. 37$ 

the constitution, or any law of the United States from the right 
of appeal to the highest judicial authority of our government." 

* * * The bill not only prohibits the adjudication by the su- 
preme court of cases in which appeals may be taken hereafter, 
but interdicts its jurisdiction on appeals which have already been 
made to that high judicial body. If, therefore, it should become 
a law, it will, by its restrictive operation, wrest from the citizen 
a remedy which he enjoyed at the time of his appeal." 

But judgment was dumb, and reason had fled to brutish beasts — 
the bill passed over the veto by a solid Republican vote. In de- 
bate on its passage Mr. Woodward of Pennsylvania, said: 

"It was the first time I ever saw a lawyer, not to say a chairman 
of a judiciary committee, plume himself both upon the thing done 
and the mode of doing it, when both were so questionable. 

* * * I cared nothing about this minor question as to the 
manner of doing it. I tried to fix the gentleman's eyes upon the 
real nature of the thing he was doing — the essential quality of the. 
enactment. But he was so much occupied with self -admiration 
of the manner of doing the thing that I succeeded badly. I could 
not get him to contemplate the essence of the thing itself, so much 
enamored was he of that which honorable gentlemen did not hes- 
itate to call a trick." 

In the meanwhile the court complacently postponed its deci- 
sion while its hands were being tied. The suspicion of a tacit and 
subservient acquiescence of the highest . tribunal while being 
robbed of its lawful jurisdiction is not the least malodorous mem- 
ory the event has left behind. This reflection caused the vener- 
able Justice Grier to revolt. He had spread upon the minutes 
of the court the following protest recording the rebuke and the 
shame of "the highest judicial authority of our government": 

"Ex parte William H. McArdle. — This case was fully argued in 
the beginning of the month. It is a case which involves not only 
the liberty and rights of the appellant, but of millions of our fel- 
low citizens. The country had a right to expect it would imme- 
diately receive the solemn attention of the court. By the post- 
ponement of this case, the court will subject themselves whether 
justly or unjustly, to the imputation that we have evaded the per- 
formance of a duty imposed on us by the constitution, and waited 
for legislative interposition to supersede our action, and relieve 

380 Mississippi Historical Society. 

us from our responsibilty. I can only say 'Pudct hacc opprobria 
nobis et potulssc did et 11011 potuissc repcli.' * 

In nothing in all the history of the supreme court — which is 
entitled to its long record of probity and dispensations of even 
handed justice to the respect and confidence of the American 
people — did stain come so near to its ermine. The light has been 
turned on the inside history of this decision in "Some Reminis- 
cences" by William L. Royal, prominent in law and politics in 
reconstruction days in Virginia. After his removal from Rich- 
mond to New York the author of this little volume enjoyed ex- 
ceptional intimacy with the most noted members of the metro- 
politan bar and judiciary. He thus told the story of the deci- 
sion in "Ex parte McCardle, of which he said, "I am not at lib- 
erty to say how I know these facts, but I know them absolutely 
to be facts and there are a number of other men now living who 
also know them to be facts. 

As I have been reviewing the transactions of the supreme court 
of the United States so much at large, I think the following, for 
the truth of which I can vouch, though I am not at liberty to state 
my authority, should be recorded here. The case of Ex parte 
McArdle, from Mississippi, 7 Wallace, 506, an appeal in a habeas 
corpus case, brought before the supreme court in 1808 the con- 
stitutionality of the reconstruction acts of congress, those Pan- 
dora boxes from which such untold wretchedness and misery to 
the people of the Southern states issued. The case was argued 
and submitted, and the court decided by a vote of five justices to 
four that the laws were repugnant to the constitution of the 
United States. Amongst the justices voting to declare the laws- 
unconstitutional was Mr. Justice David Davis, of Illinois. Mr. 
Justice Field was appointed to write the opinion of the court. He 
wrote it and brought it before the Saturday conference, and read 
it, where it was approved of by five justices. It was to have, been 
delivered and handed down on the next Monday. Meanwhile, 
information had got out that the court was going to destroy all 
of the odious laws on the coming Monday, and the radical par- 
tisans in congress had introduced a bill to take from the supreme 
court jurisdiction to her appeals in habeas corpus cases. A mo- 
tion was made by one of the four justices, after the opinion had 
been read, to postpone the delivery of the opinion from the fol- 
lowing Monday to the next Monday afterward, and upon that 
motion Mr. lustiee Davis quitted his four associates and voted 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 381 

with his four adversaries, making five justices for the postpone- 
ment, and that was accordingly ordered. In the meantime, the 
radicals rushed their bill through congress, and when the supreme 
court met on the Monday to which delivery of the opinion was 
postponed it found its authority to decide the case taken away 
from it. By this sort of juggling the Southern states- were forced 
to undergo the awful tortures of reconstruction to which the solid 
South is by far more due than to the war. 

Mr. Royal refers to Judge Grier as that "Noble old Roman." 
Though his action was vain, Judge Grier's revolt won him much 
praise. But this did not destroy the memory that some treasured 
of a year before, when these same acts were tested before the 
supreme court in the Mississippi injunction case; when its annul- 
ment was defeated by a tie vote which \vas only possible by Judge 
Grier's declining to vote. Had he then voted his convictions the 
whole abominable scheme would have been throttled at the thresh- 
hold. As for Judge Davis, he repeated his performance as a 
"quitter" when he dodged the place of fifteenth man on the elec- 
toral commission which tried out the claims for the presidency of 
Hayes and Tilden. ^ 

The impeachment fiasco that so narrowly missed tragedy was 
closely followed by the national Republican convention, in Chi- 
cago, May 20th. There was no contest over the choice of a can- 
didate for President. The nomination of Gen. Grant had become 
a foregone conclusion. The convention was at no little pains to 
dodge the negro suffrage imposed on the South. The following 
rotten plank was placed in the platform : 

"The guaranty of congress of equal suffrage to all loyal men 
was demanded by every consideration of public safety, of grati- 
tude and of justice and must be maintained; while the question 
of suffrage in all the loyal states properly belongs in the people of 
those states.'' 

In his "Twenty Years in Congress" Blaine calls this plank "an 
error of duty quite unworthy of the Republican party." It was 
in fact a mere stroke of campaign expediency for tiding over the 
prejudice in the Northern states to negro suffrage. 

Alabama had been the first state to vote on ratification of her 
radical constitution, February -i. By remaining away from the 

382 Mississippi Historical Society. 

polls the opponents of the instrument defeated it, the vote falling 
short of the required majority of the whole by over 13,000. Im- 
mediately congress amended the act by a provision that "for the 
purpose of facilitating reconstruction of the Southern states to 
the Union, elections on the adoption or rejection of the new con- 
stitutions shall be decided by the majority of the votes actually 
cast. The amendatory act provided, further, that "any person 
duly registered might vote in any part of the state of his resi- 
dence at the time of the election on presentation of his registra- 
tion certificate under such regulations as the district commander 
should prescribe." 

Arkansas was the next state to vote, in March, the states of 
North and South Carolina, Florida, Louisiana and Georgia fol- 
lowing in April. In Virginia no election was held. Gen. Scho- 
field, after vainly addressing the convention in a vigorous de- 
nunciation of the constitution adopted, took the responsibility of 
not ordering an election upon it and it lapsed. In Texas, where 
defeat was feared, no election was ordered by the military com- 

Upon adoption of the constitutions as above stated for the 
states named, acts had been passed over the President's veto 
June 25th, admitting their senators and representatives to con- 
gress. The list of new members included only two Democrats. 
Alabama had defeated her constitution. But in spite of the fact, 
to which Gov. Meade thus testified in his report — "I am satisfied 
the constitution was lost on its merits" — Alabama was dragooned 
into acceptance of the instrument her own people had voted down 
at the polls. Though the wrong was so flagrant it was first de- 
feated, and only finally forced through the Senate by a major- 
ity of one. Admission was saddled with the following funda- 
mental condition: 'That the constitutions of neither of said 
states shall ever be so amended or changed as to deprive citizens 
or classes of citizens of the right to vote who are entitled to vote 
under the constitutions thereof herein recognized except as pun- 
ishment of such crimes as are now felony at common law, where- 
of they shall have been duly convicted." 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 383 

The day after the Mississippi convention adjourned Gen. Gil- 
lems had issued his order of election, for the ratification or rejec- 
tion of the constitution, and for state and local officers and con- 
gressmen, to be held June 22nd. Each of the county registrars 
was allowed a certain number of precincts for which he was to 
hold an election. A concluding poll was to be held by the regis- 
tration board at the county seat, when voters from any precinct 
could vote. It was ordered that bureau agents, and officers of 
the army should abstain from public speaking, or attempts of 
influencing voters. But that "this order is not to restrict either 
class of officials in their duty of instructing freedmen as to their 
rights as electors." May 13th the Democratic convention had 
been re-convened in Jackson and a full state ticket, headed by 
Gov. B. G. Humphreys, was named. The congressional can- 
didates were nominated for the various districts and the coun- 
ties called on to make nominations for members of the legis- 
lature and other offices. As no election for officials would be 
valid if the constitution was defeated, there was opposition to 
the plan of making nominations. But the convention decided 
that it would be best to put up an opponent for every radical 
candidate. Some contended that if nominations were made, 
persons eligible under the disfranchising ordinances should be 
nominated. While the logic of this view was apparent, it was 
outweighed by the advantage of securing the most popular 
leaders, who as a rule were ex-Confederates, and ineligible 
under the ordinances. Thus, too, half hearted opposition to the 
constitution was effectively guarded against. The convention 
issued a spirited address and adjourned. In the intervening 
weeks before the election, the people were aroused and organ- 
ized for the vital issue. With the object lesson of the black and 
tan convention, there was little argument needed to enlist the 
whole white population for the defeat of the constitution, and 
the radical ticket, which was headed by "Buzzard" Eggleston. It 
is to the eternal credit of the state that an apparently hopeless 
struggle was faced unflinchingly. There was united and de- 
voted response to the call of self-preservation and patriotic 
duty. With few exceptions the most prominent and influential 

384 Mississippi Historical Society. 

men of the state placed their services at the command of the 
state committee, to canvass for defeat of the designed prostitu- 
tion of the state. 

The unity of sentiment and counsels, and determined spirit of 
the people of Mississippi at this crisis was in singular contrast 
with the lethargy and divided opinions that prevailed in oth :r 
states. In Georgia, particularly, with her wealth of leadership, 
a more effective resistance to the radical shackles was expected. 
One alleged cause of defeat was a private debt repudiation ar- 
ticle in the constitution. This in a period of extreme distress 
and demoralization was artfully used as a bait for voters, es- 
pecially in the mountain regions. But the main cause of radi- 
cal success was Democratic defection, led by ex-Gov. Joe 
Brown. As war governor of Georgia he had been a fomenter of 
factious opposition to policies of the Confederate government 
that were vital to success. To the very close of the war he had 
been an embarrassment and a stumbling blocfc. His defection 
to the radicals at this juncture was the main cause of. the de- 
feat of Gen. John B. Gordon, the Democratic nominee for Gov- 
ernor, and the adoption of the radical constitution. 

June 4th Gen. Gillem was superseded in command of the 4th 
military district by Gen. McDowell. It had been charged by 
the radical press when Gen. Orel was assigned to California, 
that the president's plan was to hold Gen. Gillem in command 
until the election had been held. Gen. Ord's departure, it was 
asserted, would be delayed as long as possible. It would take 
him a month to go to San Francisco, and McDowell another 
month to reach Mississippi. In the interim Gen. Gillem, who 
was not of the rank requisite for district commander, would 
command as the ranking officer present. If there was any such 
design, it was defeated by the long convention of the Missis- 
sippi convention, which enabled McDowell to connect before the 
election. Gen. Gillem had been a stumbling block to that body, 
and his displacement was regarded by the white people with 
regret and foreboding. He had proved himself a just and firm 
ruler over the state. 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily.' 385 

The proof of a new judge in Israel soon came. On June 16th 
an order was published by Gen. McDowell appointing Gen. 
Adelbert Ames, provisional governor, vice Benjamin G. Hum- 
phreys relieved, and Jasper Myers, attorney general, vice C. E. 
Hooker. This action caused a feeling of profound, though 
suppressed, depression and indignation. It was looked upon as 
a wanton and a partisan outrage — a violation of the rights left 
to the ^people of the state even under the reconstruction acts ; 
though the ruthless act was to have been expected in conse- 
quence of the nomination of those officers for re-election. Thus 
embarked in the campaign, they were adjudged as violators of 
the order prohibiting all civil officers from political activities. 
Indeed when Gov. Humphreys was placed in nomination be- 
fore the Democratic state convention, one of the delegates, 
Roderic Seal, of Harrison county, had objected, grounding his 
objection upon the presumption that acceptance of the nomi- 
nation would be inevitably followed by removal. Some days 
subsequently, a demand for surrender of the executive office 
was disputed by Gov. Humphreys as usurpatory and violative 
of the constitution. He stated futhermore, in reply, that he 
was authorized by the president to say that the executive head 
of the government disapproved the order of Gen. McDowell. 
The exhibition of such authority was, however, ignored by a 
military commander, subservient to and in sympathy with the 
Reconstruction purposes. The previous removal by Gen. Meade 
of Gov. Jenkins, of Georgia, furnished no precedent for McDow- 
ell's tyranny. In that case removal was for an act of specific and 
avowed resistance to the authority invested in Gen. Meade by 
the reconstruction act. The commandant of the post at Jack- 
son, Col. Biddle, called personally and considerately, to notify 
Gov. Humphreys of the hour when he would present himself to 
take possession of the office for his successor, Adelbert Ames. 
He came at the hour with a file of soldiers. Gov. Humphreys 
in the presence of a number of citizens refused to vacate the 
office, saying that the force sustaining the demand was insuffi- 
cient. Thereupon a company of soldiers was marched on the 
scene and took actual possession. On a subsequent day, the 

386 Mississippi Historical Society. 

governor and his family were dispossessed of the executive 
mansion. As the recorded facts of this proceeding have been 
subject to material misstatements, the correspondence of the 
governor with the military is quoted : 

Jackson, Miss., June 16, 1868. 
Hon. B. G. Humphreys: Sir — I have the honor to inform 
you that I have arrived here in pursuance of an order from Major 
General McDowell, a copy of which is enclosed, and am prepared 
to assume the office of provisional governor of the state of Mis- 
sissippi. Be pleased to inform me when it will be convenient to 
receive me for the purpose of making such arrangements as may 
be necessary to carry into effect the order. Very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

A. Ames, 
Brevet Maj. Gen. U. S. A. 

Executive Department, 
State of Mississippi. 
Jackson, Miss., June 22, 1868. 
General — Your note of the 16th inst was handed me this 
morning upon my return to the capitol by my private secretary, 
Mr. Marion Smith, inclosing the printed copy of General Orders 
No. 23, from the headquarters of Brevet Major General McDow- 
ell, the general commanding the fourth military district, at Vicks- 
burg. You request to be informed "when it would be conven- 
ient to receive me, (you,) for the purpose of making such ar- 
rangements as may be necessary to carry into effect the order." 
In reply, I must say, that I regard the attempt to remove me from 
the office of governor, as an usurpation of the civil government of 
Mississippi, unwarranted by, and in violation of, the constitution 
of the United States ; and having telegraphed the President of 
the United States and commander-in-chief of the army, for in- 
structions, I am authorized to say that he disapproves the order 
of my removal from office. I must, therefore, in view of my 
duty to the constitutional rights of the people of Mississippi, and 
this disapproval of the President of the United States, refuse to 
vacate the office of governor, or surrender the archives and pub- 
lic property of the state, until a legally qualified successor, under 
the constitution of the state of Mississippi, is appointed. 

Very respectfully, 

Bent. G. Humphreys, 
Governor of Mississippi. 
To p. re vet Maj. Gen. A. Ames, U. S. A., Jackson, Miss. 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNcily. 38T 

There was a subsequent correspondence, which is here 
quoted : 

Executive Department, 
State of Mississippi. 
Jackson, Miss, July 6th,- 1868. 
Hon. B. G. Humphreys: Sir — Soon after my arrival here as 
provisional governor, I notified you that you might continue to 
occupy the governor's mansion. Since then I have had cause to 
change my mind in the matter. You will oblige me by vacat- 
ing the mansion at as earlv a date as convenient. Very respect- 

Your obedient servant, . 
. . A. Ames, 

Provisional Governor. 

^ Executive Department, 

State of Mississippi. 
Jackson, Miss., July 7, 1868. 

General A. Ames: Sir — Your letter of the 6th inst, inform- 
ing me that I would oblige you by vacating the "mansion" at as 
early a day at convenient, was duly received through the postof- 
fice of the city. 

The governor's mansion was built by the tax payers of Mis- 
sissippi, only for the use and occupancy of their constitutional 
governors, and their families. They elected me to that office in 
1865, and I with my family have been in peaceable, quiet and legal 
possession ever since. At the recent election the qualified voters 
of the state, both white and colored, have by the largest popular 
vote ever cast in this state, unmistakeably expressed their desire 
for my continuance in the use and occupancy of the mansion, as 
their constitutional governor. In view of this expressed desire 
of the just and lawful owners that this property remain in the 
continuous possession of their own chosen custodian — and from 
the further fact .that the mere occupancy of the mansion by my 
family cannot operate as an impediment to the just administration 
of the reconstruction laws of congress, I must respectfully de- 
cline to oblige yourself or others by vacating the mansion until a 
legally qualified governor is elected under the constitution of the 

Very respectfully, 

Pentamin G. Humphreys. 

388 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Executive Department, 
State of Mississippi. 
Jackson, Miss., July 9th, 1868. 
Hon. B. G. Humphreys: Sir — I have been informed (it is 
possible that my information is incorrect) that you do not find 
it convenient to vacate the governor's "mansion." 
. I presume it is because of the difficulty in finding another fit 
residence. It is my wish to put you to as little personal incon- 
venience as possible. Under the above supposition, I have no 
objection to you occupying a part of the house. Next Monday, 
by which time you can make the necessary arrangements, I with 
others, will take possession of a part of the house. So long as 
we remain joint tenants, great care shall be taken not to incon- 
venience your family. Very respectfully, yours, etc., 

A. Ames, 
Provisional Governor. 

Jackson, Miss., July 9th, 868. 
General A. Ames: Sir — Your letter of the 9th was duly re- 
ceived this morning. It will be disagreeable to myself and fam- 
ily to share the apartments of the governor's mansion with other 
permanent tenants. I hope my letter of the 8th will be satis- 
factory, and relieve us of such annoyance. 

Very respectfully, 

Ben j. G. Humphreys. 

Jackson, Miss., July 10, 1868. 
Hon. B. G. Humphreys: Sir—Yours of the 8th and 9th 
were received this morning. 

You entirely ignore the reconstruction acts of congress and the 
action taken by those empowered to act under them. I recognize 
no other authority. Under such circumstances your statement 
by which you show yourself the lawful governor of this state, has 
little weight. 

The feeling entertained not only by me, but by others, not to 
cause you any personal inconvenience, has, through your own ac- 
tion, ceased to exist. 

The controversy about the "mansion" can only terminate as in- 
dicated in my letter of yesterday. 

Very respectfully, 

A. Ames, 
Brevet Maj. Gen., U. S. A., Provisional Governor. 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 389 

Headquarters Post Jackson, 

Jackson, Miss., July 10, 1868. 
Hon. B. G. Humphreys, Jackson, Miss. : 

Sir — General Ames, the provisional governor of this state, has 
called upon me as the officer in command of this post, to gain 
possession of one-half of the mansion now occupied by you. 

I send Lieut. Bache with a guard of men, to see that Governor 
Ames' request is carried out. Lieut. Bache will hand you this 

I do not desire to use force if I can help it, but he will be in- 
structed to do so if necessary. I wish to avoid all unpleasantness 
to yourself and family, but if you desire for political purposes to 
have a military ''pantomime," I have also instructed Lieut. Bache 
to carry it out, with all the appearances of a reality without actual 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James Biddle, 
Capt. and Lieut. Col., U. S. A., Commanding Post. 

Gov. Humphreys expressing the principle of his resistance 
to his ouster said — vide Lovvry, and McCardle's Mississippi 
History — "I know it was futile to disobey these orders and I 
must succumb. But I had the honor, the dignity, the rights 
and the property of the state to guard, and I was determined 
to maintain them, and yield nothing except at the point of the 
bayonet, that the world should know that I yielded not to civil 
protest, but to stern unrelenting tyranny." 

June 15, General Gillem, who continued in command of the 
subdistrict of Mississippi, ordered that post and station com- 
manders would be held responsible for the maintenance of 
peace and order during the election, and that they should take 
the necessary measures to that effect. They would render as- 
sistance to registrars and the civil authorities generally when 
askecl. Citizens were to be protected in the right of voting, and 
any offenders were to be brought to justice. But there was no 
contemplation of violence by the whites. It was clearly seen 
that the only hope was in conduct against which no charge 
could be sustained. Soldiers were stationed in a majority of 
the counties and this was well. 

390 Mississippi Historical Society. 

The negro voters were encouraged to thorough organization 
under the shadow of the military power, and through the Loyal 
League, a secret and oath-appointed order, in whom distrust of 
their old owners was instilled as a cardinal rule. Under inflam- 
matory teachings, and assured of the support of the government, 
there was a disposition to turbulence which would often have 
precipitated race collisions but for the troops, whose officers 
and men were in decided sympathy with the whites. At Holly 
Springs a radical speaker brought on a fray in which he was 
badly beaten and a negro was stabbed. The platform collapsed 
in the struggle, and the Radical candidate for state superintend- 
ent of education had his leg broken. The garrison was called 
out and quiet restored. Through fears of removal, local civil 
authorities lost vigor. In Wilkinson county it proved so weak 
before negro turbulence that the Freedmens Bureau officer was 
asked by the peace officers and others to call for troops. He de- 
clined on the ground that the civil authority had made no effort to 
repress disorder. In an article accepting the correctness of this 
position, the county paper stated that, "with no lawful protec- 
tion, the citizens w r ere relieved of any responsibility of conse- 
quences which may occur. And now that we know that we 
have no protection to our local rights but ourselves let us all 
prepare for whatever may come." Organization and prepara- 
tion against violence was quietly effected among the whites ac- 
cordingly. This had a decidedly quieting effect, and then, a 
few days before the election a company of troops arrived in 
Woodville. In a number of the black counties a like state of 
menace to the peace prevailed. 

The tolerance and patience of the white voters was further 
taxed by an order of General McDowell, June 19, giving an ad- 
ditional day for holding the election. Ostensibly this was for* 
the benefit of such voters as had lost their papers. As every 
negro voter had been taught to look upon his certificate as a 
title to his freedom, this order was looked upon as a subterfuge. 

Its real motive was construed to give the election officials full 
time — to have six days instead of five, to learn of the vote 
throughout the state and thus know how much fabrication of 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNcily. 391 

the returns was necessary. Except for small collisions in some 
counties, the election was attended by peace and quiet. Sol- 
diers were called out in Vicksburg to disperse a mob of negroes 
who had overpowered and beaten a sergeant on duty at the 
polls. Soldiers were used in Jackson to stop a fight between 
Democrat and Radical negro voters. v % 

In Woodville an attempt to count the vote in secret created a 
disturbance, in which one of the registrars was assaulted and 
badly beaten. The lieutenant in command of the garrison, a 
white line Irishman, ordered out his men and restored the 
peace. But he also forced the count of the vote with open 
doors.' On the last day of the election, when it was confidently 
believed that the convention was beaten, Gen. McDowell again 
showed his partisanship. He ordered that the polls be kept 
open beyond the closing hours and day he had set. In Vicks- 
burg the Democratic leaders protested, and insisted upon separ- 
ate boxes for votes subsequently cast. In Jackson the polls 
were kept open two days beyond the limit prescribed. But all 
effort to overcome the majority against the constitution were 
vain. It being published that Gen. McDowell had reported to 
Gen. Grant that the constitution had been adopted, his denial 
of the report was asked and secured by the chairman of the 
Democratic central committee. 

There was a sinister delay in giving out the returns. But 
the vote in every county on comparison with the election of 
the year previous, gave assurance of the defeat of the carpet 
bag constitution and candidates. They were overwhelmingly 
beaten in the white counties, and in the black belts their major- 
ities of the previous year were largely reduced. It was to be 
observed that more negroes voted with the whites than at any 
subsequent election. Four out of the five congressmen elected 
were Democrats, and there was a Democratic majority in the 
legislature. While the radicals admitted their defeat, relying 
on congress, there was no thought of submitting to the result. 
The scene of activity shifted to Washington, where the leaders 
carried their own story of their overthrow and took counsel 
with the reconstruction committee as to their next move. Be- 

392 Mississippi Historical Society. 

fore carrying their case to Washington, it was discovered that 
the "committee of five" was secretly bringing negroes to Jack- 
son from various parts of the state and taking testimony to 
base a contest on. The committee room was invaded by a num- 
ber of prominent citizens, who demanded to know the purpose 
of the movement and claimed the right to cross-examine the 
witnesses. There was an angry colloquy in consequence, and 
the citizens were arrested and placed under bond by the mili- 

The official report of the election by Gen. Gillem, who, Mc- 
Dowell having been assigned elsewhere, was again in com- 
mand, was not promulgated by Gen. Grant until July 21st. It 
was covered in the following press dispatch : 

Washington, July 21. — Gen. Gillem has submitted to Gen. 
Grant the report of his action as regards the condition of Mis- 
sissippi under the reconstruction acts. He states the result of 
the late election — for the constitution, 56,231 ; against it, 63,830 ; 
being a majority against the constitution of 7,629. Gen,. Gillem 
says : "As is generally the case in elections, fraud is charged by 
both parties. All reports and complaints bearing on the subject 
are herewith transmitted for the consideration of the proper au- 
thorities, merely remarking that I am satisfied the election was as 
fair and free from intimidation or the influence of fraud as it 
would be possible to receive under existing circumstances, and 
that no undue influence was exercised at the polls. If intimida- 
tion was used at all it was beyond the military power to reach it. 
As the defeat of the constitution renders it possible that the state 
may for a time remain under military control, I consider it my 
duty to call attention to the almost impossibility of finding per- 
sons to fill vacancies in civil offices who possess the necessary at- 
tainments, and who can qualify under existing law. I would 
therefore recommend that section nine of the acts of July 19, 
1867, be so modified as to render eligible to office, persons on the 
list of registered and qualified voters to fill vacancies which exist 
or may occur in civil offices, state or municipal." 

Of all the campaigns ever waged in Mississippi none excelled 
if any ever equalled, the earnestness and the unanimity of pur- 
pose of the white people of the state in 1868 ; in defeating the 
constitution submitted for ratification by the piratical recon- 
struction crew. Certainly no other political victory was ever 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNcily. 393 

won over greater obstacles and with greater credit to the vic- 
tors. It was a victory, however, that bore no fruit — whose re- 
sults were quickly annulled by radical power, fixed and sealed 
through Grant's election tq the Presidency. Thus quickly 
over-clouded by relegation of the state to complete military 
rule, and then alien government, the courageous and patriotic 
uprising of 1868 was virtually effaced and crowded out of pop- 
ular pride and memory. Nor was this all of the ill fate that at- 
tended the overthrow 7 at the polls in Mississippi of the first on- 
slaught of radicalism. It has suffered from the perversions and 
falsifications that has befallen all history of reconstruction 
events at the hands of Northern and partisan authors. Natur- 
ally so signal an event as this Mississippi election was treated 
to a full share of their sectional bias and misrepresentation. 
This is said prefatory to the following from the History of the 
United States by Rhodes, perhaps the least unfair and mis- 
leading of all, page 191, Vol. VI : 

"Mississippi has had many exciting political contests, but* that 
of 1868 has probably never been surpassed except by that which 
took place seven years later. The proscriptive clauses aroused 
the indignation of the Democrats, who bent their whole energies 
to defeat of the constitution. They used the ordinary means of 
political organization, a convention, an address, an open letter, 
newspaper articles, an enormous number of mass meetings and to 
these they added intimidation of the negroes to make them vote 
against ratification or stay away from the polls. The important 
agent in this work of intimidation was the Ku Klux Klan, a se- 
cret organization, which used threats and warnings to negroes de- 
signed to vote for the convention. * * * 'Fraud is charged 
by both parties,' wrote General Gillem, 'but I am satisfied the 
election was as fair and free from intimidation as possible under 
existing circumstances.' * * * Gillem was a good officer 
and enforced the harsh laws leniently, but his judgment was very 
probably warped by his sympathy for the oppressed Southern 
people. The evidence in the case, in the light of the future his- 
tory of the state, shows conclusively enough that the majority 
against the constitution was obtained by the intimidation of ne- 
gro voters." 

Rhodes is exceedingly unfair to General Gillem, to whose 
just and firm administration of office the state of Mississippi is 

394 Mississippi Historical Society. 

eternally indebted. His services in the war, with his character 
and reputation for courage and candor, should have raised him 
above the slurring apology quoted. He scrupulously refrained 
from any show of sympathy or leaning with which he is 
charged for "the oppressed Southern people."' In his testimony 
before the Congressional committee, replying to interrogatories 
seeking to convict him on this point, he denied unqualifiedly 
"iridulging any opinion or taking any part for or against the 
constitution;" or that "he had ever discussed politics with any 
man white or black " or that "his administration had ever been 
animated by a spirit of opposition to the reconstruction acts 
or the policy of Congress ;" that he "had never seen the chair- 
man of the Democratic committee, and had only two requests 
from him during the campaign, both of which he emphatically 
turned down." After completely refuting and foiling attempts 
of the radical committeemen, it looks a little more than hard 
that General Gillem should be historically charged with the 
things he denied. And then after most unjustly seeking to dis- 
credit him as a witness, the General, with Garner's "Reconstruc- 
tion of Mississippi," was referred to by Rhodes in a note as his 
authorities for charging that "in the defeat of the constitution, 
the Klu Klux Klan was the important agent." 

In fact witnesses supplying this testimony were a character- 
less, perjured lot of adventurers, of which the chairman of the 
committee of five, W. H. Gibbs — who wound up his public 
career by serving a penitentiary term for embezzlement of post- 
office funds — was a type. In accepting their false utterances, 
Rhodes rejects the testimony of General Gillem and such emi- 
nent citizens as Governor Sharkey, ex-Senator Brown, Judges 
J. W. C. Watson and A. G. Mayers, Dr. T. W. Catchings and 
President Wesson of the Wesson mills. In the mass of radi- 
cal testimony there are a half a dozen vague references to the 
Ku Klux, one witness only professed knowledge of the fact. 
His evidence only as to the Ku Klux is mentioned in Garner's 
book, which Rhodes refers to as authority for his broad Ku 
Klux allegation. That evidence was supplied by the most ac- 
tive and efficient tool of the Gibbs committee. He worked Ran- 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeiiy. 395 

kin county and his name was D. S. Harriman. Garner unfor- 
tunately omits to notice, and Rhodes presumably did not in- 
form himself of, the record proof, upon page 240 of the volume 
of testimony taken by the congressional committee, that this 
witness, who alone located an actual camp of the clan, had only 
recently finished a term in the penitentiary for "taking bribes 
from whites to defraud negroes while he, Harriman, was a bu- 
reau officer." It may be said further that in the recently pub- 
lished "Mississippi Reconstruction Facts," by the well known 
Mississippi negro ex-congressman, John R. Lynch, no mention 
is made of the Klu Klux Klan in the overthrow of the constitu- 
tion of 1868 ; though intimidation is vaguely charged. The fol- 
lowing is quoted from Lynch's statement of the cause of the de- 

First. In consequence of the bitterness with which the rati- 
fication of the constitution had been fought, on account of the 
objectionable clause referred to, intimidating methods had been 
adopted in several counties in which there was a large colored 
vote, resulting in a loss of several thousand votes for the Con- 

The impossibility of "intimidation" to any material extent 
is established by the fact that United States troops were posted 
at sixty-three points in the state during the election of 186S, 
and that no clash or collision occurred, no show of violence, at 
any precinct. And that during the campaign General Gillem 
sent troops to any county where fears or signs of disturbance 
were reported. The only considerable intimidation sought 
to be exercised by the whites were threats of non-employment 
of the negroes who quit their work to go to the polls to vote for 
the constitution. And with the knowledge that the demand for 
their labor would prevent such threats from being carried out, 
precious little effect they had. But the most conclusive proof 
of the merits of the testimony on which Rhodes based his in- 
dictment of the Mississippi election, was its rejection by the 
congressional committee; which would have been only too glad 
to give the committee of five a free hand in carrying out the 
reconstruction scheme. Influenced by the surface appearance 

o\)(j Mississippi Historical Society. 

of the odds against the white men, the partial or scctionally 
biased chronicler might be excused for entertaining the intimi- 
dation Ku Klux theory of the Mississippi election of 1868. But 
no such excuse can be made for any professed concientious 
writer of history. Reason and research should teach him that 
there could have been no "intimidation" such as was practiced 
in 1875. Had there been Georgia, North Carolina and Ar- 
kansas would never have ratified their negro suffrage constitu- 
tions. Not only was the intimidation of the negro voter in the 
presence of Federal troops impossible, the attempt would have 
been madness. 

A chief witness to the fairness of the election was ex-Gover- 
nor and ex-Senator A. G. Brown, who had been the leader in 
1867 in urging the adoption of the congressional terms of re- 
construction and negro suffrage. He testified before the recon- 
struction committee which investigated the election the winter 
following, to the "profound quiet in all parts of the state ; that 
the people are willing to submit to the reconstruction acts, if 
fairly presented; the proposed constitution had been defeated 
not by fraud or intimidation as alleged, but because it was more 
vindictive in its spirit than the people would tolerate; it was* 
more proscriptive than the acts of congress required." He said 
in conclusion that "if congress would so amend it as to conform 
to the 14th article of the act it would be accepted with unques- 
tioned unanimity." Gov. Brown's evidence was corroborated 
and reiterated by ex-Governor Sharkey, Judges H. F. Simrall 
and Watson — all old Union men, and others of equally high 
standing and repute, who appeared in Washington before the 

The 1868 victory was less spectacular probably, than "that 
which took place seven years later;" in 1875, when the carpet 
bag-negro government was overthrown. But the defeat of the 
1868 constitution was over greater obstacles ; of the two, it fur- 
nished a more signal tribute to the constancy of the white peo- 
ple. Intimidation which was freely practiced in 1875, was sim- 
ply impossible under the military election of 1868, with troops 
stationed at sixty-odd points in the state. While refused for 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 397 

the polls in 1875, bayonets bristled in 1868 all over the state. 
The allegation of a Ku Klux force in 1868 is an absolute myth 
— nothing more than a scarecrow and in less than half a dozen 
counties. The order never had vital existence in Mississippi 
until 1871, and was then confined to a half dozen counties. To 
pursue the contrast of the two elections, in 1875 Democrats 
had representation on most of the county election boards; in 
1868 none. In 1875 the white people were encouraged by the 
recent achievement by other Southern states of home rule re- 
establishment, and by the sweeping Democratic victory in the 
Northern states the year before when a Democratic house ma- 
jority was elected. 

In 1868 there was no gleam of encouragement or hope from 
without. The Mississippi campaign was entered upon after 
defeat had befallen all resistance of the yoke of the negro suf- 
frage constitutions in every other Southern state ; except Vir- 
ginia and Texas, where for particular causes no elections had 
been held. Under the circumstances for Mississippi to make 
a fight against her big black majority after the white states of 
Georgia, North Carolina and Arkansas had failed, looked like 
a challenge of fate, the inspiration of desperation. Success was 
wholly due to, as it was only possible, through energizing and 
unifying the white voters upon appeals to their love of home, 
and spirit of resistance to wrongs that meant ruin if not de- 
feated. Thus patriotically consecrated, the best and bravest of 
the state entered the political field in every Mississippi county. 
Seldom if ever was there a more perfect response of unselfish 
patriotism, to the call of duty. This testimony is borne from 
the vivid personal memory of a participant in the 1868 struggle 
as chairman of the Wilkinson county committee. In that 
county with a little over 600 white voters, near 650 votes were 
polled against the constitution. That is, every white man 
physically able? to go to the polls voted, and with them near 
100 negroes. The following from the radical organ, the Jack- 
son Pilot, admitted the fact of Democratic negro voters, which 
was attested bv a number of the Democratic witnesses ; 

398 Mississippi Historical Society. 

"Hundreds of the colored men from the county of Amite, 
where for want of proper local organization they have long been 
in the dark, are going over into Wilkinson and joining there. 
They are terribly sick of having voted the Democratic ticket in 
that county in the last election, and if another election were to be 
held in that county now, the Republicans would carry it." 

While the recommendations contained in Gen. Gillem's let- 
ter to Gen. Grant, above quoted, were eminently practical and 
patriotic, they did not appeal to the leaders of the congres- 
sional majority. They had no thought of permitting [Missis- 
sippi to escape from the penitential yoke provided. In the 
meantime, however, there was much rejoicing over the defeat 
of the constitution. Mississippi alone of all the Southern 

"states, had squarely resisted and beaten the congressional 
scheme of reconstruction. The new constitution had been 

\ forced upon all the rest except Virginia and Texas, where the 
test of the polls had been withheld. Nevertheless, the sense of 
relief in Mississippi was qualified. Very few were so sanguine 
as to expect that congress would permit the state to escape the 
degradation to which her neighbors had been subjected. The 
prevailing apprehension was thus voiced by the Woodville 
Republican: u We are constrained to caution our readers against 
being too sanguine. All know with whom we are dealing, and 
rejoicing over the election should be withheld until congress 
has been heard from. We may only say at this time, 'Hurrah, 
for Gen. Gillem.' " The warning was more than warranted. 
Measures were being considered in congress, to meet the un- 
provided for situation in Mississippi, that bespoke the rage of 
desperation. A bill passed the senate for supplying a thous- 
and stands of arms and battery of artillery to the loyal men, 
that is, the negroes and carpet baggers, of each congressional 
district. Congressmen Washburne, who was recognized as 

' representing the Presidential nominee, Gen. Grant, demurred 
to this. He proposed a recess until September to avoid the 
issue. But there was bitter opposition to leaving President 

'Johnson in untrammeled exercise of his prerogative. Congress- 
man Garfield, afterward President, vehemently declaimed 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 399 

against adjourning until a law providing for arming negroes 
was passed. And July 24th, three days after Gen. Gillem's re- 
port was given out, the ground was covered by the reconstruc- 
tion committee, which reported to the house what was known 
as the Wilson bill. It was offered by Congressman B. F. But- 
ler, on whose shoulders the leadership of the dying Thaddeus 
Stevens had fallen. He presented it from the committee, de- 
claring it to be essential to the radical policy. It was entitled 
"A bill to provide for the more speedy organization of the 
states of Virginia, Mississippi and Texas," and read as follows: 

Section 1. Be it enacted, That for the better security of per- 
sons and property in the states of Mississippi, Texas and Vir- 
ginia, the constitutional convention of each of said states, there- 
after elected under and in pursuance of an act of congress passed 
March 2nd, 1867, entitled an act for the more efficient government 
of the rebel states and the civil acts of congress supplementary 
thereto and amendatory thereof, shall have, and are hereby or- 
ganized to exercise the following powers in addition to the powers 
now authorized by law, to wit : To make removals and appoint- 
ments of all officers of said respective states, to remove and ap- 
point registrars and judges of elections, under said act of con- 
gress, which registrars and judges of election shall not be eligible 
to any elective office under such provisional government, and shall 
observe the provision of congress to authorize and maintain a 
constabulary force in each of said states to preserve the peace. 
and aid in the execution of the laws ; to provide by ordinance for 
the reassembling of said several conventions from time to time, 
and for holding all elections authorized by said acts of congress ; 
and for ascertaining and declaring the result of any election 
which may be held for the ratification or rejection of any consti- 
tution which said several conventions may submit to the people 
of either of the said states, as they may deem necessary to pro- 
tect persons therein in their lives, liberty and property. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted, That the several ordi- 
nances which may be passed by the constitutional convention of 
either of the said states as herein provided, shall be enforced by 
the provisional government of such state until such state shall 
have adopted a constitution of state government, and the same 
shall have been approved by congress ; provided, that nothing in 
this act shall deprive any person of trial by jury in the courts of 
said states for offences against the laws of said states. 

400 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Section 3. Be it further enacted, That the military command- 
ers in each of sard states shall assist in preserving the peace and 
enforcing the laws, and especially in suppressing unlawful ob- 
structions and forcible resistance to the exercise of the laws. 

Section 4. Be it further enacted. That on the fourth Wednes- 
day after the passage of this act, the state convention of Mis- 
sissippi and Virginia shall reassemble, and the said convention of 
Mississippi shall proceed to frame a constitution of government, 
and submit the same to the people, under and in pursuance of the 
provisions of the said act of congress and of this act. 

Section 5. Be it further enacted, That if in any of said states 
any person shall during the year 1868, vote for any candidate for 
elector of President of the United States, or shall act as an officer 
at any election for such candidates, every person so offending 
shall be deemed guilty of high misdemeanor, and shall be liable 
to indictment and on conviction thereof in any court of competent 
jurisdiction be fined not more than one thousand dollars and be 
imprisoned not less than one month nor more than a year. 

Section 6. Be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of 
the President of the United States to prohibit any person from 
voting or acting as ?n officer of any election contrary io the pro- 
visions of this act and for that purpose he shall employ the power 
of the army and the navy of the United States so far as may be 

Section 7. Be it further enacted, That all acts or parts of acts, 
so far as the same may be in conflict with the provisions of this 
act are hereby repealed. 

It is difficult to believe that this monstrous measure could 
have passed the representative body of congress. It is easy to 
understand why that body's approval of such diabolic malig- 
nancy escaped mention in Blaine's apologies for reconstruction. 
Placing these states, and especially Mississippi, under the gov- 
ernment of the rapacious and vindictive conventions with 
"powers to maintain and organize a constabulary'' was an act 
of atrocity and hate that in its contemplation parallels the 
worst of Russian and Turkish tyranny toward their conquered 
provinces. In comparison with the rapine and murder for 
which the ruffian led negro constabulary was designed, the 
ruthless raids of the Cossacks and Bashi Bazouks would have 
been mild, It was such a measure that passed the house by a 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNcily: 401 


solid radical vote, save one, Jehu Baker, of Illinois. He had a 
brother who with his family lived in a Mississippi black couiUy. 
It reached the senate and was called up on the last day of 
the session. There it was tabled on motion of Senator Conk- 
ling, because he said, "it was useless for lack of time to try and 
pass it." The true reason was the pending -elections-it was 
not deemed advisable to force Mississippi into a race war at 
that time. There was no compunction because of its infamy, 
the bloodshed and rapine that would have been precipitated. 
Not one of the Radicals gave voice to any such sentiment. 
Dealing with the state was simply postponed to a timelier sea- 

The passing of Thaddeus Stevens the scourge of the South, 
was another and powerful cause of the failure of the bill which 
designed the desolation of Mississippi. Broken with disease 
and the infirmities of age, that remarkable figure, the great 
Radical leader, was nearing his earthly end. From the over- 
throw of the Confederate armies, while others doubte^d and 
faltered amid the passions and perplexities that clouded coun- 
sel, he saw the reconstruction ends clearly and logically. He 
neither dissembled nor cloaked his purposes and plans. What 
others of his party shrank from as revolutionary and atrocious, 
he boldly faced and proceeded to the overthrow of all obstacles 
of constitution and law. He sought the destruction of the ju- 
diciary and executive, to make clear the way for a congres- 
sional despotism, to carry out to the full the reconstruction 
policy. His' iron will, the lash of his bitter tongue, compelled 
party leadership, absolute and undisputed. He staked every- 
thing of personal dominance and party power on the removal 
of the president as a stumbling block in the way of the subju- 
gation of the Southern whites to negro rule. And when im- 
peachment was baffled, his imprecations upon the Republican 
senators that balked, were awful. Nothing daunted, however. 
he framed another impeachment indictment. But high tide had 
been marked, and his vital force broke under the strain. Dur- 
ing the trial of the president, the strength of his venomous voice 
so failed that his speech was delivered by Ben Butler. His 


402 Mississippi Historical Society. 

breakdown at such a crisis seemed providential. It was a loss 
to radicalism that may have turned the scales. While Butler 
was his equal in ability, and as a hater of the South, he was de- 
spised and shunned as a dastard and a common plunderer of 
war and the most truculent of bullies in time of peace. His 
reputation was so universally odious that he prejudiced any 
cause in which he was enlisted. This was not true of Stevens. 
While not popular, he was feared and where he was not liked, 
respected. Toward the close of the session the "Lord Hate- 
Good ,, of the play grew feeble. A few days after the adjourn- 
ment, he took to his bed, summoning two negro ministers to 
pray at his side, and on August 12th he breathed his last. His 
wrork was finished. As far as lay in human power, he had 
borne the fiery cross of revenge and hate. He had carried the 
cry of "woe to the vanquished" to the limit of sectional wrath. 
While the defeat of the reconstruction constitution staved off 
the carpet bag-negro yoke, the removal of Governor Hum- 
phreys and the succession of Adelbert Ames marked the end 
of Mississippi's three stirring and eventful years of provisional 
.government; which is the subject matter of this contribution 
to. state history. The way was cleared for the rule of the car- 
pet bagger, negro and scalawag combination. In conclusion, 
and for completing vindication of the struggle of Mississippi 
against the infliction, and as a righteous verdict upon the in- 
iquity, of negro suffrage, a confession is quoted from an article 
in the, Atlantic Monthly of April, 1901, by ex-Gov. Chamberlain 
of South Carolina. He was a leading actor in the reconstruc- 
tion drama and at the same time a man of candor, conscience 
and character; who was curiously, even tragically, caught in 
the political drift of an evil era. Out of the fullness of his heart, 
constrained by the gall and wormwood of memories of years 
wasted in trying to grow figs from thistles, he thus testified 
against Stevens, Sumner, Morton and other architects of a sys- 
tem that was only less vain and stupid, than wicked : 

"The vast preponderance of ignorance and incapacity in the 
Republican party of South Carolina, aside from downright dis- 

Mississippi's Provisional Government — McNeily. 403 

honesty, made good government impossible. The real truth is, 
hard as it may be to accept it, the elements put in combination 
by the reconstruction scheme were irretrievably bad and could 
never result in government fit to be endured." 



By Mrs. Dunbar Rowland. 

There's a beautiful country, 

Where southern waters flow ; 
'Tis where the white magnolia 

And yellow jasmine blow, 
And there a happy people 

Work with glad heart and will, 
To the faiths of their fathers, 

They cling thru good or ill. 

Chorus : 
Mississippi, land of a true and loyal race, 

Where hope's heavenly light is seen on every face ; 
Proud land whose story glows with deeds of heroes brave, 

Dear land that hateful tyrant never shall enslave. 

Land where blue skies are smiling 

On stream and flow'ry sod, 
From altars are ascending 

Sweet prayer and praise to God ; 
There the oppressed and homeless 

Refuge may always find, 
There ties fraternal, ever 

Men's friendly spirits bind. 

Oh, fair and kindly country 

Where peace and plenty reign, 
Where the bright star of freedom 

Will never, never wane ; 
For her pure hearths and temples 

My heart shall ever yearn, 
To her green hills and valleys 

My feet shall ever turn. 



By Mrs. Dunbar Rowland. 

To the Committee for the Preservation of Existing Colonial Rec- 
ords: — 

As Archivist for the Colonial Dames of America in the State 
of Mississippi and as the representative of the Committee of the 
National Society for the Preservation of Existing Records, it 
gives me pleasure to present this report of the progress of the 
work of preserving existing colonial records in the State of Mis- 
sissippi. The work was inaugurated June 1, 1913, and was con- 
tinued up to March 31, 1914. We believe that it constitutes 
an important investigation, and that it will be regarded as a 
valuable contribution to the history of the lower South. ' 

At the outset, let me say that my long and close association 
with the Mississippi State Department of Archives and His- 
tory has made the work which I have undertaken for the Com- 
mittee of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of Amer- 
ica, very congenial and interesting, since the preservation of 
official and unofficial manuscript sources of history has for 
many years engaged the attention of this Department, the ob- 
ject sought being to provide the historian and investigator with 
a true basis for all future history. Tradition has its charm in 
the narration of a country's history, and verbal testimony has 
its place, but records are the materials out of which the histor- 
ian must weave a trustworthy story of a nation and its people. 

There is no work in which the Colonial Dames of America 
could engage which will bring better returns and prove to be 
of more permanent value than that which is being inaugur- 
ated by the Committee for the preservation of existing records. 
Funds expended for such a purpose is carrying out one of the 
highest aims of the organization, — that is, the preservation of 


406 Mississippi Historical Society. 

the recorded history made by our Colonial forefathers. These 
sources of our earliest history are of inestimable value and their 
value will increase as we get further and further from the 
events which they record. 

Nature of the Work. 

In undertaking a work of this nature of permanent value, all 
plans should be made so as to secure the best results from the 
effort and money expended. The very first object to attain is 
educational. People must be made to realize the value of his- 
torical records or the owners will destroy them, from the sim- 
ple fact that they do not understand their value. The next im- 
portant step is to collect and deposit all manuscript and other 
sources of history in well established Historical Departments 
that are charged with the care and preservation of such ma- 
terials. This work should be gladly undertaken by all the 
Colonial States under the supervision of the Committee for the 
Preservation of Existing Records, the work of each state being 
under the control and direction of a State Archivist of the State 
Society. If all of the Corporate Societies have not created such 
a position they would find it greatly to their advantage to do 
so, since through this office the work of historic research and 
preservation could be conducted systematically. This is the 
Mississippi plan and it is found to be perfectly adapted to the 
needs of the situation. 

Progress of Work in Mississippi. 

After receiving the Commission of the Committee and being 
advised of its intelligent and well matured plans for the preser- 
vation of official records, I began my investigation June 1, 
1913. My activities during that time have been along two lines 
of work: First, in securing information relative to the loca- 
tion and condition of Mississippi colonial records; and second 
in compiling a list of the inhabitants of the colony under the 
Spanish dominion, and a list of the land grants under the Eng- 
lish dominion. It may very properly be stated here that the co- 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs. Rowland. 407 

lonial history of Mississippi is of unusual interest by reason of 
the fact that the colony from 1699, the date of its establishment, 
to 1798, the date of the American dominion, felt the impress of 
three dominant civilizations of Europe, — France, Spain and 
England. France controlled the destinies of the colony from 
1699"to 1763 ; England from 1763 to 1781 ; and Spain from 1781 
to 1798, though a slight Spanish influence was felt throughout 
the territory prior to that of France and England, brought 
about from the discoveries of DeSoto and other explorers. Each 
of these powerful nations impressed itself upon the history of 
Mississippi, and that impress is felt in the life and the customs 
of its people today, though the overwhelming influence is that 
of the Anglo-Saxon. 

Mississippi Colonial Records. 

The largest collection of Mississippi colonial records are, of 
course, in the archives of France, England and Spain. These 
have been located by the Mississippi Department of Archives 
and History and transcripts of these invaluable sources of his- 
tory are being secured by that Department, fifty volumes hav- 
ing already been transcribed. There are, also, on file in this 
Department large collections of original colonial records. In 
addition to these, are valuable and interesting official collec- 
tions of original colonial records to be found in the cities of 
Natchez and Fayette, points in the old colonial section of the 
state and in the hands of old families. 

The official records in European repositories consist of: 

(a) Royal charters, proclamations, orders, permissions, de- 
crees, etc., relating to the discovery, exploration and settle- 
ment of the Mississippi Valley, beginning in 1678. 

(b) Ministerial correspondence, letters sent and letters re- 
ceived, including plans and instructions for the equipment of 
fleets on voyage of discovery, location of settlements, etc., etc. 

(c) General correspondence of Colonial Governors, relating 
to the settlements and government of the country and the 
daily administration of affairs. 

408 Mississippi Historical Society. 

(d) Codes, regulations, lists of colonies, rosters of troops, 
officers and sailors. 

(e) Civil acts, notarial, judicial and ministerial. 

(f) Reports of explorers, traders, trappers and of military of- 
ficers, relating to descriptions of the country and trade with 
the Indians. 

(g) Papers relating to the organization of companies for 
the development of the country. 

(h) Documents relating to land grants, trading and mining 

(i) Accounts showing the sums expended in the exploration 
of the country. 

(j) Papers relating to the establishment of Christian mis- 
sions by the Jesuits. 

The papers in the hands of old colonial families consist 
mainly of land grants and letters. Many of these collections are 
in good condition, but are stored in garrets and other out-of-the- 
way places. These should be and will be, if persuasion can bring 
it about, placed in some safe fire proof repository. 

Lists of Inhabitants. 

An extensive list of the inhabitants of what is now the State 
of Mississippi, gathered from documentary sources during 
the period of 1792, forms a portion of the present report. It 
must be remembered that the Colonial period of Mississippi ex- 
tended from 1540, when DeSoto explored that region, to 1798 
when it became a territory of the United States, which gives 
the State an historical colonial period of two hundred fifty 
years, — a much longer colonial period than that of the colon- 
ies to the North. The list of inhabitants above referred to has 
been carefully compiled from the best sources of information 
in the Archives of the Indies, in Seville, Spain. This list is in- 
valuable for genealogical purposes. 

A list of land grants under the English dominion from 1763 
to 1781, is also submitted as a valuable complement to the list 
of inhabitants. This, like the latter, is useful, for purposes of 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs, Rowland. 409 

' family history. The list has been compiled from the best docu- 
mentary sources of information on file in the Public Record 
Office of London. It has been secured by much painstaking- 
research and, it is believed, will excite interest and attract at- 
tention throughout the country, especially in the lower South, 

Methods of Preservation. 

As has already been intimated in the prosecution of the work 
of the Committee on the preservation of historical records, the 
most desirable end to attain is to secure the originals and place 
them in trustworthy repositories where they will be accessible to 
students and historians. In the event that this cannot be done 
the next best step is to secure accurate transcripts for preser- 
vation in historical departments. In the prosecution of such 
work, the Colonial Dames can give valuable assistance in the great 
historical movement for the preservation of history, so manifest 
throughout the country. The compilation of such lists as accom- 
pany this report should be the work of this Society everywhere. 
These should be made part of the records of the National Society 
and should be filed under the direction of the Committee on the 
preservation of Existing Records. 

In conclusion, may I say again that the work of the Committee 
for the Preservation o-f Existing Records is most important? It 
should be fostered and vigorously pushed until all of the Colon- 
ial States and those possessing a valuable Indian history have 
taken it up. 

Land Grants in British West Florida, from the King of Eng- 
land to the grantees named. The list contains the names of 
grantee, date of grant and number of acres in the grant, and in- 
cludes the Natchez District which was a part of British West 
Florida. The list covers only the territory now included in the 
state of Mississippi. 

Name Date of Grant No. of Acres 

Thomas Hardy July 8, 1768„ 300 

Henry Fairchild Nov. 23, 1768 2,000 

Daniel Ward Nov. 2-i, 176S 1,500 

410 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Nante Date of Grant No. of Acres 

John Ward Nov. 24, 1768 600 

Benjamin Ward „_. ____Nov. 24, 1768 2,000 

Joshua Ward Nov. 24, 1768 600 

Daniel Clark Dec. 6, 1768 500 

William Burrows ¥ Dec. 6, 1768 '__ 600 

Charles Stewart, Esquire Dec. 6, 1768_ 2,000 

Joseph Smith Nov. 30, 1768 1,200 

Alexander Boyd Dec. 15, 1768 250 

Charles Strachan Dec. 10, 1768 1,000 

James Chambers Dec. 15, 1768 1,000 

William Carothers Dec. 15, 1768 500 

Jeremiah Terry, Esqr. July 23, 1769 460 

Thomas Taylor Byrd* Feb. 1st, 1773 600 

Thomas Taylor Byrd* Feb. 2, 1773 600 

William McPherson* April 26, 1773 600 

William McPherson* April 27, 1773 600 

Richard Carr* Nov. 27, 1772 __1, 000 

Thomas Hutchins, Esquire* — May 12, 1773 1,000 

Thomas Hutchins* &&. May 13, 17fS_j-rr___ 1,000 " 

James Donald June 5, 1778 400 

James Donald June 5, 1778 622 

Edmund Rush Wegg . July 18, 1778 2,000 

Hugh Hamilton Aug. 6, 1778 :_ 500 

John Lum — Aug. 6, 1778 350 

Walter Scott Aug. 6, 1778 500 

Richard Pearis Aug. 6, 1778 600 

Richard Pearis Aug. 6, 1778 500 

Robert Donald Aug. 15, 1778 650 

Richard Pearis Aug. 15, 1778 800 

Patrick Gallachan Aug. 15, 1778 700 

Patrick Gallachan Ang. 15, 1778 500 

William Collins „ Sept. 12, 1778 100 

Edmund Rush Wegg Sept. 21, 1778 1,000 

Farquhar Bethune Sept. 21, 1778™.. 650 

* The asterisk indicates grants from original patentees to private in- 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs. Rowland. 411 

Name Date of Grant No. of Acres 

William Collins Sept. 23, 1778 300 

William Collins Sept. 23, 1778 50 

Elihu Hall Bay 

and James Amoss Sept. 23, 1778 1,000 

John Mason Oct. 13, 1778 ' 500 

John Miller Oct. 13, 1778 100 

James Peterkin Dec. 29, 1778 500 

William Clark Dec. 29, 1778 500 

John Mitchel, Junior Dec. 22, 1779 500 

John Clover March 19, 1779 500 

Hugh Crawford March 19, 1779 200 

John Wheeler March 19, 1779 200 

William Vousdan - March 19, 1779 500 

John Herin March 19, 1779 100 

Thomas Scott April 23, 1779 480 

Alexander Graydon May 4, 1779 300 

Alexander Mcintosh May 25, 1779 4,659 

John Gordon June 16, 1779 850 

William Eason July 7, 1779___ 500 

Robert Tait Jan. 29, 178.0 550 

William Thompson Jan. 29, 17S0 450 

Thomas Frey July 4, 1769 200 

Richard Barrey ; July 4, 1769 50 

James Lovell July 22, 1769 1,000 

Joseph Harrison j 

George Harrison _ , nn ,^ nn ■' ^ rt _ 

T t S TT I July 22, 1769 1, 525 

John Hayton \ J \ 

Joseph Hayton 

George Petrie July 22, 1769 1,000 

William Fetherston July 22, 1769 140 

Thomas Coan July 22, 1769 50 

John Bradley July 22, 1769 1,000 

Mary Oliver July 22, 1769 150 

John Smith July 22, 1769 600 

Jacob Phillippi July 22, 1769 600 

James Watkins July 22, 1769 500 

412 " Mississippi Historical Society. 

Name Date of Grant No. of Acres 

Richard Freeman Pearnes July 22, 1769 50 

William Fetherstone July 22, 1769 1,000 

Simon McCormick July 22, 1769 — _ 50 

William Mill July 22, 1769 50 

Samuel Osbourn July 22, 1769 ' 300 

Alexander Mcintosh March 6, 1770 500 

Phillip Barbour June 5, 1770 1,500 

John Murrey Aug. 25, 1770 500 

Richard Thompson Aug. 25, 1770- 500 

Frederick Haldimand, Esqr —Aug. 1, 1772 1,000 

Frederick Haldimand, Esqr Aug. 1, 1772 50O 

Alexander Mcintosh April 19, 1773 500 

Andrew Rainsford May 12, 1773— 1,250 

Thomas Hutchins, Esquire May 12, 1773. 1,000 

Thomas Hutchins, Esquire May 12, 1773 1,000 

Jacob Winfree July 7, 1773 1,000 

John Southwell Aug. 2, 1773 }, 900 

John Summers Aug. 2, 1773 2,000 

Anthony Hutchins, Esquire Aug. 2, 1773 434 

William Hay, Esquire Aug. 25, 1773 2, 000 

Major John Small Aug. 25, 1773 1,000 

Captain William Hay Aug. 25, 1773 1,000 

David Dickson, Esquire Sept 27, 1773 2,000 

David Dickson, Esquire Sept. 27, 1773 1,000 

John Small, Esquire Sept. 27, 1773 1, 000 

Major John Small Sept. 27, 1773 1,100 

Elihu Hall Bay Sept. 27, 1773 1,100 

John Dalling, Esquire Nov. 4, 1773 5,000 

James Rumsey March 26, 1774 1,000 

Amos Ogden, Esquire May 6, 1774 3,000 

James Barbutt, Esquire June 13, 1774 500 

James Barbutt, Esquire June 13, 1774 _. 1,000 

Jacob Lantor Oct. 8, 1774 300 

William Wilton Oct. 17, 1774 500 

David Dickson, Esquire Oct. 21, 1774 3,000 

Patrick Strachan Oct. 21, 1774 1,000 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs, Rowland. 413 

N T ame Date of Grant No. of Acres 

Thomas Hutchins Oct. 21, 1774 GOO 

Mrs. Alice Blommart Oct. 21, 1774 500 

Mr. Luke Home Oct. 21, 1774___1 GOO 

Thomas Gamble, Esquire June 13, 1774 1, COO 

William Johnstone May 5, 1775 -2,000 

William Johnstone May 5, 1775 1,000 

Enoch Horton May 4, 1775 200 

John Hocombe I-May 29, 1775 1, £33 

John Hocombe May 29, 1775 667 

John Robinson July 15, 1775 2,000 

Clifton Ann Raincock July 15, 1775 1,000 

William Judd July 15, 1775 1, 000 

William Judd July 15, 1775 _— 1,000 

Thomas Hutchins, Esquire July 15, 1775 2,000 

Jeremiah Germain Aug. 31, 1775 300 

William Johnstone Sept. 12, 1775 1,000 

William Gorman Sept. 12, 1775 * 243 

James Barbutt Sept. 13, 1775 1,000 

Major Robert Farmer Sept. 22, 1775 3,000 

Charles Stuart July 31, 1775 1, 000 

Charles Stuart July 31, 1775 1,000 

Charles Stuart July 31, 1775 1,000 

Charles Stuart — July 31, 1775 1,000 

Roger Enos Oct, 13, 1775 2,000 

William Wilton . Oct. 13, 1775 300 

Joseph Blackwell Oct. 18, 1775 1,000 

James Bruce, Esquire Nov. 2, 1775 167 

Philip Barbour Feb. 12, 1776 500 

John Allen Martin Feb. 12, 1776 1,000 

William Hindson Feb. 12, 1776 2,000 

William Wilton Feb. 12, 1776 1,000 

John Cadwallader 

William Williams 

Mary Williams 

Ann Williams 

.Feb. 20, 1776 1,000 

414 ' Mississippi Historical Society. 

Name \ Date of Grant No. of Acres- 

Sir George Bridges Rodney, 

Baronet Oct. 13, 1776 5,000 

Jacob Paul, Senior March 27, 1776 100 

Samuel Lewis March 27, 1776 200 

Sarah Lewis _.___March 27, 1776 i 100 

William Grant May 6, 1776 1,000 

William Grant May 6, 1776 1,000 

William Grant ___May 6, 17761 1,000 

John Lorimer May 6, 1776- 2,000 

Thomas Jones May 6, 1776 200 

Susanna Jacobs May 6, 1776 200 

Daniel Perry May 6, 1776 250 

Sir Basil Keith July 8, 1776——. 3,000 

Evan Cameron July 22, 1776 150 

Philip Barbour Nov. 12, 1776 250 

Philip Barbour Nov. 12, 1776 250 

Philip Barbour Nov. 12, 1776 _._-« 250 

Robert Robinson Nov. 14, 1776 ' 100 

William Hays Nov. 14, 1776__ 400 ~ 

Hannah Lum 

William Lum and Jesse Lum— Nov. 14, 1776 300 

Robert Spears Nov. 22, 1776 500 

Peter Chester, Esquire Nov. 22, 1776 1,000 

Elizabeth Augusta Carrique Nov. 22, 1776 500 

Edward Tying Nov. 29, 1776 2,000 

George Cauld, Esquire Dec. 12, 1776 2,000 

John Payne Dec. 12, 1776 2,000 

Augustine Prevost, Esquire Dec. 31, 1776 5,000 

Daniel Vanderweid Feb. 24, 1777 500 

Cephas Kenard March 4, 1777 250 

David Waugh March 11, 1777 1,000 

William Marshall , March 24, 1777 1,000 

William Ellis March 24, 1777 200 

Donald McPherson April 5, 1777 300 

Jacob Paul, Junior April 5, 1777 100 

Thomas Harmon April 22, 1777 650 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs. Rowland. 415 

Name Date of Grant No. of Acres 

John Blommart _ April 29, 17:7 2,000 

George Grant May 1, 1777 2,000 

James Hutchinson May 1, 1777 200 

Benjamin Gower May 5, 1777 500 

Alexander Mcintosh May 5, 1777 ,400 

John Smith May 26, 1777 200 

John Bolls May 26, 1777 100 

Parker Carradine May 26, 1777 100 

James Smith Yarborough June &, 1777 400 

James Robertson June 16, 1777 2,000 

John Alston June 16, 1777 450 

Mary Ogden June 30, 1777 500 

Patrick Stuart July 11, 1777 1,000 

Philip Harmon July 21, 1777 „ 150 

John, Bentley July 21, 1777 200 

William Browne July 21, 1777 150 

Mary Dwyer July 28, 1777 200 

Angelique Brouaque Johnstone _ Aug. 15, 1777 I, 4 " 000 

Thomas James Aug. 15, 1777 500 

Thomas James Aug. 15, 1777 100 

Isaac Johnson Sept. 1, 1777 1,000 

John Blommart, Esquire Sept. 1, 1777 200 

Margaret Stampley Sept. 1, 1777 100 

William Vousdan Sept. 15, 1777 200 

Alexander Mcintosh Oct. 9, 1777 200 

Samuel Gibson Oct. 9, 1777 100 

James Perry Oct. 9, 1777 100 

Christopher Marr Oct. 9, 1777 100 

Luke Collins, Senior Oct. 9, 1777 500 

Luke Collins, Junior 200 

Thomas Collins Oct. 9, 1777 200 

Theophiius Collins Oct. 9, 1777 200 

Michael Golden Oct. 9, 1777 100 

John Tally 300 

Benjamin Roberts 250 

Athannasius Martin Oct. 9, 1777 100 

416 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Name > Date of Grant No. of Acres 

William Case ! Oct. 9, 1777 300 

Christian Bingamon Oct. 11, 1777 600 

John Lusk 150 

Jeremiah Routh Oct. 13, 1777 500 

Nathan Sweazey Oct. 13, 1777 .— 250 

John Watkins Oct. 23, 1777 250 

David Odam Oct. 23, 1777 200 

William Stiell Nov. 8, 1777 200 

William Fricker Nov. 8, 1777 2,000 

Weston Varlo, Esquire Nov. 13, 1777 2,000 

Weston Varlo 2, 000 

Weston Varlo, Esquire ___ 1, 000 

Alexander Ross Nov. 19, 1777— 2,000 

James Robertson Dec. 17, 1777 500 

Peter Kennedy Dec. 17, 1777 500 

Peter Kennedy 500 

Mrs. Sarah Stuart , Dec. 17, 1777 1,000 

Richard Wells Jan. 6, 1778 L 2, 000 

Peter Walsh Jan. 6, 1778 924 

Peter Rochat 2, 000 

-James Hughes — Jan. 6, 1778 550 

Augustin Prevost — —Jan. 15, 1778 1, 000 

Peter Beeson Feb. 1-i, 1778 100 

Ebenezer Brown 100 

Emanuel Madden 100 

John Stephenson -Feb. 23, 1778 1,200 

John Arnott March 11, 1778 2,000 

James Co 1 e March 20, 1778 550 

John Collins March 20, 177S 200 

William Collins 200 

John Ross March 20, 1778 „ 300 

Andrew Cypress March 20, 1778 100 

William Stiell March 30, 1778 2,000 

George Eberhard March 30, 1778 500 

Augustin Prevost March 30, 17T8 1,000 

Augustin Prevost March 30, 1778 1,000 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs. Rowland. 417 

Name Date of Grant No. of Acres 

John Grant April 9, 1778 2, 000 

Donald McDonald April 29, 1778 2, 000 

Richard Hawford May 14, 1778 2,000 

Phillip Affleck, Esquire May 15, 1778 5,000 

John Bolls Aug. 6, 1778 -_ 150 

Thomas Comstock 150 

William Stiell, Esquire Aug. 15, 1778 — ,__ 2, 000 

John Chrystie, Esquire Aug. 15, 1778 1,000 

Archibald Dalziel Aug. 15, 1778 800 

Archibald Dalziel Aug. 15, 1778 300 

Archibald Dalziel 300 

Archibald Dalziel : 300 

Archibald Dalziel Aug. 15, 1778__ 300 

Joseph Charleville Aug. 15, 1778— _ 200 

Robert Tendall Aug. 22, 1778 2,000 

John Marr Sept. 23, 1778 500 

John Marr 500 

James Sutherland Sept. 23, 1778 1 1,500 

James Sutherland Sept. 23, 1778 1,500 

Christopher Gise Nov. 11, 1778 706 

Ann Williams Nov. 11, 1778 300 

Ephraim Thornell Nov. 12, 1778 100 

John Hartley Nov. 12, 1778 200 

George Eberhard Nov. 24, 1778— 500 

James Murray -Nov, 24, 1778 500 

Jacob McCarty Dec. 5, 1778 300 

Francis Fisher 100 

Stephen Jordon — Dec. 5, 1778 200 

Thomas Carter Dec. 5, 1778 150 

Henry Bradley Dec. 5, 1778— 150 

Augustine Moreau Dec. 19, 1778 100 

Thomas Pitt Jan. 15, 1779 „ 200 

Benjamin James Jan. 15, 1779 500 

Alexander Campbell March 15, 1779 1,000 

Frederic George Mulcaster March 24, 1779 1,000 

Robert Ross March 31, 1779 1,000 


418 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Name Date of Grant No. of Acres 

Jahn A,uchinleck April 8, 1779 3,000 

Peter Walsh April 26, 1779 585 

James Hughes April 26, 1779 1,000 

Joseph Nunn, Esquire May 10, 1779 3,000 

John Ferguson, Esquire ' 3,000 

Daniel McGillivray _ May 25, 1779 300 

John Hostler May 25, 1779 200 

John Row May 25, 1779 200 

Jacob Schnell May 25, 1779 300 

Benjamin Stanley 200 

William Gamier, Esquire May 28, 1779 5,000 

Richard Ellis June 16, 1779 850 

Richard Ellis June 16, 1779. 1, 000 

Zaccheus Routh 400 

Charles Campbell ——July 21, 1779 100 

Jacob Paul 200 , 

Sarah Mayes July 23, 1779 100 

Andrew Carr July 22, 1779 200 

Lieut. Col. William Stiel Aug. 27, 1779 __. 1,000 

Joseph Pinhorn Aug. 21, 1779 200 

James Christie __„ Sept. 8, 1779 565 

Charles Percy Sept. 23, 1779 600 

John Firby .._. Sept. 23, 1779 100 

Anthony Hutchins, Esquire Oct. 4, 1779 419 

Patrick Kelly Sept. 2, 1779 — 200 

Census of the inhabitants of the District of Natchez, under 
the dominion of Spain, in 1792. 

District of Big Black. 
Tobias Brashears. 
Guillermo Cheney. 
Juan Stowers. 
Frederico Gunnels. 
Jorge Novres. 
Roberto Camell. 
Federico Myer. 

District of Big Black — Con. 
Garet Rapalye. 
Isaac Rapalye. 
Santiago Repalye. 

District of Buffalo Creek. 
Daniel Clark. 
Carlos Percey. 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs. Rowland. 419 

District of Buffalo Crcch — Con. 
Guillermo Collins. 
David Leyeune. 
Zacarias Smith. 
Pedro Smith. 
Zarcarias Smith, Joven. 
> Daniel Ogdon. 
Juan Lobelias. 
Thomas Lobelias. 
Edwardo Lobelias. 
Ebenezer Potter. 
David Johns. 
Antonio Daugherty. 
Guillermo Landerfield. 
Jeremias Lyons. 
Patricio Sullivan. 
Juan Bartley. 
Juan Alston. 
Enrique Roach. 
Guillermo Alston. 
Jaime Smith. 
Guillermo Willson. 
Lily White. 

Margarita Ross. 
Guillermo Colleman. 
Phelipe Luis Alston. 

District of Bayou Sara. 
Francisco Pausset. 
Juan Wall. 
Andres Here. 
Reuben Dunman. 
Guillermo Brown. 
Davis Ross. 
Jaime Ryan. 
„ Juan Green. 

District of Bayou Sara — Con. 
Juan Welton. 
Abram Hotton. 
Roberto Stark. 
Juan Oconer. 

District of Bayou Pierre. 
Guillermo Broccas. 
Gibson Clarke. 
Jaime Lobdal. 
Tomas Gobbard. 
Guillermo Young. 
Daniel Chambers. 
Jaime Finn. 
Tomas Farinton. 
Ephraim History. 
Reuben Proctor. 
Lucius Smith. 
Jere Smith. 
Ebenezer Smith. 
Juan Sluter. 
Ezekiel Hoskins. 
Seth Rundell. 
Moises Armstrong. 
Juan Wilkerson. 
Tormas Voice. 
Adwardo Trail. 
Elias Flowers. 
Jesus Randell. 
Samuel Gibson. 
Elias Smith. 
Reuben Price. 
Federico Stokman. 
Pedro Bruin. 
Benjamin Brashears. 
Edwardo Brashears. 
Watterman Crane. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

District of Bayou Pierre- 
Daniel Miller. 
Guillermo Taybor. 
Isaac Five. 
Tomas Irvins. 
Carlos Hemell. 
Patricio Cogan. 
Juan Smith. 
Manuel Rice. 
Estavan Richards. 
Buker Pittman. 
Solomon Witley. 
Jacob Hartley. 
Juan Hartley. 
Jacabo Coyleman. 
Leonardo Price. 
David MacFarland. 
Tomas Smith. 
Pheby Goodwind. 
Ricardo Grims. 
Jacabo Piatte. 
Jaime Harman. 
Ezekiel Harman. 
Jese Dwet. 
Jaime Layton. 
Guillermo Howey. 
Jacaba Cobbun. 
Samuel Cobbun. 
Juan Burnet. 
Daniel Burnet. 
Tomas Beams. 
Jaime Deavenport. 
Guillermo Harkins. 
Ricardo Lord. 
Juan Routh. 
• Paterico MacHeath. 
Estavan Cembrely. 


District of Bayou Pierre — Con. 
Juan Carrel. 
Guillermo Miller. 
Elizabeth Dervin. 
Benjamin Fooy. 
Juan Frasher. 
Isaac Fooy. 
Jaime Mather. 
Ana Humphrey. 
Jorge Humphrey. 
Juan Naylor. 
Pedro Serlot. 
Francisco Naylor. 
Juan Ivers. 
Guillermo Basset. 
Melling Wooley. 

District Second Sandy Creek. 
Guillermo Alcheson. 
Pedro Surget. 
Pedro Presley. 
Jaime Sanders. 
Jese Carter. 
Jorge Aldrige. 
Abner Green. 
David Mitchell. 
Crestobal Gilbert. 
Jacobo Earheart. 
Juan Ellis el jovn. 
Juan Rapalye. 
Ricardo Ellis. 
David Gallermore. 
Anna Barket. 
Jonathan Masters. 
Nathaniel Tomlston. 
Juan Duesbery. 
Roberto Withers. 

Mississippi's Colonial Population— Mrs. Rowland. 421 

District Second Sandy Creek- 

Juan Bodin. 
Nehemiah Carter. 
Tomas Landphier. 
Samuel Phips. 
Samuel Cooper. 
David Kennedy. 
Cataline Cunningham. 
Nicolas Rob. 
Nicolas Rob el joven. 

District Second and Sandy 

Darius Anderson. 
Arche MacDuffe. 
Antonio Hutchins. 
Philander Smith. 
Calvin Smith. 
Jesse Greenfield. 
Arturo Cobb. 
Sara Holms. 
Guillermo Glascok. 
Estavan Minor. 
Isac Johnson. 
Juan McFee. 
Guillermo Preston. 
Miguel Minorby. 
Juan Stout. 
Guillermo Chambers. 

District of Homochitto. 
Archwaldo Palmer. 
Ruffin Gray. 
Barney Higgins. 
Tomas Cummins. 
Patricio Foley. 

District of Homochitto — Con. 
Jaime Nicholson. 
Landon Davis. 
Donaldo McCoy. 
Estavan Ambrose. 
Augusto Rodey. 
Enrique Nicholson. 
Mateo MacCullock. 
Enrique Phips. 
Benjamin Carrell. 
Jose Miller. 
Tomas Murray. 
Jose Dow. 

Isac Gaillard. 

David Swazay. 

Abraham Ellis. 

Nataniel Tomlston. 

Ana Savage. 

Jaime Kirk Gabriel Swezey. 

Job Corry. 

Ricardo Corry. 

Jeremias Corry. . 

Nathan Swezy. 

Juan Lusk. 

Mordica Richards. 

Roberto Miller. 

Obediah Brown. 

David Lambert. 

Caleb King. 

Juan Chambers. 

District of Villa Gayoso. 
Parker Carradine. 
Archwald Robinson. 
Jaime Edward. 
Elizabeth Young. 
Abraam Green. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

District of Villa Gay oso— Con. 

Margarita Stampley. 

Federico Manedo. 

David Odam. 

Guillermo Falconer. 
Abraam Mays. 
Tomas Master Green. 
Guillermo Kirkland. 
Samuel Kirkland. 

District Second Sandy Creek. 
"> Matee Jones Oja. 

Estavan Stephenson. 

Juan Newton. 

Jacobo Adams. 

Jaime Kelly. 

Isac Alexander. 

Joel Weed. 

Samuel Heady. 

Jacobo Miller. 

Jorge Holland. 

Tomas Martin. 

Guillermo Ratliff. 

Juan Paterson. 

Guillermo MacDougle. 

Tomas Nichols. 

Ebenezer Barrows. 

Juan Spires. 

Jaime Oglerby. 

Little Berry West. 

District Sandy and Second 

Guillermo West. 
Tomas Morgan. 
Guillermo Morgan. 
Juan Armsreit. 

District Sandy and Second 
Creek — Con. 
Jaime Stewart. 
Juan Holladay. 
Josua Howard. 
Bearly Pruet. ' 
Juan Ratliff. 
Jose Slater Bal. 
Guillermo Lee. 
Daniel Harrigal. 
Tomas Martin. 
Miguel Williams. 
Jaime Richardson. 
Jose Stockstill. 
Margarita Hifler. 
Pedro Nilson. 
Juan Craven. 
Juan Calvet. 
Thomas Foard. 
Jaime Cooper. 
Nataniel Butler. 
Guillermo Calvet. 
Elias Bonill. 
Guillermo Cooper. 
Juan Foard. 
Guillermo Fletcher. 
Benjamin Fletcher. 
Hugh Slater. 
Juan Ervin. 
Jaime Ervin. 
Samuel Cooper. 
Alexandro Farrow. 
Enrique Cooper. 
Jorge Bayly. 
Ephain Bates. 
Daniel MacGill. 
Benjamin Bullock. 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs. Rowland. 423 

District Spndy and Second 
Creek — Con. 

Benjamin Laneer. 
Benjamin Holmes. 
Roberto Abranns. 
Tomas Purling. 
Mateo White. 
Juan Cowel. 
Juan Ellis. 
Guillermo Dunbar. 

District of Villa Gayoso. 
Francisco Spain. 
Jaime Spain. 
Alexandro Callender. 
Ephraim Coleman. 
Guillermo Clark. 
Redman Conely. 
Samuel Davis. 
Juan Stampley. 
Ricardo Curtes. 
Juan Smith. 
Tomas Calvet. 
Juan Andelton. 
Tomas Splun. 
Juan Rich. 
Juan Young - . 
Jese Monson. 
Juan Garet. 
Narcisco Hunter. 
Isac Taylor. 
Juan Strabeker. 
Jose Dyson. 
Tomas Dyson. 
Enrique Hunter. 
Roberto Monson. 
Enrique Milburn. 

District of Villa Gayoso — Con. 
Juan Credy. 
Juan Cortney. 
Pedro Hill. 
Marcos Coil. 
Tomas Smil. 
Juan Jones. 
David Smith. 
Guillermo Farbanks. 
Juan Greeffin. 
Abel Easmin. 
Earl Marbel. 
Jorge Murray. 
Gabriel Greeffin. 
Juan Arden. 
Daniel Douglass. 
Archibald Douglass. 
Favid Douglass. 
Estavan Douglass. 
Ezekiel Newman. 
Isac Newman. 
David Greenlief. 
Prospero King. 
Guillermo Bishop. 
Recardo King. 
Justo King. 
Jese Hamelton. 
Denis Collins. 
Juan Clark. 
Lucia Clark. 
Jaime Dark. 
Jaime Kenty. 
Adam Lanhart. 
David Hellbrand. 
Jose Fowler. 
Guillermo Boveard. 
Maydelen Perry. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

District of Villa Gayoso — Con. 
Jonathan Ruker. 
Juan Crutheirs. 
Daniel Perry. 
Guillermo Beardman. * 
Jacobo Shilling. 
Juan Martin. 
Nataniel Kennson. 
Miguel Guise. 
Jaime Hilonds. 
Benjamin Curtes. 
Ricardo Roddy. 
Adam Cloud. 
Mordica Frockmorton. 
Roberto Frockmorton. 
Guillermo Ferguson. 
Nataniel Brown. 
Guillermo Durch. 
Patricio McDermot. 
Juan Donaldson. 
Stewart Higginson. 
Juan Williams. 
Cato West. 
Josua Collins. 
Jaime Truly. 
Guillermo Burch. 
Guillermo Lum. 
Dibdal Holt. 
David Holt. 

District of Santa Catalina. 
Le Veude Mulhollon. 
Cristian Bingham. 
Jonatha Perkins. 
La Vieuda Oilor. 
Roberto Cochran, 
Juan Rodriguez. 

District of Santa Catalina — Con. 
Nataniel Tomlinton. 
Guillermo Smith. 
Philitus Smith. 

District of Villa Gayoso. 
Guillermo Murrah. 
Margarita Routh. 
Jeremias Routh. 
Elias Routh. 
Job Routh. 
Roberto Wathe. 
Juan Ferry. 
Alexandro Grant. 
Estavan Scriber. 
Jose Scopkil. 
Jorge Dewange. 
Jose Green. ^ 

Nathan Green, 
Littleberry Hust. 
Juan Holt. 
Guillermo Mathews. 
Guillermo Curtis. 
Carlos Simmons. 
Juan King. 
Juan Garkins. 
Carlos Colins. 
Samuel Foster. 
Patricio Sullivan. 
Jorge Jones. 
Juan Roberts. 
Jacobo Cable. 
Jasper Sinclear. 
Juan Anderson. 
Jorge Bainder. 
Jorge Stamp! ey 
Guillermo Patterson. 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs, Rowland. 425- 

district Villa Gayoso — Con. 
Adam Beakly. 
Juan Hambeeling. 
Guillermo Hamberling. 
Estavan de Alva. 
Jorge Cleare. 
Enrique Platner. 
Jacobo Hufman. 
Clemente Dyson. 
Juan Dyson. 
Justo Humphreys. 
Andres Wadkins. 
Edmundo Johnson. 
Roberto Cray ton. 
Tomas Daniels. 
Maria Shepman. 
Tomas Adams. 
Abraam Glason. 
Guillermo Adams. 
Enrique Green. 
Bernabe Isenhoot. 
Miguel Fake. 
Juan Fake. 
Jacobo Crumholf. 
Tomas Robeson. 
Roger Dixon. 
Jorge Forman. 
Guillermo Ervin. 
Jaime Johns. 
Juan Cole. 
Estavan Cole. 
Samuel Karr. 
Ismy Forman. 
Jaime Cole el vie jo. 
Solomon Cole. 
Benjamin Still. 
Abner Marvill. 

District Villa Gayoso — Con. 
Juan Zeines. 
Guillermo Cole. 
Jacobo Stampley. 
Jaime Cole el joven. 
Ricardo Harrison. 
Benito Truly. 
Groves Muris. 
Hugh Bell. 
Guillermo Thomas. 
Tarpley Bayly. 

District of Santa Catalina^ 
Guillermo Baker. 
Juan Odum. 
Jose Calvet 
Maria Igdom. 
Benjamin Belk. 
Juan Willey. 
Estavan Haines. 
Juan Haines. 
Jephta Higdon. 
Juan Bols. 
Tomas Moore. 
Juan Dix. 
La Vuida Calvet. , 
Jeremais Coleman. 
Israel Coleman. 
Guillermo Daniels. 
Ricardo Dun. 
Isac Tabor. 
Roberto Dunbar. 
Ricardo Ellis. 
La Vuida Carpenter, 
Marta- Foster. 
Jaime Foster. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

District of Santa Catalina — Con 

Alexandro Henderson. 

Pedro Camus. 

Juan Lum. 

Hugh Coyle. 

Tomas Kelly. 

Miguel Doren. 

Andres Bell. , 

Jese Withers. 

Jaime Mclntire. 

Moises Bonner el Viejo. 

Will Bonner. 

Moises Bonner el joven. 

Jose Bonner. 

Enrique Manadue. 

Enrique Manadue el joven. 

Carlos Howard. 
Juan Vaucheret. 
Jose Vaucheret. 
Jose Vaucheret. 
Windsor Pips. 
Abner Pips. 
Juan Stowers. 
Juan Conarrod Strong. 
Juan Baptests. 
Carlos Boardniai 
Azael Lewis. 
Emanuel Madden. 
Roberto Cotton. 
Miguel Pamer. 
Juan Bisland. 
Jaime Wade. 
Guillermo Owens. 
Tomas Jordan. 
Jaime Bonner. 
Juan Ken rick. 
Juan Osberry. 

District of Santa Catalina — Con. 
Francisco Pourchous. 
Antonio Pourchous. 
Gabriel Benoit. 
Juan Carrel. 
Juan Scoggins. v 
Juan Shonauer. 
Guillermo Henderson. 
Eliza Ophill. 
Francisco Anderson. 
Jose Bernard. 
Jorge Fitzgerald. 
Jaime Fitzgerald. 
Daniel Crafton. 
Polser Shilling. 
* Jaime Ferry. 
Guillermo Barland. 
Bernardo Lintot. 
David Williams. 
Benjamin Momanto. 
Sutton Banks. 
Antonio Grass. 
Estavan Mays. 
Tomas Rule. 
Alexandro Moore. 
Adam Bingman. 
Eunice Maclntoche. 
Guillermo Maclntoche. 
Guillermo Smith. 
Philetus Smith. 
Roberto Todd. 
Ricardo Adaams. 
Federico Man. 
Carlos King. 
Israel Leonard. 

* More likely Terry 

Mississippi's Colonial Population — Mrs. Ron/land. 427 

District of Santa Catalina — Con. 
David Mulkey. 
Guillermo Gillaspie. 
- Carlos Kayson. 
Ishamer Andrews. 
Jacobo Percey. 
Margarita Mygatt. 
Guillermo Silkreg. 
Jaime Glascok. 
Archwald Sloan. 
Catalina Smith. 
La Vuide Urry. 
La Vuida Cobberston. 
Guillermo Vousdan. 
Solomon Leyenne. 
Tomas Huggs. 
Jaime Willey. 
Samuel Tanner. 
Daniel Sullivan. 
Jesus Beanden. 
Tomas Reed. 
Daniel Huilker. 
Ezekiel Dwet. 
Jose Duncan. 
Samuel Swezey. 
Tomas Jackson. 
Luis Vilaret. 
Andres Scandiing. 
Ebenezer Dayton. 
Juan Tomas. 
Eduardo MacCable. 
Juan Wilson. 
Tomas Freman. 
Ricardo Swezy. 
Jacobo Stoop. 
Juan Conner. 

District of Santa Catalina — Con. 
Guillermo Weake. 
Ricardo Bell. 
Reuben Gibson. 
Gibbs Gibson. 
Samuel Flowers.' > 
Tomas Foster. 
Guillermo Foster. 
Guillermo Gilbert. 
Nataniel Iwey. 
Abram Horton. 
Ezekiel Forman. 
La Muger de Jeremias 

Guillermo Elliott. 
Cornelio Shaw. 
Jose Harrison. 
Juan Bulling. 
Tomas Darrah. 
Carlos Johns. 
Jaime Forzith. 
Juan Ferguson. 
Gorge Troops. 
Guillermo Stock. 
La Vuida Smith. 
Juan Foster. 
Samuel Gilkson. 
Cristian Harman. 
Tomas Reilly. 
Juan De B ready. 
Jorge Rich 
Jorge Killian. 
Juan Perkins. 
Kedow Rabby. 
Ricardo Miller. 
Guillermo Ryan. 
Carlos Adams. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

District of Santa Catalina — Con. 
Carlos Carter. 
Guillermo Morning. 
Job Richards. 

District of Santa Clara — Con. 
Roberto Carter. 
Jose Perkins. 
Juan Elmore. 

Note — The spelling of names is given as recorded in- official 
records. However, it is well to note that many of the officials 
of that time were uneducated Spanish officers, and English names, 
as well as Spanish and French, were corrupted in the spelling. 


The foregoing list of inhabitants of tbe Natcbez District 
contains tbe names ol beads of families onhj; women, cbilcben 
and slaves do not appear. Tbe population, ol tbe District 
in 1792 was 4690. 


By James Malcolm Robertshaw. 

It is now over seventeen years since the company dis- 
banded. Time passes rapidly and memory is faulty, and, un- 
less we preserve by record what heretofore has been in the 
custody of memory, a true knowledge of an event in which the 
youth of Washington county participated, may be found want- 
ing and irrecoverable. 

I will commence with a brief history of our local military 
company, the "Delta Guards," subsequently known after re- 
organization as Company "C." This company was 'organized 
April 1, 1895, and the object at the time was more or less a lo- 
cal necessity, aside from which its claims were attractive to the 
youth of the community for other reasons. In the first place, 
it assured the members of the company an annual summer 
vacation in the way of an encampment in the vicinity of some 
town or city of the state where arrangements were always 
made to entertain the soldiers in a festive manner. One of the 
principal features of such entertainments were dances each 
evening, in which a majority of the soldier boys would partici- 
pate, and by them considered great successes ; for, while their 
brass buttons were in evidence, the civilians had to take a sec- • 
ond place, and so it was with everything else. The manual du- 
ties of the company were virtually nominal, except to insure 
proper training in drills for such occasions. In a few words, 
it was a company of good fellows, friends who enjoyed each 
other's society. However, this great round of pleasure did not 
last; the war clouds could be seen gathering on the horizon. 


430 Mississippi Historical Society. 

and it was then the boys first realized what it meant to be a 
soldier. When the battleship Maine was destroyed in the har- 
bor of Havana in February, 1898, it was soon determined that 
war with Spain was inevitable, and the one topic discussed 
was the war. 

'When the United States had declared war and needed re- 
cruits, small crowds of soldier boys, belonging to the Delta 
Guards, would assemble on the streets and discuss the mat- 
ter with their friends, and those who had enlisted in the state 
militia felt the importance of their commission; however, the 
governor in his proclamation of April 29, 1898, did not make 
it compulsory for the members of the National Guards to enlist 
and it was optional with the men who had already enlisted in 
the state service, whether or not they would answer their coun- 
try's call; but feeling in honor bound, the Delta Guards, al- 
most to a man, when called upon responded to the call, and like 
everything else Greenville does she furnished her quota of vol- 
unteers. At this time, Henry T. Ireys, Jr., volunteered his 
services to the Delta Guards, and he was immediately enrolled 
and chosen as captain of the company; this honor was be- 
stowed upon him because of his early training at the Virginia 
Military Institute which had equipped him in every way to 
take charge of the company. He reorganized the company and 
arranged for regular drill practice to prepare the boys for the 
service ahead of them. On the streets of Greenville, crowds 
would gather in the evenings to watch the company drill, and 
enthusiasm waxed stronger and stronger as new members en- 
listed, until April 25th, when the company had enrolled a mem- 
bership of seventy men awaiting orders. On April 26, 1898, a 
message was received, dated at Jackson, Mississippi, as fol- 

"The president calls for two volunteer infantry regiments. 
How many of your company will volunteer? Regiments are 
to be formed and officers elected as now prescribed when troops 
are assembled at rendezvous." 

(Signed) "Wm. Henry, 
Adjutant General Mississippi" 

Company "C," Second Mississippi Regt. — Robertshaw. 431 

When this message came, it produced a thrill of intense ex- 
citement through the whole town, and all felt that the time had 
come when the soldier boys would receive orders to proceed to 
Jackson, Mississippi. The company having been already or- 
ganized, the adjutant general was immediately notified that the 
Delta Guards would furnish seventy men. Governor A. J. 
McLaurin's proclamation was issued April 29, 1898, but it was 
some days later when the company received orders to report at 
Camp Pat Henry, Jackson, Mississippi, on May 28, 1898. 

A reception was given by the good people of Greenville on 
the eve of the company's departure, and the soldier boys as- 
sembled at the armory on that evening and marched in a body, 
seventy strong, to the assembly hall, where the reception was 
held. They were cheered by the crowd, and Sommer's band 
played patriotic airs which imbued all with the enthusiastic 
spirit of the occasion. Fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, 
sweethearts and friends, all had come to take part in the recep- 
tion, and the following program was arranged for the occa- 

Prayer Rev. Quincy Ewing 

Music, "Star Spangled Banner" Public School Children 

Presentation Speech by Capt. W. G. Yerger 

Song, "Dixie," School children accompanied by Sommer's 

Patriotic Address by Judge J. H. Wynn 

Response by Hon. Walton Shields 

At the close of the program, the evening proved anything 
but joyful, for everybody was sad at the thought of parting, as 
the company was to leave on a seven o'clock special train over 
the Southern railway next morning. 

It was arranged for the fire alarm to sound the tocsin at four 
o'clock, at which time the boys were to be aroused for their 
departure; and when it was sounded, the bells and whistles 
of the town all joined their voices to the alarm, making the 
early dawn of May 28, 1898, one long to be remembered by the 
population of Greenville, who, without exception, left their 
homes to see their boys off", bidding them farewell and asking 

432 Mississippi Historical Society. 

God's blessing on them while away, and hoping for their safe 
Teturn. There were many tears to be seen on the faces of 
those left behind and the soldiers were not the liveliest of men 
as their train pulled out. 

The special gathered companies along the line r as they went, 
arriving at Jackson, Mississippi, at 4:30 p. m. the same day. 
The different companies reported at Camp Pat Henry and were 
immediately examined by the board of surgeons before being 
mustered into the service of the United States. In order to 
pass, the following examination was necessary: 


"May 5, 1898." 
"The physical requirements of volunteers are briefly as fol- 
lows: The applicant must be sound, have good vision, weigh 
at least 125 pounds, hot more than 195 pounds, to be at least 
5 feet 4 inches tall, and have chest measure expiration of at 
least 32 inches and chest mobility of at least 2 inches, ages 18 
to 45. 

(Signed "Wm. Henry, 

Adjutant General." 

It was necessary for those who joined under the age of twen- 
ty-one years to have a permit of consent from their parents. 
This examination recalls an instance of one of our ambitious 
young men who did not weigh quite enough to pass the exam- 
ination, and in order to pass, he drank a bucket of lemonade, 
with which assistance he was able to tilt the scales to the 
weight required, which made him very happy. After having 
passed the examination, the following telegram will show that 
the "Swamp Angels" were healthy subjects: 

•""Special to the Democrat: 

Jackson, Miss., May 28, 1898. 
Seventy examined, sixty-four passed, two under age. Delta 
Guards passed best physical examination of any company so 
iar examined." 

Two of those rejected were so determined to go with the 

company that they volunteered as cooks and so stayed with us. 

After passing the examination, the company was assigned to 

Company "C," Second Mississippi Regt. — Robcrtshaw. 43o 

one end of a large circus tent, and were given plenty of loose 
hay for bedding, and a good hard ground on which to rest their 
weary bones. This rapid change from the easy luxury of com- 
fortable homes brought quick realization of the hardships 
ahead, but the boys accepted the situation with good cheer. 
In order to recruit the company up to eighty men, as required, 
Captain Ireys telegraphed home for twenty-odd recruits, and 
on June 1st, a reinforcement arrived at Jackson in charge of 
Captain W. K. Gildart, accompanied by Messrs. T. H. Hood 
and George Wheatley, from which squad, seventeen men were 
declared physically all right. As the various companies would 
report and pass examination, they would be assigned to the 
same large circus tent until there were about six hundred men 
under one canvas, and truly the tent served its purpose as a 
circus tent, for such a managerie was never gathered together 
in the world before. At night, the fun commenced. The offi- 
cers found it impossible to control the men under the undisci- 
plined conditions and advantage was taken of the situation. 
and the boys would have a potato shower nearly every night, 
when you could hear men from all parts of the tent saying 
everything but their prayers. 

In the regular army, the boys found it quite different from 
their state encampments, as the enlisted men were given prac- 
tically no recognition by society. However, our boys were 
perfectly satisfied with the good company of each other. Wash 
day was one of the chief attractions for the visitors at the big 
tent. The guy ropes of the tent had the washing strung out, 
which was done by the newly enlisted soldiers ; frequently visi- 
tors from town would amuse themselves by walking around 
the. camp. Occasionally some friends from home came and 
they were always welcome guests ; sometimes they would mess 
with the boys, and bring them messages of good cheer from 
home folks. 

The board of supervisors of Washington county, in order to 
assist Company C, in case of need, authorized $250.00 placed 
at their disposal, of which only a small part was used. Upon 
retu/n of the company there was a balance of $197.07,, and the 


434 Mississippi Historical Society. 

board was asked what disposition they wanted made of same, 
but the matter was left entirely with Company C, and upon 
vote being taken, the money was donated to King's Daughters 
Circle No. 2. 

On June 2, 1898, the Delta Guards were mustered into the 
United States service as Company C, second regiment of vol- 
unteer infantry, with the following regimental officers: Wil- 
liam A. Montgomery, colonel ; Devereaux Shields, lieutenant 
colonel; George C. Hoskins, major; John P. Mayo, major; Jo- 
seph M. Jayne, Jr., adjutant ; Hiram Cassedy Jr., quartermas- 
ter; Madden W. Hamilton, major and surgeon ; Henry C. Kent, 
captain and surgeon ; George W. Acker, first lieutenant and 
adjutant ; E. D. Solomon, captain and chaplain ; Sam Mont- 
gomery, sergeant major; James W. Nelson, regimental quar- 
termaster sergeant. 

Devereaux Shields commanded the first battalion of which 
Company C was a part. 

On June 14, 1898, the second regiment was ordered to report 
to General Fitzhugh Lee at Jacksonville, Fla., and the date of 
departure was fixed for June 20th. The good ladies of Jack- 
son supplied each soldier with a nice box of lunch to take on 
the train with them, which they thoroughly enjoyed. They 
were transported by special train to Jacksonville arriving there 
June 22, 1898, which will be shown by following telegram : 

"Panama Park, Jacksonville, Fla.. June 22. 1898— (Special) 
Second Mississippi fortunate in selecting of camp. St. John 
river flows within one-half mile northeast of camp and a large 
creek called Trout creek, almost a river itself, empties into St. 
John river within one-fourth of a mile of Camp Cuba Libre, and 
were assigned to the Seventh Army Corps." 

Camp Cuba Libre was located at Panama Park, Florida, six 
miles from Jacksonville on the Florida Central and Peninsular 
railway. Panama Park was only a small place with one or 
two houses and when the regiment first arrived they found it 
an uninviting wilderness and before pitching the tents, the 
troops had to make a place for camping grounds. Many small 

Company "C," Second Mississippi Regt. — RobertsJunv. 435 

trees and bushes had to be removed and as the government had 
not furnished the troops with any necessary implements for 
that sort of work, it was difficult to clear the place. The work 
started with a few hatchets, an ax or two and a thousand men. 
It was not long before the young pine trees, pulled out of the 
sand, began to disappear. Apparently the work was done with- 
out trouble, but it required as many as ten or fifteen men some- 
times to uproot one small tree. Occasionally the monotony 
was broken by a rabbit jumping from the bushes when he was 
given a merry chase for his life, some escaping, but others were 
captured to fill the pots to be cooked for the sugp^er of a bunch 
of hungry men. When the ground was finally cleared, and 
things shaped up, it was not long before our camp was consid- 
ered one of the best the United States had for troops. Tall 
pine trees were left standing in some of the company streets, 
and in a forest of pine trees headquarters was located, while 
out in the campus not a tree was to be seen. In the evening 
small groups would gather and exchange many interesting 
happenings of the day in regard to their camp life. 
v Shortly after arrival at Panama Park instructions came to 
recruit the company up to 106 men and there were volunteers 
from Illinois, Tennessee and other points who found place in 
the ranks of Company C. 

Roster of Company C, name, rank, residence and remarks : 

Henry T. Ireys, Jr., captain, Greenville. 

Henry W. Starling, first lieutenant, Greenville. 

Richard D. Bedon, second lieutenant, Greenville. 

Wm. D. Robertshaw, first sergeant, Greenville. 

Mat C. Scurry, quartermaster sergeant, Greenville. 

James M. Robertshaw, sergeant, Greenville. 

Abram G. Yerger, sergeant, Greenville. 

William Urquhart, sergeant, Greenville. 

George B. Hunt, sergeant, Greenville. 

Dabney H. Hood, sergeant, Greenville. 1 

1 Discharged July 14, 1898; was appointed First Lieutenant Fifth U. S. 
Volunteer Infantry by President McKinley. 

436 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Walton Shields, sergeant, Greenville. 2 
Maurice A. Bergman, corporal, Greenville. 
Robert S. Gildart, corporal, Greenville. 
William P. Montgomery, corporal, Greenville. 
Elias W. Floyd, corporal, Greenville. 
Walter G. Blake, corporal, Greenville. 
William B. Meisner, corporal, Greenville. 
Lyne Starling, Jr., corporal, Greenville. 
William T. Freeman, corporal, Greenville. 
Jacob Sarason, corporal, Greenville. 
Richard T. Harbison, corporal, Greenville. 
Elliott C. Wetherbee, corporal, Greenville. 
John P. Archer, corporal, Greenville. 3 
Samuel M. Allen, musician, Greenville. 
Lawrence H. Bass, musician, Greenville. 
John O. Morton, artificer, Greenville. 
James H. Laycock, wagoner, Greenville. 
Howell C. Benning, private, Greenville. 
Ivan Behymer, private, Chicago, 111. 
Archie C. Bell, private, Greenville. 
"Charlie Y. Burns, private, Greenville. 
Otos A. Carnine, private, Greenville. 
Samuel C Caswell, private, Greenville . 
James Clancy, private, Greenville. 4 
John R. Colmery, private, Greenville. 
Charles C. Crane, private, Greenville. 
Richard J. Crittenden, private, Greenville. 
Harry Dillingham, private, Toronto, Canada. 
Walter B. Dorwart, private, Memphis, Tenn. 
Sidney S. Eckstone, private, Greenville. 
Clarence A. Felts, private, Chrisman, 111. 
John A. Gary, private, Greenville. 
Ustace A. Giesler, private, Greenville. 

* Discharged July 14, 1898; was appointed captain of the Fifth U. S. 
Volunteer Infantry by President McKinley. 
•Discharged Nov. 30, 1S98, on account of health. 
4 Transferred to hospital Sept. 10, 1898. 

Company "C," Second Mississippi Regt. — Robcrtsiiaiv. 437 

Wilson P. Hall, private, Greenville. 

Chas. W. Hammer, private, Maima, I. T. 

Chas. E. Hartman, private, Greenville. 

Ethel Harwell, private, Memphis, Tenn. 

Robert S. Head, private, Greenville. 

George B. Hebron, private, Leland. 

Walter J. Hovis, 'private, Greenville. 

William A. Ingram, private, Greenville. 

Harry A. Jame, Chicago, 111. 

James Jones, private, Jackson, Tenn. 

Glen N. Keith, private, Greenville. 

Richard B. Kemp, private, Canton. 

William L. Kirves, private, Greenville. 

William J. Lawson, private, Greenville. 

A. T. Linsey, private, New Orleans, La. 

John Lang, private, Chicago, 111. 

Phillip C. Love, private, Areola. 

David G. Love, private, Areola. * 

Pat F. Luter, private, Winona. 

John E. Martin, private, New Orleans, La. 

C. W. Macmurdo, private, Greenville. 

Mortimer W. Mason, private, Benoit. 

Chas. H. Meyer, private, Chicago, 111. 

Frank C. Miller, private, Chicago, 111. 

Charles L. Mitchell, private, Lake Charles, La. 

Julius L. Moyse, private, Greenville. 

David R. Munger, private, Houston, Texas. 

Eugene D. Munger, private, Flouston, Texas. 

Harry J. Musser, private, Greenville. 5 

Thomas McGinnis, private, Chicago, 111. 

Charles W. McHale, private, Chicago, 111. 

Patrick J. O'Connor, private, Sheboygan, Wis. 

Albert H. Osborn, private, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Ellis Parker, private, Greenville. 

Phillip B. Pierce, private, U Argent, La. 

8 Discharged Oct. 31, 1898, on account of health. 

438 • Mississippi Historical Society. 

Eugene E. Pilgrim, private, Hollandale. 
John Pilgrim, private, Ludlow, 111. 
Eugene T. Richards, private, Greenville. 
Charles Reiter, private, Marietta, Ohio. 
Isaac H. Rogers, private, Memphis, Tenn. 
Eugene H. Sossman, private, Holly Springs. 
Fred A. Sheehan, private, Chicago, 111. 
John S. Shorten, private, Greenville. 
August Schlief, private, Chicago, 111. 
Edward W. Shrader, private, Greenville. 
George K. Smith, Jr., private, Greenville. 
Albert W. Smith, private, Greenville. 
A. C. Smith, private, Jonesboro, Ark. 
Emmet C. Smythe, private, Greenville. 6 
William Starling, Jr., private, Greenville. 
Phillip Stokes, private, Greenville. 
Emory Stephens, private, Holly Springs. 
Percy P. Sutherland, Rosedale. 
William G. Sutter, private, Silver Creek, N. Y. 7 
John Tegen, private, Chicago, 111. 
Julius Tott, private, Chicago, III. 
Edward D. Travis, private, Avon. 
Byrd C. Trigg, private, Greenville. 8 
Arthur O. Trousdale, private, Greenville. 9 
Thomas D. Vaughan, private, Greenville. 
Herman Voss, private, Chicago, 111. 
Charles W. Wade, private, Bolivar. 
William S. Warner, private, Moorhead. 
Stonewall J. Webster, private, Madison, N. C. 
James B. White, private, Greenville. 
Joseph B. White, private, Greenville. 10 

* 'Appointed hospital steward August 1, 18 98. 

7 Committed suicide on September 30, 1898. 

•Discharged October 31, 1898, for position of stenographer at regi- 
mental headquarters. 

•Transferred to hospital July 21, 1898. 

10 Discharged for governmental appointment, November 17, 1898. 

Company "C," Second Mississippi Regt. — Robertshaw. 439 

Oscar J. Wilix, private, Chicago, 111. 
Herbert A. Wood, private, Sidney, Neb. 
Spencer B. Yerger, private, Greenville. 

Company C enjoyed exceptionally good health and were 
truly blessed, for during their time of enlistment it had the 
good fortune not to lose a single man by death, something that 
cannot be said of many companies in the entire volunteer 
army. The boys were patient ; of course, amusing themselves 
first in one way and then another. One of the principal amuse- 
ments was the "kangaroo court'' which convened every evening 
at the mess hall. The judge was given a chair upon one of the 
long tables and the court would open. It was found necessary 
to have regular officers to carry on this court as it developed, 
and they had a sheriff elected to keep the peace, and lawyers 
were employed to try some important cases that came up. 
When a complaint was made against a man that could not be 
taken to the military officers, the "Kangaroo court"' took care 
of the case and everything but justice was meted out. 

The boys were restive under the restraint of camp life and 
anxious to go forward into active service, but on July 3, 1898, 
when Cervera's fleet was destroyed by the United States squad- 
ron, the war was presumably ended, and then our men were 
anxious to be mustered out so they could return home to their 
duties, as they felt they had responded to their country's call 
to arms to defend and fight for her, but not to do police or gar- 
rison duty in foreign lands when hostilities had ceased. 

On September 1, 1898, the following message was received 
and brought joy to the hearts of the men as it meant a return 
to home and loved ones : 

"Washington, D. G, Sept. 1, 1898. — War department issued 
orders to transport troops for the purpose of being mustered 
out at their destination, among others, second Mississippi regi- 
ment of Jacksonville, to Lauderdale Springs, then give them 
30 days furlough and return then at expiration of that time and 
be mustered out of service." 

440 Mississippi Historical Society. 

After this notice was received the company was given orders 
to prepare to be mustered out, and a few days later the com- 
pany started on its way to Lauderdale Springs, when it was 
learned that yellow fever was in the state of Mississippi, and 
the troops were given the privilege of proceeding without stop 
at Lauderdale Springs, for thirty-six hours, this was done in 
order that they might not be quarantined from their respec- 
tive homes. 

On September 14 the news spread rapidly through Green- 
ville that Company C would return on the Southern Railway. 
The citizens hastily started preparation for a reception and 
everything was splendidly arranged. Sommers' band headed 
a crowd composed of Greenville's population who met the train 
with "three cheers for our soldier boys" and the joyful citizens 
shook the hands of each member of Company C. 

Before dismissing the company, Captain Ireys said, 
"Mothers, I return your sons to you," after which the boys 
were allowed to break rank. 

It was truly said by the Greenville Times, "The day of depar- 
ture of the soldiers, May 28, was one of the saddest days Green- 
ville ever experienced — the day of their return, Sept. 14th, the 

On account of yellow fever restrictions, the secretary of war 
extended the furlough of the second Mississippi regiment from 
October 19th to November 13th, and again extended same on 
like authority to November 28th. Previous to their departure 
to Columbia, Tennessee, to be mustered out, Company C pre- 
sented Captain Henry T. Ireys, Jr., with a handsome sword, 
and First Sergeant William D. Robertshaw with a handsome 
umbrella and walking stick, as marks of the high esteem \n 
which they held these officers. 

On November 27th Company C was instructed to leave on 
special train No. 4 at 2 p. m., which train would pick up addi- 
tional coaches along the line : 

Company "C," Second Mississippi Regt. — Robertshaw. 441 

Circular No. 4. 

Captain Henry T. Ireys, Jr., of Company C is authorized to 
assume the command of the train. 

Headquarters, Camp Hamilton, Columbia, Tenn., Nov. 23, 1898. 

"The boys all had a good time while at Columbia, Tenn., 
with not much to do and without exception the entire company 
was given honorable discharge, Dec. 1, 1898." 


In conclusion, there is little to be said, as nothing particularly 
historic was performed by Company C for the reason that the 
sudden cessation of hostilities afforded no opportunity of per- 
formance. The spirit to do was there, however, and we must 
take the will for the deed. 

Since the time of which I write, many listed in the company's 
roster, impelled by business necessities and other circum- 
stances, are no longer with us, and quite a number in the flower 
of their youth have answered that last sad roll call from on 
high, notably among them, our noble captain, Henry T. Ireys, 
Jr., than whom no officer in the Seventh Army Corps was more 
highly esteemed, for gentlemanly conduct and military profi- 


By George J. Leftwich. 


This article is devoted mainly to the career of George Strothef 
Gaines, a notable pioneer in Mississippi Territory, whose bones 
rest in her soil, though the sketch could hardly be complete with- 
out bringing into view a distinguished officer in the regular army 
of the United States, his brother, General Edmund Pendleton 
Gaines, and other pioneers. More is to be said of George Stro- 
ther Gaines, the younger brother, the less known, though really 
a greater man than the distinguished General. The Gaines family 
is closely connected with the Strothers, of Virginia, founded by 
William Strother of notable aristocratic and distinguished lin- 
eage and descended from English nobility. 1 Henry Gaines, the 
father, between 1765 and 1775, married Isabella Pendleton in 
Culpepper County, Virginia ; Isabella Pendleton was the sister 
of Judge Edmund Pendleton, one of the notable compatriots of 
Washington and Jefferson, and belonging to that group of Vir- 
ginia statesmen who were in the ascendant in the nation just 
preceding and following the Revolutionary War, and who are 
characterized by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts 
in his recent eulogy on Senator John W. Daniel of Virginia, as 
the ablest body of men since the days of the Greek Republic, as 
it existed long prior to the Christian era. Edmund Pendleton, 
after the termination of the Revolution, was long President pi 
the Virginia Court of Appeals, the supreme judicial tribunal of 

1 See Vol. 2, Southern Historical Association, page 149, on William 
Strother and his descendants by Dr. James M. Owen, Director of De- 
partment of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama. 


Pioneers in Mississippi Territory — Leftwich. 443 

that State. The Gaines family were closely connected with the 
mother of General Zachary Taylor, and many of Virginia's most 
distinguished men and statesmen. 2 

Henry Gaines and Isabella Pendleton had born to them twelve 
children, three sons, Edmund Pendleton Gaines, George Strother 
Gaines, James Gaines, and nine daughters. Edmund Pendletoi 
Gaines was born in Culpepper County, Virginia, but his distin- 
guished brother George Strother was born in Slater County, 
North Carolina, and the family later moved to Gallatin, Tennes- 
see. It seems, on good authority, that the Gaines family orig- 
inally came from Wales, and of the three branches of it, one 
settled in New England, one in Virginia, and one in South Caro- 
lina. 3 


Both brothers mostly grew up at or near Gallatin, Sumner 
County, Tennessee ; and in 1804, A. D., before George Strother 
was twenty years of age, he was appointed Assistant Factor or 
Agent at St. Stevens, Alabama, a famous pioneer settlement on 
the Tombigbee River, and then near the dividing line between 
Mississippi Territory and Spanish West Florida. The Superin- 
tendent or Factor at this trading house was Joseph Chambers, 
who resigned in 1806, and George Strother Gaines was appointed 
in his place. No better testimonial to the capacity and reliabil- 
ity of Colonel Gaines could be adduced than this appointment at 
so early an age. The establishment of Indian trading houses at 
Ft. Stevens, Natchez and other places by the United States Gov- 
ernment was to circumvent the wily machinations of the English 
and Spanish in their dealing with the Indians. Washington is 
supposed to have suggested this method of keeping on friendly 
terms with the savages. Trading houses were primarily set up 
by speculators who over-reached the Indians, sold them bad 
whiskey, and looked after every interest but that of the Indian 

* Conversation of Col. Gaines with Mr. A. C. Coles, State Line, Mis- 
sissippi, at one time his business associate and amanuensis. 

* Information given Mr. A. C. Coles of State Line, Miss., by Col. Geo. 
S. Gaines. 

444 Mississippi Historical Society. 

himself, the settler and the United States. So the Government 
undertook the task of establishing' trading houses and selling 
them goods that the Indians really needed at just sufficient profit 
to prevent loss. One of the most important qualifications of the 
Factor or Superintendent of the trading house was skill and di- 
plomacy; he should be honest of course, but he must keep peace 
with the Indians and give welcome to the American settler. 
Near St. Stevens was Ft. Stoddard, where United States troops 
were stationed, then on the Spanish boundary; in charge of this 
garrison was Captain Edmund Pendleton Gaines, the brother 
of the Factor, who had married for his second wife the daughter 
of Judge Harry Toulmin of Kentucky, the first Federal Judge, 
and long prominent in Mississippi Territory ; his first wife was a 
daughter of Governor Blount of Tennessee; and still a third wife 
was the famous Myra Clarke Gaines of New Orleans, where the 
General died about 1849. It was at this time while Captain 
Gaines as commandant at Ft. Stoddard, and George Stro- 
ther was Assistant Factor, that Aaron Burr escaped from Wash- 
ington, the territorial capital of Mississippi, and was captured 
by Captain Gaines near Ft. Stoddard where he was detained for 
several weeks, entertaining the ladies with cards, mesmerizing 
the men with his splendid manners and interesting conversation, 
and in the interval nursed George Strother Gaines while afflicted 
with fever at St. Stevens; it was from here that Colonel Burr 
was sent by Captain Gaines to Richmond to be tried by Judge 
John Marshall for treasonable practices, and acquitted, though 
unquestionably guilty of treasonable designs as later was more 
clearly developed. George Strother Gaines in his published let- 
ters and Reminiscences, makes much interesting comment on this 
region of the Tombigbee then inhabited by the Creek and Choc- 
taw Indians and a few white cattle raisers along the river. 


The goods, arms, blankets and trinkets sold to the Indians 
mainly for pelts, at Ft. Stevens, had of course to be imported 
from the East. During the superintendency of Gaines' prede- 

Pioneers in Mississippi Territory — Lcfhcich. 445 

cessor and in the early part of his administration, these goods 
were brought by water through the port of Mobile, and the Span- 
ish Government imposed heavy import duties; for instance, a 
barrel of flour brought from Kentucky by raft to the Natchez 
factory could be sold there at about four dollars per barrel, and 
when brought around through the port of Mobile, after Spanish 
imposts were collected, it cost' the consumer about sixteen dol- 
lars at Fort Stevens. The Spanish were not too friendly, and 
English emissaries and traders were numerous among the In- 
dians and plotting constantly prior to the War of 1812 against 
American supremacy in the Mississippi valley. Thus it was that 
George Strother Gaines, in consultation with the Secretary of 
War in 1810, established the northern route for the transporta- 
tion of goods to St. Stevens. Let Colonel Gaines tell his own 
story in his own language of this exploit: — 

"In October, 1810, I received instructions from the Secretary 
of War to proceed to the Chickasaw Nation and endeavor to 
obtain permission of the Indians to open a wagon road from 
Colbert's Ferry (on the Tennessee), to Cotton Gin Port on the 
Tombigbee, and make arrangements to transmit the goods 
thence to St. Stevens. I set out immediately in obedience to 
my instructions; had an interview with the leading chiefs of 
the Chickasaws, who objected to opening a wagon road but 
promised me facilities and safety for the transportation of the 
goods for the Choctaw trading house on pack horses at a very 
moderate expense. Lieut Gaines (Edmund Pendleton Gaines) 
by order of the War Department, had six or seven years before 
this time, surveyed and marked out the road I was instructed 
to open. I continued my journey to Smithland (Kentucky), at 
the mouth of the Cumberland, where I found supplies in charge 
of Wood Brothers, with the exception of lead which I was in- 
structed to purchase. Hearing that a boatload of lead had been 
sunk in the Ohio below Ft. Massac, I proceeded to the place 
and aided by the commanding officer at Massac, I procured the 
quantity required, brought it up in public barge to Smithland, 
engaged a careful bargeman and crew with a good barge to 
transport the goods found there, and with the lead I had pur- 
chased, to Colbert's Ferry on the Tennessee. I then returned 
on horseback to Colbert's Ferry, made arrangements for mov- 
ing and "packing" the goods to Major Pitchlyn's at the mouth 

446 Mississippi Historical Society. 

of the Oktibbeha below Cotton Gin Port. 4 I proceeded to Ma- 
jor Pitchlyn's and with his aid arranged for transporting the 
goods down the Tombigbee to St. Stevens. It is a little re- 
markable that all my orders were carried out with precision 
and promptness and the goods received at St. Stevens in good 
order and without the loss of an article." 5 

Thus was established the famous Gaines Trace or Road from 
Colbert's Ferry to Cotton Gin Port. From Cotton Gin Port the 
road led south near the edge of the prairie, not far from the pres- 
ent site of Aberdeen, 6 and terminated at the home of the famous 
interpreter Major John Pitchlyn, at the mouth of the Oktibbeha, 
then Old Plymouth and now Waverley. Colonel Gaines refers 
to the unfriendly attitude of the Indians at the time, and relates 
that his barges had to be planked up to ward off the bullets of 
the unfriendly natives during progress of the goods down the 
river to St. Stevens. Great credit is given by Colonel Gaines in 
this enterprise to Major John Pitchlyn, an Englishman born in 
the West Indies, already referred to, and who figured in almost 
every treaty with the Indians in Mississippi Territory, as official 
Interpreter, who had married two daughters of the famous In- 
dian Folsam family, and who always remained friendly with the 
whites as well as the Indians, and whose services demand a sep- 
arate article instead of a mere reference. 7 The goods thus trans- 
ported by packhorses from Colbert's Ferry at the lower end of the 
Mussel Shoals, were brought by barge from Pittsburg and other 
eastern markets down the Ohio to Smithland, Kentucky, near 
the mouths of the Cumberland and the Tennessee and thence up 

4 For a more extended notice of Cotton Gin Port, Gaines Trace, see 
article on that subject by the present writer in Vol. 7, Publications Miss. 
Historical Society, pp. 262 to 271. 

6 Original manuscript of Col. George Strother Gaines in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History at Montgomery; consulted by the 
writer through the courtesy of Dr. J. M. Owen, the distinguished direc- 
tor. One volume of these manuscripts was published in the Mobile 
Register in 1872. 

• Photograph of the original government survey of this territory shows 
that Gaines Road ran south from Cotton Gin Port through Monroe 
county nearer the Tombigbee than was formerly believed. 

7 See the extended and interesting reference to Major Pitchlyn in 
Volume 7, publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, page 363; 
Pioneer Settler of Lowndes County, by Dr. William A. Love. 

Pioneers in Mississippi Territory — Leftunch. 447 

the Tennessee at a great saving in cost and without payment of 
impost duties to the Spanish at Mobile. 


Among those trading at St. Stevens were the fierce Creeks and 
and much less war-like Choctaws, and for that matter, Indians 
and pioneers all the way from the Mussel Shoals to St. Stevens, 
from up and down the Tombigbee, with all of whom Colonel 
Gaines had wide acquaintance and much influence. About 1811, 
Colonel Gaines began to note the unfriendliness of the Creeks 
who began to buy large amounts of goods on credit and refused 
to pay for them, with other marks of disfavor. The Indians had 
no ready money and the goods were often advanced to them and 
paid for in pelts after the hunting season was over. This unrest 
and unfriendliness among the Creeks was stirred up by the great 
Chief Tecumseh who visited them about 1811, supposedly at the 
instigation of the British who were stirring up the strife that 
culminated in the War of 1812. The Choctaws and Chickasaws, 
greatly through the influence of Pitchlyn, Gaines, Chief Push- 
mataha, and other patriots, withstood the alluring oratory of Te- 
cumseh, 8 but the Creeks went over to him. The Creeks' un- 
friendliness went from bad to worse until it culminated in the fa- 
mous Ft. Mims massacre of August 30th, 1S13, not far from St. 
Stevens, where over 500 men, women and children were killed 
by these cruel savages. Colonel Gaines at once heard by letter 
of the Ft. Mims massacre, but here let him tell his own story: 

"It was late in the evening when I received the letter. I was 
in the citizens' fort at the time, and read the letter aloud for 
the information of those around me. I saw it created a panic, 
and remarked, if we could get Gen. Jackson down with his 
'Brigade of Mountain Volunteers,' the Creek Indians could soon 
be quieted. 

•See Tecumseh's wonderful speech to the Creeks as heard and re- 
ported word for word by Sam Dale in the life of that notable scout and 
pioneer written by Claiborne. Says Dale at p. 56: "I have heard many 
great orators, but I never saw one with the vocal powers of Tecumseh, 
or the same command of the muscles of his face." 

448 Mississippi Historical Society. 

"A young man named Edmondson, who was a guest in my 
family, was standing near, and looking at him, I remarked: 'If 
I could induce a cheerful man to go as express to Nashville, 
Term., I have a fine horse ready and can manage by writing 
to persons I know on the path to have a fresh horse ready for 
him every day/ He said that he was willing to go. Mrs. 
Gaines said that she would prepare provisions for him. I im- 
mediately sat down and .wrote letters to General Jackson and 
Governor Blount, communicating the massacre of Fort Minis 
and the defenseless condition of our frontier, appealing to Gen. 
Jackson to march down with his brigade of mounted men and 
save the Tombigbee settlement and property in my charge. 
I was personally acquainted with the General, also Governor 
Blount. I wrote a letter to Charles Juzon and William Starnes 
at Oknoxubee; John Pitchlyn, mouth of Oktibbeha; George 
James, residing at or near the present Egypt (M. & O. R. R.. 
Egypt is now a flourishing village on the line of Monroe and 
Chickasaw counties) ; Jim Brown, Natchez Road ; George Col- 
bert, chief of the Chickasaws, Colbert's Ferry, and others be- 
yond the Tennessee River, requesting them on the arrival of 
Mr. Edmondson, to furnish him with their best horse and take 
care of the horse he would leave until his return from Nash- 
ville, then bring or send me their bills for payment. (Each of 
the persons named was in the habit of visiting the trading 
house for supplies of salt, coffee, sugar, etc.) This task occu- 
pied me nealy all night. In the morning Mr. Edmondson, with 
provisions, a well filled purse, etc., etc., set out for Nashville." 9 

Pushmataha, the famous Choctaw Chief and orator, learned 
of Juzon, where Edmondson got a fresh horse, about the mass- 
acre at Fort Mims, and offered his services with those of his 
warriors. Gaines carried the Chief and introduced him to Gen- 
eral Flournoy in command at Mobile, which city had then been 
captured from the Spanish by General Wilkinson ; General Flour- 
noy foolishly rejected the offers of Chief Pushmataha at first: 
but afterwards changed his mind and sent a messenger and over- 
took the Chief at St. Stevens, and accepted his services. Colo- 
nel Gaines went with the Chief to meet the natives and warrior>, 
and aided him in bringing out as many as he could. Edmond- 

•This quotation is likewise from the Gaines Manuscripts already re- 
ferred to. 

Pioneers in Mississippi Territory — Leftzcich. 44 ( .) 

son reached Governor Blount and General Jackson in a wonder- 
fully short time, and fell before them prostrated from exhaus- 
tion. Jackson immediately ordered his mounted brigade to as- 
semble and sent Colonel McKee ahead to get as many Chicka- 
savvs and Choctaw warriors as possible to meet him and Colonel 
Gaines, at Major Pitchlyn's. 10 

Colonel Gaines returned to Chief Pushmataha's council grounds 
somewhere near the present site of Meridian, and found several 
thousand Indians there collected; the Chief and his wife rode 
up ; he unsaddled and hobbled his horse and threw himself on a 
bear skin on the ground; the question at once arose as to who 
should make the first advances ; Colonel Gaines said that he should 
not as he was a visitor, and finally Chief Pushmataha's Secretary 
of State announced that the Chief would speak; the crowd then 
gathered. Chief Pushmataha recounted his visit to General 
Washington, while the capitol was at Philadelphia, and the dis- 
tinguished treatment he received ; he denounced the British for 
poisoning the minds of the northern Indians "against our Vir- 
ginia friends" (all the whites in the southern country were 
called Virginians) : "Northern tribes," said the Chief, "have 
come among us, and have succeeded in persuading the Creeks 
to join the strangers in war upon our friends." Washington, he 
said, had advised him against war among the tribes ; "but who 
that is a man and a warrior can remain quietly at home and hear 
of his friends being butchered around him," said the Chief. "I 
am a man and a warrior," drawing his sword, "and I will not 
advise you to act contrary to the advice of our good friend and 
father, General Washington, but I will go and help my friends. 

*• The authority of Gen. Jackson and Gov. Blount to send troops out 
of the State is explained by the historian, Professor H. S. Halbert, in 
a private letter to the author, quotation from which is as follows: "As 
to Tennessee sending troops into United States territory to quell In- 
dians, this power has always been exercised by States, when needful. 
Within my personal knowledge and in my own experience, Texas sent 
troops into the western part of the Indian Territory, into the Territory 
of Colorado, and even into the territory of New Mexico, to fight Coman- 
ches and Kioways. So it seems the power exercised by Gov. Blount and 
Gen. Jackson in its relation to the United States Government was per- 
fectly legitimate." 


450 Mississippi Historical Society. 

If any of you think proper to follow me, voluntarily, I will lead 
you to victory and glory." 11 

Almost every man and boy sprang to his feet, recounts Colonel 
Gaines, shouting, "I, too, am a man and a warrior, and will fol- 
low the Chief." Chief Pushmataha then remarked, "I see our 
beloved Factor from St. Stevens present, he never deceived you 
in anything, he will speak to you." The Chief walked to a log 
and shook hands and invited Colonel Gaines to speak. On the 
return from this interview with the Choctaws, the joyful news 
from Tennessee had come. It is quite probable, says a reviewer, 
that no other man at that time could have controlled the facili- 
ties which enabled Edmondson to perform the journey to Nash- 
ville in so short a time. He found General Jackson and Gov- 
ernor Blount together in the State House ; General Jackson's arm 
was in a sling but he agreed to go at once. 12 The result was, as 
all know, the complete overthrow of the Creeks, and peace and 
happiness for the settlers on the lower Tombigbee. 

It might be remarked that General Jackson carried his army 
from Nashville by Huntsville, the shorter route ; he returned to 
Nashville in 1814, leaving his army under General Coffee, near 
Mobile, and later that year was summoned to return. His army 
was then marched to New Orleans, and the great victory over 
the British, on January Sth, 1815, was the result. 13 


Soon after the close of the Creek War and the War of 1812 
with the British, Colonel Gaines made a visit to his aged parents 
at Gallatin, Tennessee; the route followed was that traveled by 
Edmondson, and Gaines recites that the wilderness commenced 

n Gideon Lincecum in his life of Pushmataha, thinks him one of the 
greatest natural orators of the world. VoL 14, 'Publications Miss. 
Historical Society. 

"The hero of this ride, much more worthy of note than Paul Revere, 
was Samuel A. Edmondson, later a citizen of Lowndes County, Missis- 
sippi. See article of Dr. Love, supra. 

13 Another famous ride is that of Sam Dale, from New Orleans to 
Georgia, to tell the story; see Claiborne's Life of General Sam Dale, 
p. 148 et seq. 

Pioneers in Mississippi Territory — Leftzmch. 451 

one day's travel from St. Stevens and extended three hundred 
miles, to beyond the Tennessee River; he traversed nothing but 
a trading path, he says, yet his journey was rendered delightful 
by fine May weather and by the kind attentions of the Indians 
along the way who were all his warm friends. On his journey 
he fell in with General Jackson and his wife, traveling the Nat- 
chez Trace on the way from the battle with the British at New 
Orleans, he accompanied them to Nashville, and there was the 
guest of the General, who was his close friend. Soon after his 
return the Choctaw agency was moved from St. Stevens to Fort 
Tombecbee or Jones' Bluff, higher up the Bigbee River, and near 
where the Alabama-Great Southern Railway now crosses that 
river. Here was concluded the Choctaw Treaty of October 24th, 
1816, when the United States Government purchased of the 
Choctaws all of their territory East of the Tombigbee River, and 
as far West as Gaines' Trace. Even before the survey of this 
rich territory, immigrants from Virginia, many coming from the 
half-way house at Huntsville, from Tennessee, from the Garo- 
linas, and from Georgia, pressed in and occupied the rich fertile 
lands acquired by this Treaty. 


Colonel Gaines soon after this married a daughter of Young 
Gaines, Esquire, a wealthy planter and relative belonging to the 
South Carolina branch of the family; he resigned his place as 
Factor, and about 1821, removed to Demopolis, Alabama, and 
built and owned the first store there. Up to this time he had 
received the pay and allowance of a Colonel in the regular army. 
His great prominence in the territory and wide acquaintance 
caused him to keep open house ; he entertained almost every dis- 
tinguished traveller and official who passed through the terri- 
tory afterwards, and his salary was not sufficient to maintain 
himself and family. He later acquired great wealth both by his 
merchandise business and by his marriage, and Colonel Gaines 
told Mr. A. C. Coles of State Line, Mississippi, who knew him 
jntimatelv, that when he retired from business in 18o3, his in- 

452 Mississippi Historical Society. 

come was about Fifty Thousand Dollars a year; but he was 
a liberal endorser of his friends' paper, and after the panic of 
1837, he was compelled to pay about Five Hundred Thousand 
Dollars of other people's debts, which, of course, greatly reduced 
his wealth. 14 By reason of his popularity with the Indians, he 
was selected in 1829, to accompany twelve Indian chiefs, with 
an escort of cavalry, to select a home for them in the west ; this 
was before the signing of the, treaty at Dancing Rabbit, in 
which the Indians ceded their lands in Mississippi and Alabama 
to the United States Government. Colonel Gaines, as a sort of 
public necessity, accepted the appointment, and crossed the Mis- 
sissippi River about the mouth of the Arkansas. On the jour- 
ney they passed the home of the distinguished Chief Greenwood 
Leflore but he refused to go with them. They crossed the State 
of Arkansas, explored the present State of Oklahoma, formerly 
Indian Territory, and there it was that the Indians chose their 
home. They found plenty of game, plenty of water, much rich 
land, and "This is the place for us." said the Chiefs': After the 
Dancing Rabbit Treaty of September 27th, 1830, much dissatis- 
faction arose among the Indians ; they began to drink and pout 
and complain that the women and children would be broken down 
on the way; they greatly regretted leaving their old homes and 
old hunting grounds ; the situation became a very delicate "one, 
and at the request of the Secretary of War and at the suggestion 
of Major Pitchlyn, Colonel Gaines, the good friend of the Indians 
and in whom they had unbounded confidence and trust, was 
asked to superintend their removal to their new home. As a pa- 
triotic duty he again consented to go, and the Indians under his 
immediate escort assembled at Vicksburg, others crossed the 
Mississippi at Memphis, and he went with them to their new- 
abode in the far west where he parted with them with much sor- 
row, and returned in safety, thereby performing a great public 
service both to the Indians and to the white men. It will not be 
considered improper to insert here, we trust, the following mel- 
ancholy, though eloquent description of the Indians' removal to 

14 Letter to the writer from Mr. A. C. Coles, of State Line, Mississippi, 
the business associate and amanuensis of Colonel Gaines. , 

Pioneers in Mississippi Territory — Leftwich. 453 

the West, taken from a celebrated centennial address of the Rev. 
Dr. Patton, a distinguished minister long familiar with Indian 
life and customs, delivered at the Court-House in Tupelo, Mis- 
issippi, July 4th, 1876, as recently republished by the Tupelo 

"But the melancholy day of the Indian exodus came. Places 
of rendezvous were appointed in different localities where the 
people congregated. Some chief took charge of each group, 
and one solitary band after another moved off towards the set- 
ting sun. The mother called her children from their loved 
sports and play grounds beneath the forest trees and informed 
them they would be permitted to return to those dear scenes 
no more forever. She took a farewell look at her own sweet 
home, the trees, the garden and the graves she loved, and 
turned with her sad faced children to look upon these scenes 
no more. The hunter turned away from his hunting grounds 
and his deer and every loved object sacred to memory and dear 
to his heart, and silently stalked as the genius of sorrow, in ad- 
vance of his little family circle. 

"When all are assembled at any designated place and the 
day of departure came, they bid farewell to the graves of their 
fathers, their hunting grounds and homes, the noble domain 
they had inherited from a noble ancestry. They moved off in 
silence. No tear moistened any eye. No emotion was depicted 
on any countenance. The Indian never weeps. It belongs to 
his nature to conceal his emotions, but none feel more or are 
subject to more intense passions and affections than he. His 
emotions are like the hidden fires that burn with intense heat 
in the deep caverns of the volcano, but their existence is un- 
known until the fiery torrent ascends the sky and the devour- 
ing floods of lava roll over vineyards, gardens and villages. In 
all that moving host where stalwart forms sat silent and erect, 
with stern faces and tearless eyes, there was not a true Chick- 
asaw that would not have considered it a privilege to suffer 
death in any form, or endure torture in any degree, if by such 
suffering or sacrifice he could have rescued the land of his 
birth and his love from the grasp of the white man, and made 
it a sure possession to his tribe. But he knew resistance was 
folly. He bowed to the fiat of Destiny, and turned from the 
land dearer to his heart than life, and sought a new home in 
a country he had never seen and could not love. They are 
here no more. The grand old forest as they left it, with its 
vernal robes of green and autumnal vesture of crimson and 

454 Mississippi Historical Society. 

gold, will charm and fascinate no more. The magnificent car- 
pet of flowers and verdure that once covered the face of the 
earth as a fitting floor, to the leaf covered dome with many pil- 
lars that tower above, will be seen no more. The deer, the elk, 
and all the flocks that nature fed for the benefit of her children 
of the forest, have fled along with the Indian." '* 


About 1853, Colonel Gaines removed his family to State Line, 
Wayne County, Mississippi, near the boundary between Missis- 
sippi and Alabama; he had large land holdings at St. Stevens 
and a cattle range in Perry County, and at State Line he was ac- 
cessible by a day's ride to both. About 1856, he established the 
Peachwood nurseries at State Line, which are now owned by 
Mr. A. C. Coles. Here he became greatly interested in the build- 
ing of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad connecting Mobile with the 
Ohio River at Columbus, Kentucky. It is sufficient to say that 
the railroad would not have been constructed at t{ie time, cer- 
tainly not until a much later date, but for the aid of Governor 
McRae who made the speeches, and Colonel Gaines who took 
subscriptions to the stock and secured the right of way to Colum- 
bus, Kentucky; he spent two whole sessions of the legislature at 
the State Capitol of Mississippi, in order to secure the charter 
and the rights desired. 

His wide influence and great reputation for honesty and in- 
tegrity were a powerful incentive to the initiation of this or any 
other enterprise, and his influence was felt in every event of any 
importance for many years. 15 He was widely known among the 
leading men of the day, an intimate friend of General Jackson and 
Henry Clay. Years after he returned from the removal of the 
Indians to the Indian Territory, lie visited Washington in order to 
persuade the Government to pay him for his services and expenses 
incurred in removing the Indians to the West, and he recites many 
interesting occurrences of this trip. To make the journey he 

15 It is reported that the Great Northern Railroad has erected a statue 
of Mr. Jaines J. Hill at the summit of the Rockies. The Mobile & 
Ohio should also erect a statue to George Strother Gaines in the middle 
of the prairies. 

Pioneers in Mississippi Territory — Leftmich. 455 

travelled to New Orleans by land, took steam-boat to Guyandotte, 
West Virginia, thence by stage to White Sulphur Springs, West 
Virginia, and on to Washington. The course of his journey 
well illustrates the routes of travel in early times from this State 
east. Colonel Gaines was also largely influential in building the 
road now owned by the Southern Railway Company, from Merid- 
ian to Selma; in fact, he was a large factor in every public en- 
terprise of his day. He reared a large family of six sons and 
two daughters; several of his sons acquired distinction as sol- 
diers, and one daughter married Captain E. A. Bullock of the 
regular army, a daughter of whom is now Mrs. M. E. Punch, 
of Laurel, Mississippi. Fine paintings of himself and wife now 
hang in the Capitol of Alabama, at Montgomery, presented to the 
State by Dr. Vivian P. Gaines, a grandson, now a resident of 
Mobile, who also deposited with Dr. J. M. Owen, the State Ar- 
chivist of Alabama, two volumes of manuscript in the hand-writ- 
ing of Colonel Gaines, many times herein quoted, giving his rem- 
iniscences of pioneer days, all of which have been consulted by 
the courtesy of Dr. Owen before the preparation of this article; 
one series of these letters was published in the Mobile Register 
in 1872, the other series has not yet been published, and both 
series are of great historical value. 

The wife of Colonel Gaines died at Peachwood in 18G8, and 
he died at the same place in the winter of 1872, aged eighty-nine 
years. Colonel Gaines was tall in stature, commanding in ap- 
pearance, very dignified, but a most courteous and elegant gentle- 
man; a most generous entertainer and of unbounded hospitality, 
a fine judge of good dinners, an authority on fine wines, but a 
most temperate man in his own habits. It is said by Mr. A. C 
Coles that he set the best table in Alabama for many years. A bet- 
ter encomium could perhaps hardly be passed upon him than the 
common saying current among the Indians in his day, which was 
that Colonel Gaines knew a good blanket and would not tell a 
lie. Colonel Gaines was a great pathfinder and pioneer, but of 
a different type from Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett, the rude 
frontiersmen. He was of distinguished and aristocratic birth, 
accustomed to ease and wealth. He was an accomplished states- 

456 Mississippi Historical Society. 

man fit ! to fill almost any delicate or diplomatic post in the gift 
of the Government ; a brave patriot, at home with the savage in 
his hut or at a state dinner. 

In the Panama-Pacific International Exposition there is a 
superb piece of equestrian sculpture entitled, "The American 
Pioneer," by Solon Hamilton Borglum, sculptor; the following 
description of the statue is an appropriate closing for this sketch : 

"Erect, dignified, reflecting on the things that have been, the 
American Pioneer appears before us, reminding us that to him 
should be given the glory for the great achievements that have 
been made on the American Continent. He it was who blazed 
the trail that others might follow. He endured the hardships, 
carved the way across the continent, and made it possible for 
us of today to advance thru his lead. All hail to the white- 
headed, noble old pioneer who, with gun and axe, pushed his 
way thru the wilderness ; whose gaze was always upward and 
onward, and whose courage was unfaltering." 

Colonel Gaines served in the Alabama State Senate from Ma- 
rengo and Clarke Counties. He was a pioneer banker at Mobile 
and long a familiar figure there. 18 The town of Gainesville, 
Alabama, was named for him. In many treaties between the 
United States Government and the Choctaw and Chickasaw In- 
dians he was a most influential participant; the Indians had un- 
bounded confidence in his integrity, as did the officials of the 
United States Government and the pioneer settlers. He was an 
accomplished patriot and statesman. After a long and success- 
ful business and official career, following the custom of his Vir- 
ginian ancestors, he retired to his estates at Peachwood and 
passed a serene old age in modest and dignified simplicity. 

16 See many interesting references to Colonel Gaines in that valuable 
historical contribution to the history of the South-West, "Colonial Mo- 
bile," published by Houghton, Mifflin & Co., by Judge Peter J. Hamilton, 
now Federal Judge of the District of Porto Rico. 

By James M. Greer. 

In the small village of Hayesborough in the outskirts of Nash- 
ville, and now a territorial part of that beautiful and historic city,* 
on January 8th, 1830, there was born to Micajah and Martha 
Wyche Autry "a man child*' subsequently christened in the Epis- 
copal Church, James Lockhart Autry. In Nashville, Tenn., 
which was in hearing distance of the Hermitage, the home of 
Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States, the 
cannon were booming, and the people rejoicing over the fifteenth 
anniversary of the battle of New Orleans, since called "Jack- 
son's day." 

After Col. Autry's death at Murfreesborough, or, Stone River, 
as one chooses to call the battle of the 31st of December, 1862, 
his mother said : "My poor boy ! The first sound that ever came 
to him was the booming of cannon, and it was the last sound he 
ever heard." "Peace let him rest ! God knoweth best !" 

The object of this sketch is not to elaborate to weariness, or 
to eulogize to fulsomeness the story of a son of Mississippi, who 
once, in the long ago, won honor for himself and "Served The 
State." When but a baby, he was brought with the family to 
Jackson, Tennessee. A vivid story of that trip through the wil- 
derness is told by Mrs. Mary Autry Greer in the sketch of their 
father who fell at the Alamo in 1836 for the freedom of Texas. 

"Mother, sister, aunt, my baby brother, his nurse and myself 
travelled in the family coach, a handsome affair drawn by two 
large bays. Father rode a fine grey horse, and was an agile, 
graceful equestrian. The slaves were in two immense wagons, 
with hoops covered with cloth, not unlike in appearance to the 
large Prairie Schooner of a later day, and drawn by horses and 

(457) ' 

458 \ Mississippi Historical Society. 

mules. Although so young, I remember several incidents of the 
route. The negroes in the wagons always camped out and 
cooked their own meals. * * * In a few days more we 
reached our destination, the flourishing little town of Jackson." 

Very shortly after her husband's death, his widow moved with 
her two children to Holly Springs, Mississippi. It was in "this 
city of flowers" as it was called, that Autry grew to manhood 
and had his home at the time of his death. He attended school 
at Saint Thomas Hall, a school presided over by the famous 
teacher, Mr. Whitehorn. Among his schoolmates were, E. C. 
Walthall, J. R. Chalmers, C. H. Mott and many others who af- 
terwards won great distinction. Very few of that generation 
became what we now call college men. Young Autry did not 
have a father's hand, to guide him, but in his mother he had a 
woman of strong character, great tenderness and wise judg- 
ment. Possessed of small means, his was yet a happy child- 
hood. Coming to maturity, young Autry entered upon the 
practice of law in his home town along with a bar which was 
among the strongest in the whole south. L. Q. C. Lamar, who 
afterwards entered the United States Senate and became a Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of the United States, was one of these 
practitioners, and Autry was his partner, the firm name being 
Lamar, Mott and Autry. J. W. C. Watson, who later became 
a Confederate State Senator, J. R. Chalmers, who afterwards be- 
came a Brigadier General in the Confederate army, E. C. Walth- 
all, who attained the rank of Major General in the Confederate 
Army, and after the Civil war was a Senator of the United 
States, were all lawyers of Holly Springs. To these may be 
added, A. M. Clayton, who went on the Supreme bench of Mis- 
sissippi, Henry Craft, the gentlest man and the most scholarly 
lawyer the writer ever knew, J. W. Clapp, one of the most earn- 
est, energetic and logical of men, General Alexander Brad- 
ford, who ranked among the bravest of the brave, Colonel 
H. W. Walter, a very prince of chivalry, General W. S. Feath- 
crstone, who, also subsequently commanded a division in the 
Confederate army; his partners, Thomas W. Harris and R. L. 
Watson, the gallant and generous William M. Strickland, the 

James Lockhart Autry — Greer. 459 

safe and sensible counsellor William Finley; Samuel Benton, 
J. M. Scruggs, and many others of great note. Young Autry, 
in winning distinction at such a bar, showed more than average 
merit. In 1853 he was elected to the legislature of Mississippi, 
re-elected several times. In 1858, he was chosen Speaker and, 
perhaps, was the youngest person who ever filled that place of 

He was married in 185S to Miss Jeanie Valiant, and in No- 
vember, 1859, his only child, a son, was born at their home in 
Holly Springs, Mississippi. The boy was given his father's 
full name, and is now a lawyer residing in Houston, Texas. 
At the outbreak of the Civil war, A.utry was a lieutenant in the 
Home guards, a volunteer company made up of the leading young 
men of Holly Springs. In March, 1861, the company reported 
for duty at Pensacola, Florida. There it was attached to the 
Ninth Mississippi regiment, w r hich chose James R. Chalmers, 
as its colonel, and Autry as its lieutenant colonel. (At this 
time the volunteers selected their own officers.) After the 
year's service, for w r hich they had enlisted, this regiment was 
reorganized. Autry was then detached and detailed for special 
service, being, made military commandant, or governor of 
Vicksburg. New Orleans had fallen and the victorious Fed- 
erals were steaming up the Mississippi river. Autry with a 
handful of men, at once, undertook the construction of defenses 
for what proved the doomed city of Vicksburg. Admiral Far- 
ragut, another Tennesseean, in command of the Federal fleet, 
on the 18th day of May, 1861, demanded from Autry the sur- 
render of the city. Autry 's reply with his handful of men 
(which the Federals thought a powerful force) was notable: 
"Mississippians don't know, and refuse to learn, how to sur- 
render." Some months after this Autry returned to his regi- 
ment, the 27th Mississippi Infantry. At the battle of Mur- 
freesborough, or Stone River, as it is variously called, he was 
killed while in command of his regiment. The following is 
taken from General Patton Anderson's report as printed in the 
Mississippi Official and Statistical Register of 1908 at page 654= : 

4G0 Mississippi Historical Society. 

"The ordeal to which they were subjected was a severe one, 
but the task was undertaken with that spirit and courage which 
always deserves success and seldom fails achieving it. As 
often as their ranks were shattered and broken by grape and 
canister did they rally, reform and renew the attack under the 
.leadership of their gallant officers. They were ordered to take 
the batteries at all hazards and they obeyed the order, not, how- 
ever, without heavy losses of officers and men. Not far from 
where the batteries were playing, and while cheering and en- 
couraging his men forward, Lieut.-Col. James L. Autry, com- 
manding the 27th Mississippi, fell, pierced through the head 
by a minnie ball." 

As a public speaker, Colonel Autry had the physical advan- 
tage of a fine presence, an excellent voice and a handsome face. 
He possessed a keen wit which he never permitted to become 
a cruel sneer, a wholesome humor, which he did not allow to 
degenerate into coarse stories, a logical and orderly presenta- 
tion of his reasons, joined to a keen perception of the sentiment 
of a situation. Leading a cleanly moral life, having earnest, 
Christian convictions, and withal that indefinable magnetism 
making for brotherhood among men, it is small wonder that 
he won the title of Orator. While not a student in the sense 
of giving all his time to books, he knew thoroughly the Bible, 
Shakespeare and the standard works and was well versed in 
history, ancient and modern. Born a slaveholder, he never 
sold, one or permitted a personal chastisement of those he 
owned. Gentle in nature and charitable in judgment, he be- 
came a soldier from a sense of duty and gave up his life in de- 
voted patriotism. 

Colonel Autry was about six feet in height; was of a fair 
complexion, blue eyes and rather stout build. He had dark 
hair — not black, and at the time of his death weighed about 
one hundred and seventy-five pounds. ' 

He was a staunch member of the Episcopal church, as his 
people for generations before him had been. In this member- 
ship he had no intolerance or narrowness, for, as to him, the 
message of the Nazarene to all mankind was "Love ye one 
another." In politics he was a democrat without the partisan- 

James Lockhart Autry — Greer. 461 

ship which denied to others a difference of opinion, but, be- 
cause of a belief that for the good of the whole country, the 
measures advocated by his party were best for its improve- 

When Colonel Autry's body was brought back from the field 
of Murfreesborough to Holly Springs for its final rest in the 
cemetery there, the Masonic fraternity, to which he belonged, 
conducted funeral services at his grave. Colonel H. W. Wal- 
ter, his brother lawyer and brother Mason, said on that occa- 
sion : N 

"As a Christian, let us admire and imitate him. At a period 
in the war when the chaplet of fame had been freshly gathered 
from the fields of Vicksburg, he visited his home, and before 
the altar and at the font of Christ church, he bent his head in 
baptism, and surrendering to the Prince of Peace, vowed to 
live and die a christian. And ever afterward, in the midst 
of friends — listening to the plaudits of the crowd on the san- 
guinary field — everywhere — he remembered and kept that holy 
vow, and the chaplet of the christian faith crowned that chris- 
tian gentleman." 

"He has come back to us. What an awful return. A few- 
moments since he was under his own roof, and a wail of agony 
went up from the hearthstone. The plaintive call of wife and 
mother fell on cold and listless ears. 

"He is before us here. The eye that sparkled with affection 
is closed, — the hand that grasped hand with friendship is para- 
lyzed, — the manly form that moved with vigor once, is still 
and cold now, and the body is sinking slowly, sadly to its final 
rest. No, thank God ; not to its final rest ; for we believe it 
will rise again, as we believe that his spirit has passed to that 
heaven where law is love, — where legislation is Jehovah, — 
where battles are never fought, and where happiness is un- 
mixed and eternal.'' 

As a lawyer, he thought that the constitution of his country 
gave to his Sovereign state the right to secede from the United 
States, and, as a citizen, he felt it his duty to repel invasion 
by armed force. Hence he entered the volunteer army of the 
South, as his father before him had entered the cause of free- 
dom and Texas. Like his father he gave his life to the cause! 
One does not know! We can have differences of opinion as 

462 Mississippi Historical Society. 

to the right or wrong - of any political cause; but this is sure: 
that he who with malice to no man lays down his life in an 
honest conviction, and for what he believes was for the good 
of all men, demands a bowing of the head and reverential bend- 
ing of the body. 


By George J. Leftwich. 


The north half of the American continent became perma- 
nently English, rather, permanently subservient to English 
influences, when Montcalm surrendered to Wolfe at Quebec, 
but France did not give over her ambition to have American 
colonies and renewed the conflict in the Southwest, at the 
mouth of the Mississippi and along the gulf coast where she 
had long had valuable possessions. The mouth of the Mississippi 
and the Mexican gulf coast, if successfully defended by her 
armies, promised France control of an enormous territory 
along the Father of Waters and in the Northwest which had 
been early explored by her bold pioneers. Her colonists, emis- 
saries and soldiers cultivated the friendship of the Indian tribes 
in the Southwest, and made English colonization and English 
trade some times impossible, always difficult, in that whole 
region, but the English nation and those of English blood, the 
inhabitants of the original thirteen colonies, w-ere not to be 
baffled in their determination to secure and settle the richest 
land on the continent by the closing of the main water routes 
of travel by a foreign nation and the consequent loss of the 
means of transportation to the Mississippi Territory and 
Southwest. So it was that our leaders of thought and states- 
men determined to open up highways through the vast wilder- 
ness separating the Mississippi river from the Northeast. The 
result was the establishment of the Natchez Trace road and 
the building, by Jackson, of the military road by Columbus, 


464 Mississippi Historical Society. 

later, the ultimate effect of which was to neutralize the Span- 
ish and French influences in Mississippi Territory, and to give 
English blood and the common law dominion to the gulf, and 
the command of the Mississippi and her tributaries. 

Spain, in 1763, had ceded West Florida to England, Napo- 
leon sold Louisiana to Jefferson in 1803, after which the Father 
of Waters no longer touched foreign shores, but for many 
years thereafter discontented colonists from Spain and France 
and other adventurers in the Southwest, such as the attempt 
by Aaron Burr to found a new empire, caused uneasiness as to 
the safety of the American settlements and the permanency of 
the American rule in all that region. How nearly our civiliza- 
tion came being Latinized, with all that term implies, would 
be an interesting subject for investigation within itself; how 
far the stern common law was influenced by the gentle equities 
of the civil, how far the proud formalities of the Spanish in- 
habitants softened the blunt aggressions of the English, how 
far our social, economic and statutory laws grew "out of the 
composite influences of the Anglo-Saxon and Latin civiliza- 
tions, is only discernible now by the investigations of the deep 
student. Certainly the Spanish and French settlers, the Eng- 
lish officers with their love for the crown, the American colon- 
ists with their love for freedom, the hardy frontiersman with 
his love for the wild life on the border of the great river, the 
New England Puritan, the Virginia cavalier, — each brought 
their own peculiar views of life and society to this new seat 
of empire, and the result of it .all was a notable, if not a com- 
plex, civilization. The Pennsylvania immigrant floated leis- 
urely down the Ohio and the Mississippi, many miles from his 
mountain home, 1 the New Englander took sail for Pensacola 
and Mobile and New Orleans, and thence traced his way 
through the forests; the Virginian, the Carolinian, the Geor- 
gian, mainly crossed the mountains to the Tennessee, and 
thence over the Mussel Shoals, into the Ohio and down the 

influence of the Mississippi River upon the Early Settlement of the 
Valley,— Haughton, Vol. 4, p. 481, Publications, Mississippi Historical 

Some Main Traveled Roads — Lcftivich. 465 

Mississippi, though some marched single file by long and weary 
Indian trails through the fierce Indian tribes near the gulf, and 
many perished by the way. But thus our fathers came, and 
the dreary journeys over land and sea and through hostile 
Indian tribes made many a heart fail and turned back many a 
timid soul from the wild life in the Southwest. 

Congress had its attention turned to the great Southwest 
by rumors of new empires and insurrections among these 
spirited sons of all nations, re-inforced by adventurers who 
had congregated in the region of which Natchez was plainly 
and easily the center. Roads to make the country accessible 
to a marching army and to give easy and safe passage to im- 
migrants came to be a necessity. General Wilkinson, the wily 
Commander in Chief of the United States army, concluded a 
treaty with the Chickasaws on the 24th day of October, 1801, 
at Chickasaw Bluffs or Fort Adams, the present site of Mem- 
phis, and another with the Choctaws on the 17th day of De- 
cember of that same year, whereby the consent of these Indian 
tribes was obtained for the opening of a wagon road through 
their respective lands, 2 and by an Act of Congress of April 21, 
1806, the President was authorized to cause to be opened a road 
from Nashville in the state of Tennessee, to Natchez in the 
Mississippi Territory, a distance of about five hundred miles, 
provided he should not expend more than six thousand dol- 
lars in opening the same. An additional appropriation of three 
thousand dollars was made February 17, 1809, and of the total 
sum of nine thousand dollars, the sum of three thousand dol- 
lars was expended during the years 1807, 1808. and 1811, and 
the balance was carried to the surplus fund. The amount ap- 
propriated was disbursed by the Postmaster General, the road 
being intended principally for the transportation of the mail 
into and through the wilderness. Thus the Natchez trail was 
widened and improved and became a national roadway over 
which wagons could be drawn ; it followed mainly the divide 

•The above named Indian Treaties may be found in American State 
Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. 1, p. 652 to 658, 


466 Mississippi Historical Society. 

where it had been no doubt an Indian trail for many centuries 
before, over which the Natchez, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, 
and other Indian tribes exchanged visits and led war parties, 
between Tennessee, Northern Alabama and the Southwest 
Mississippi Territory. All the Indian wanted was a foot- 
path, and as a rule he stubbornly resisted his foot-path being 
widened into a wagon road, and the concession was only made 
generally after long parleying and for a valuable consideration; 
and the right to establish houses of entertainment on the 
Natchez Trace and to control the ferries was reserved by the 
once thrifty red man. This Indian path no doubt afforded the 
white man access to the Natchez country long before the road 
was established as a public highway by the United States 
government, and over it many a footsore and weary traveler 
trudged his way decades before the treaty at Chickasaw Bluffs. 


So important grew the rich Natchez country in the great 
Southwest that in 1816 Congress took in hand the construc- 
tion of General Jackson's military road from Nashville, across 
the Tennessee, through northern Alabama, and on southwest 
by Columbus to New Orleans. The government had been 
greatly taxed with the danger of wars and conflicts with the 
French and Spanish of the Southwest, and plainly saw the 
need of a more direct and better road thereto, not only for the 
immigrant, but over which to transport the armies of the na- 
tion. The erection of this road was entrusted by the Secre- 
tary of War to General Andrew Jackson, then in the nation's 
eye as a soldier, both because of his great victory over the 
Creek nation and over General Packingham at the battle of 
New Orleans. This road entered Mississippi in Lowndes 
county, north of Columbus, and passed southeast of Pearl river 
which it crossed near the Louisiana line. South of Columbus, 
about 1824 or 1825, the Robinson Road was constructed from 
Columbus to Jackson. It cost the government what was then con- 
sidered a very great sum of money, and over it came a vast 
number of the settlers of northeast and central Mississippi ; 

Some Main Traveled Roads — Leftwick 467 

many of course passed south over the Natchez trail proper, 
a longer journey, and some over Gaines' Trace which led into 
the Natchez Trail soon after it crossed the Tombigbee at Cot- 
ton Gin Port, 3 before the completion of the Jackson Military 
Road, but the latter became the most complete and serviceable 
highway theretofore constructed in the Southwest. 4 


Immigration over the Natchez Trail cannot be intelligently 
discussed and understood without taking into consideration 
the many forks of the road and the cross roads. About the 
time of the widening of the " Natchez Trail into the national 
highway, General E. P. Gaines and his brother, George S. 
Gaines, blazed out the way for trade by pack-horses over what 
is known as Gaines' Trace, which led from the Mussel Shoals 
where the Natchez Trail crosses the Tennessee river, and then 
followed the back-bone of the country by a straight shoot to 
Cotton Gin Port in Monroe County, about eighty or ninety 
miles; at Cotton Gin Port this road crossed the Tombigbee 
river and thence southwest, uniting with the Natchez Trail 
near the present site of old Houlka, about the boundary line 
between Pontotoc and Chickasaw counties ; another branch of 
the same Gaines' Trace road turned south through the prairies 
by Aberdeen to Waverley and St. Stevens on the Tombigbee. 

On the attached map is plainly marked out also the Bolivar 
Indian trail, which ran from Memphis to Mobile, by way of the 
Chickasaw towns in Lee county, and down the Tombigbee 
river to St. Stevens and Mobile; from the Chickasaw towns 
near Tupelo, it passed northwest by Ripley, by Bolivar, Ten- 
nessee, on to the Giiekasaw Bluffs. 5 The Bolivar trail was the 

'See "Cotton Gin Port and Gaines' Trace," Vol. VII, p. 263, Publica- 
tions of Mississippi Historical Society. 

* See Article on General Jackson's Military Road, by W. A. Love in 
Vol. XI, Mississippi Historical Publications, p. 403, illuminating this 
branch of the subject. 

6 The letters of Capt. Guion, Commandant of Fort Adams, about 
1797-8, show intimate relations between the Fort and the Chickasaws. 
For these letters, see 7th Annual Report of Directors of Mississippi His- 
torical Society, by Dr. Dunbar Rowland. 

468 Mississippi Historical Society. 

route of travel followed by the Indians and pioneers, leading 
from the Tombigbee country by way of Bolivar to Fort Adams 
on the Mississippi, and afforded access for the Chickasaws and 
Choctaws to West Tennessee, which was known as the com- 
mon hunting ground for the Indians who lived in Kentucky on 
the north, and the Chickasaws and Choctaws on the south. 6 
Williams, in his "Old Times in West Tennessee/' says that 
this road was pursued circuitously in order to avoid the cross- 
ing of the streams so numerous in the country farther south, 
which largely trend westward toward the Holly Springs coun- 
try, which were harder to cross ; Indians always avoid as much 
as possible water courses. 

When the ancestry and origin of the inhabitants of north- 
east Mississippi generally, including the towns of Columbus, 
Aberdeen, West Point and Tupelo, is consulted, it will be dis- 
covered to what extent their civilization is due to the roads 
mentioned. Many of the people of the prairie region first 
settled in North Alabama and along the Tennessee river, but 
always having a keen scent for good lands, they came in great 
numbers to the prairie and Tombigbee country, after the Danc- 
ing Rabbit Treaty. It should be remembered that at this time, 
the lands of southern and eastern Virginia and eastern North 
Carolina had been largely worn out and exhausted by centuries 
of unscientific tillage. The owners had a super-abundance of 
negroes and were land poor, so that about this period, this 
class of immigrants came in great numbers and in large cara- 
vans. The head of the house, after much preparation and 
doubtless after loss of his lands by mortgage or sale of it at a 
sacrifice, assembled his belongings, put his family in carriages, 
his servants in wagons and on foot to drive the cattle and other 
domestic animals, attended usually by the family doctor and 
often by the private teacher of his children, — he would cross 
by slow stages from east Virginia and North and South Caro- 

• Letter, C. A. Miller, Esq., Bolivar, Tenn., quoting authority. 

Some Main Traveled Roads — Lcftzvicli. 4G0 

lina, the Allegheny mountains, and thence into the great gulf 
water sheds and on to the banks of the Mississippi, there to 
establish a new home in the virgin forest; his easiest approach 
to the new country was through the low gaps of the Alle- 
ghenies such as the famous Cumberland Gap, thence either by 
raft on the Tennessee river, or over the well beaten roads of 
east Tennessee and north Alabama, and finally in to the Jack- 
son road or the Natchez Trail by some of its branches, and on 
to his new home. He brought with him his work animals, cat- 
tle, horses, hogs, farm implements, his valuable household 
goods, in fact, everything necessary to set up a home in the 
wilderness ; this was not so much immigration as it was civili- 
zation in transition, and these numerous accessions to Missis- 
sippi citizenship as a rule grew rapidly rich and prosperous. 

The transmigration of the Southern planter with his cara- 
van across the mountains was like that of Abraham of old, 
from Haran into Canaan; he came not only with his wealth, 
with all his household and children and servants and herds, but 
also with his political and social preconceptions and ideas al- 
ready formed and crystallized, and all of this he transplanted 
into the wilderness. This was the dominating class of the 
early civilization of Mississippi Territory ; that class of immi- 
grants came at once into conflict with the ideas of the strict 
New Englander and with the thrifty commercial classes of New 
York, Ohio and Pennsylvania; sharp political controversies re- 
sulted, but still the heads of these caravans ruled the land. 
There were thousands from the hills of north Georgia, from 
the mountains of Virginia, from east and middle Tennessee, 
from northern Alabama, of the pure Anglo-Saxon working 
classes, who filled the trades and occupied the hills and val- 
leys; but all of these as a rule followed in the lead of the 
wealthy, cultured slave-holders. In the gulf coast country 
and in the Natchez country they came in contact with the 
Latin civilization of the early settlers, but their social and 
political views finally predominated in the resultant forces that 
made/Mississippi history and Mississippi society what it finally 
became, and what it is today. 



470 Mississippi Historical Society. 


I append to these general observations maps numbered I, II, 
III, and IV, showing some cross sections of Natchez Trace, 
and other prominent Indian and pioneer roads, as taken from 
photographs of the original surveys of the lands ceded to the 
government by the Chickasaws. These maps omit minor de- 
tails of those surveys, but show the roads and Indian settle- 
ments accurately. I add to each a few notes of explanation. 

No. I. 
Map No. I is a drawing from a blue print of the original 
plan or map of the route of Natchez Trace as projected by the 
United States government. It is perfectly plain that the map is 
inaccurate in the courses followed, or that the original plan was 
materially modified, when the road was actually located. The 
general direction of Natchez Trace from the Mussel Shoals on 
Tennessee River is south-west to Natchez. According to this 
map, the road ran almost half across the State, a little south- 
easterly from the Tennessee River, and then in an obtuse angle 
almost to Walnut Hills (Vicksburg). This plan was plainly not 

No. II. 
The annexed map, No. II, is taken from a photographic copy 
of the Original Survey made by the United States Government 
in 1833 and 1834 showing the exact location of Natchez Trace, 
and the Bolivar Trail, in Township 9, Range 5, Lee County. 
The city of Tupelo is just east of Section 36, in the adjoining 
township. The location of the marker erected by the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, in November, 1914, is less 
than three miles north-east of Tupelo. The school histories, 
and other writers have always placed the town of Pontotoc on 
Natchez Trail. As this map and other investigations show, 
the old road at the nearest point ran several miles south-east 
of Pontotoc. With the aid of Capt. Dosier, a well known sur- 
veyor of Lee County, the deeply worn track of the famous 
road was located where it crossed the North half of southeast 

Some Main Traveled Roads — Leftwich. 471 

3 9 <* • t . £>. (obcic^our Cu^^w vr^*.) 

Map II. 

472 Mississippi Historical Society. 

quarter of Section 21. The road has been long enough disused 
for large black-jack trees to grow out of its deep furrow on the 
hill-tops. Its course and location was pointed out by the Gov- 
ernment Survey. It can be easily located in many places, es- 
pecially where it crosses hill-tops. In cultivated fields and low 
grounds, the deposit of the years has left no trace of it. The 
old Fort constructed by the Chickasaws, under their English 
officers, which withstood the assaults of Bienville in 1736, at 
the Battle of Ackia, 7 was on Section 21, as shown by this map. 
It was built on a slightly rising plateau in the form of a paral- 
lelogram, longer north and south, covering about two acres. 
Col. W. L. Clayton, of Tupelo, a highly respected and distin- 
guished retired lawyer, tells the writer he has seen the fort 
many times before and since the war. His mother-in-law, Mrs. 
Sharver, lived within a half mile of it ; he says the country peo- 
ple before the Civil War gathered leaden balls at the Fort to 
"run" bullets for their rifles. Much silver was found on Sec- 
tions 1-1 and 15. Col. Clayton's son, Mr. Stewart Clayton, now 
has silver spoons made from silver found there. 

"Tradition from the Chickasaw Indians says the French 
charged the Fort three separate days before the final failure, 
and that the Chicasaws in pursuit captured many French pris- 
oners, and among them a number of Catholic Priests. When 
the pursuit ceased and night came on, the Indians began tor- 
turing and burning the prisoners. They took them one at a 
time and tortured and burnt them in sight of all the others 
who were wating their turn. It was so cruel and horrible, that 
finally the Catholic Priests persuaded the soldiers all together 
to rush into the fire and end the waiting. And so, at an agreed 
signal, they all, soldiers and Priests, rushed into the fire, chant- 
ing the Miserere, and perished in the flames." 

This tradition reported to the writer by Col. Clayton, was 
obtained of Rev. Mr. Stuart, a Presbyterian minister and a mis- 
sionary for many years among the Chickasaw Indians, having 
his headquarters at Pontotoc. 

7 For a full account of this battle, see Hamilton's "Colonial Mobile," 
p. 128. 

Some Main Traveled Roads — Lcftwich. 4?3 

3, 10. ^.XST £>. (<dyuJ*AA+*»~' zjuuUoy* yyiu^.) 

Map III. 

474 Mississippi Historical Society. 

No. III. 

Map No. Ill is six miles farther south and six miles farther 
west than No. II, and is likewise a copy of a photograph of the 
Original Government Survey, made in 1833-34, so far as roads 
and Indian settlements are concerned. A new road was laid out 
when the Government Land Office was established at Pontotoc, 
leading from there to Cotton Gin Port, which passes across the 
south-west corner of the map, some eight miles south-west of 
Tupelo. This map shows some of the many Indian villages 
along the Old Natchez Trace, and between Tupelo and Pon- 
totoc. The larger and more numerous of these Chickasaw 
towns, however, are found on Map No. II, in Township 9, 
Range 5. Mr. Soule Kilpatrick, a prominent citizen of Lee 
County, now living at Verona, and about ninety years of age, 
says certain portions of Natchez Trace were used by the pub- 
lic, when he first saw the road in 1844. 

No. IV. 

Map No. IV shows the highways used by Indians and pion- 
eers in Township 12, Range 6, in Monroe County, within Sy 2 
miles of Cotton Gin Port to which they all converged. Levi 
Colbert's home, where he entertained travelers, is here laid 
down. Colbert's first home was near the Council Tree, just on 
the bluff one mile west of Cotton Gin Port, and near a good 
spring of water. It burned down, when Colbert rebuilt at the 
site noted on the map six miles west of Cotton Gin Port. Colbert 
was a chief, and with other members of his family was prominent 
In the Chickasaw Nation. The Pontotoc road again comes into 
view. Mr. Soule Kilpatrick of Verona, a gentleman of excellent 
memory and fine intelligence, tells the writer that this road was 
opened and laid off forty feet wide by the Government, when 
the Land Office at Pontotoc was established. This is doubt- 

Some Main Traveled Roads — Lcfttvich. 

J. 12. <^- ^ . E (C&^uuuw- Ct*6rr~ TntiUiJ 

Map IV. 

47(j ^ $- Mississippi Historical Society. 

less correct, but I have not been able to verify it by the records. 
This same gentleman went to school at Toxshish, to which an- 
other branch road shown on the map runs, in 1844. Toshkish 
was a church and school center about two or two and one half 
miles north of Red Lands, in Pontotoc County. 








, OF *■■: 


Walthall's Brigade, Army of Tennessee 
C. S. A., 1862-1865 


Late Adjutant-General Walthall's Brigade, 


To the soldiers of Walthall's Brigade, now living — and to the 
friends and relatives of such as have "passed over the river'' — 
who so gallantly fought under their superb leader during the Civil 
War, and .whose fittest eulogy is, that they always stood unawed 
before the enemy, and were worthy to be under command of their 
noble chieftain, this "sketch" is rememberingly and feelingly dedi- 
cated by the author, who counts it an honor to be called their "old 
adjutant general." 


By an act of the legislature of the State of Mississippi, ap- 
proved March 4th, 1878 (Pam Acts of 1878, pg. 139), entitled 
"An Act to provide for carrying into effect the Joint Resolution 
of the Legislature of this State, of the 8th day of February, A. D. 
1878, for the collection and preservation, amongst the archives of 
this State, in some permanent and enduring form, of a record of 
the part taken by Mississippians and others in the service of this 
State, during the late and uphappy struggle between the States/' 
Colonel W. H. McCardle, a resident journalist of Vicksburg, 
Miss., was designated a special Commissioner to carry into effect 
the objects and purposes of said resolution. In the anticipated 
discharge of said objects and purposes, the Colonel on entering 
upon the duties of said commission, requested General Walthall 
and other ex-Confederate officers, to write for use in his. contem- 
plated "Record," a sketch of their respective commands during 
said war. 

Knowing that I was the custodian of the order books of, as 
well as other valuable papers pertaining to, the Brigade, General 
Walthall requested me to write the asked for "sketch" of his bri- 
gade. To this request I promised compliance, and at once pro- 
ceeded to the pleasant duty. On completing the "sketch", I 
placed it in Colonel McCardle's hands for use by him ; but, the 
Colonel failing to discharge his duties under said act: and like- 
wise failing to return to me my manuscript, I later on, at the re- 
quest of General Walthall, prepared for a permanent memorial, a 
more extended "sketch" of his brigade; and since his death, have 
still further added to and elaborated the original "sketch." In 
doing so, I have made free use of certain valuable information 


480 Mississippi Historical Society. 

contained in papers committed by the General to my keeping, as 
far back as October the loth, 1887. 

The book containing the correspondence between General Wal- 
thall and Colonel Daniel R. Huntley, of the 31st Alabama Infan- 
try, and letters of General Edward W. Pettus, of Alabama, and 
others, concerning the ''battle of Lookout Mountain," and which 
along with the brigade order book, has been placed by me in the 
"Department of Archives and History" at Jackson, Mississippi, is 
deserving of being read by every survivor, as well as all others 
taking an interest in the war record of Walthall's brigade. 

E. T. Sykes. i 
Columbus, Miss., 1905. 



The publication of this little volume was authorized at the an- 
nual re-union of Walthall's Brigade held at Oxford, Mississippi, 
in September, 1906, under the supervision of the undersigned as 
a committee. 

It has been a labor of love and of intense pride with us. We 
know that no command in the Confederate Army made a prouder 
record than the old brigade to which we belonged. No knight- 
lier soldier ever drew blade in defense of a righteous cause than 
our great commander, General Edward C. Walthall. No truer 
men ever followed the leadership of a more gallant officer than the 
rank and file composing his brigade. When Mississippians re- 
member upon how many ensanguined fields our men poured out 
their blood, or gave up their lives for the cause they loved, they 
will look with indulgence upon our references to the heroic lives 
of our comrades. Hence, this record is to preserve in enduring 
form the heroism of their "old brigade." not merely for the bene- 
fit of the living, but because the tribute is justly due the memory 
of our departed comrades. In a few more years the last survivor 
will have "crossed over the river/' but we will be happy in the 
consciousness that we have left behind us an unspotted record. 
From the princely General whose gleaming sword, like the "white 
plume of Navarre,'' was ever found in the front of the battle, to 
the humblest private, who, by his sublime courage, made victory 
possible, the name and fame of Walthall's Brigade will be a 
priceless legacy to Mississippi and Mississippians. 

We here recognize the faithful service of our Adjutant Gen- 
eral, Col. E. T. Sykes, for his patriotic work in the preparation 
31 (481) 

482 Mississippi Historical Society. 

of this history and commend it to the survivors of the old bri- 
gade and to the descendants of those who "have gone before," 
and to every Mississippian who is proud of the name he bears. 

Tho. Spight, 
J. W. Buchanan, 
T. C. Carter. 


Introductory Sketch of General E. C. Walthall.— Page 486. 

Chapter 1 
Organization of Walthall's Brigade, Army of Tennessee, C. S. 
A., together with some of the more important events and rem- 
iniscences of its War Record. — Page 493. 

Chapter 2 
Battle of Murfreesboro. — Losses in. — Cap't Lambert May. — Cap- 
ture of Artillery. — Sketch of Gen'l J. Patton Anderson, comd'g 
the Brigade during said battle. — Lt. Col. Jas. L. Autry. — 
Death of .—Page 497. 

Chapter 3 

Walthall assumes command of his permanent Brigade. — Nomi- 
nation of permanent staff. — Permanent staff commissioned. — 
Roster of.— Battery of four (4) guns presented Brigade. — 
Page 507. . 

Chapter 4 

Brigade at Shelbyville. — At Lewisburg. — Walthall's discipline. — 
Walthall as Lieut. Colonel of the loth Miss. Reg't at Fishing 
Creek. — Colonel of the 29th Miss. Reg't at Munfordville. — 
Colonel Rob't A. Smith. — Walthall's discipline continued. — 
Private John Malone. — Col. T. M. Jones. — Walthall presented 
by his officers with a horse &c. — Page 515. 

Chapter 5 
Retreat of Army to Chattanooga. — Brigade at Atlanta. — Im- 
pressment of horses for the artillery. — Chickamauga Cain- 


484 Mississippi Historical Society. 

paign. — Alexander's Bridge. — Battle of Chickamauga.— Casu- 
alties of Brigade in. — Hindman in McLemores Cove. — Gen'l 
Longstreet.— Gen'l Polk.— Gen'l W. H. T. Walker.— Gen'l Lid- 
dell, (St. John R.) — Gen'l Gordon Granger. — Page 524:. 

Chapter G 

Pursuit of enemy, and taking position on Lookout Mt. and Mis- 
sionary Ridge. — Battle of Lookout Mt. — Battle of Missionary 
Ridge. — Hostile correspondence between Gen'ls J. K. Jackson 
and E. C. Walthall.— Page 534. 

Chapter 7 

Army of Tennessee Retreats to, and goes into winter-quarters 
at Dalton, Ga. — Bragg asked to be relieved of command. — 
Sketch of Gen'l Bragg. — Gen'ls Hardee and Johnston in com- 
mand. — Hon. B. H. Hill. — Cleburn's repulse of Hooker at Rin- 
gold Gap\ — Reflections as to Gen'l Qeburn's plan to arm and 
make soldiers of certain slaves. — Correspondence of Gov't Of- 
ficials and military officers as to. — What Confederate Congress 
finally did as to making soldiers of certain slaves. — Page 54o. 

Chapter 8 
The Army at Dalton, Ga., and its routine duties whilst there. — 
Reflections as to the suitability of General Johnston and its 
commanding officer. — Retreat begun. — Battle of Resacca. — 
Army at Cassviile. — Battle Order read to the troops. — New 
Hope Church. — Page 5t>0. 

Chapter 9 

E. T. Sykes, Adj't-Gen'l of the Brigade, transferred to Jackson's 
Cavalry Division for duty as Adj't-Gen'l thereof. — Walthall's 
Promotion to a Major Generalship and his accomplishments as 
such. — Command of Infantry rear-guard of General Hood's 
Army out of Tenn. — Colonel Samuel Benton as senior Colonel 
in command of Brigade.— Colonel W. F. Brantley, 29th Miss., 
commissioned Brig.-Gen'l and assigned first, to the temporary, 

History of Walthall's Brigade ; C. S. A—Sykes. 485 

and after the death of Gen'l Benton, to the permanent, com- 
mand of the Brigade. — After which the name was changed to 
that of "Brantley's Brigade," and by which name it was after- 
wards and until the close of the war, known and designated. — 
Sketch of Gen'l Stephen D. Lee.— Page 572. 

Chapter 10 

Anecdotes of the War. — Oliver Wilds, the young wounded sol- 
dier at Shiloh. — Charles Timberlake, or "Cub," the Colored 
Carrier of the Columbus newspaper. — Page 581. 

Chapter 11 

"Roster of Field & Staff of the 34th Miss, regiment. — Major Ma- 
son. — Capt. Falconer. — Correspondence of the Adj't & Insp't- 
GenTs office as to their respective rank. — Page 585. 

Chapter 12 

Mrs. Gen'l E. C. Walthall.— Mrs. Gen'l J. Patton Anderson.— 
Brigadier General W. H. Lytle. — Page 590. 

Appendix, A. — Notes to "Sketch." — Page 59G. 
Appendix, B. — Correspondence between Ex-Gov. Jas. D. Porter, 
and the author; and including letter and memo' furnished by 
Gen'l Marcus J. Wright; also, letter of Gen'l B. F. Cheatham, 
referred to in letter to Gov. Porter, of Nov. 29th, 1863.— Page 
Appendix, C — Letter of Major E. T. Sykes, to Gen'l Braxton 

Bragg.— Page G09. 
Appendix, D. — Letter of Gen'l Braxton Bragg, to the author of 
* this Sketch.— Page 610. 
Appendix, E. — Letter of the author to Gen'l Braxton Bragg, re- 
turning War Papers. — Page 615. 


Edward Cary Walthall, commander of the brigade bearing 
his name, was born in Richmond, Va., April 4th, 1831. When 
he was quite a lad his parents — B. W. and Sally Walthall, nee 
Sally Wilkinson — removed to Holly Springs, Miss., where they 
resided until their demise — the mother many years prior, and 
the father several years subsequent, to the civil war. 

The mother was a sister of the distinguished Judge Edward 
C. Wilkinson, who moved from Virginia in 1830, 'and after 
prospecting at Natchez and Vicksburg for a suitable location 
for a young lawyer, finally settled at Yazoo City, Miss. He 
soon took high rank in his profession, and in a few years there- 
after became Judge of that judicial circuit. 

Whilst the Judge was in Louisville, Ky., in December, 
1838, and just on the eve of his approaching nuptials with a 
young beauty of that city, a violent assault w r as made on him 
and his two companions at the Gault House by a band of ruf- 
fians resulting in the death of two of the assailants, and the 
severe wounding of the Mississippians. On the occasion of 
the judge's trial at Harrodsburg, Ky., under a change of venue 
to that place, the peerless Sergeant S. Prentiss, then a member 
of congress from the State of Mississippi, and where in the 
spring previous he had won the plaudits of an admiring world 
by his incomparable "contested election speech/' 1 volunteered 
his services in defense of his friend; and making a masterpiece 
of forensic eloquence, gathered all Kentucky into the folds of 
his admirers, and promptly won a verdict of acquittal for his 
friend' — thereby presenting the opportunity for the consumma- 
tion of the nuptial engagements which had been so inauspi- 

1 For notes, see Appendix A, page 596. 


History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 4B7 


ciously deferred, and permitting the doubly happy judge to 
transplant to his- Mississippi home one of Kentucky's fairest 
human flowers. 2 

Edward Cary Walthall, the subject of this sketch, received an 
academic education at Holly Springs, Miss., was admitted to the 
bar in 1852, and commenced the practice of law the same year in 
CofTeeville, Mississippi. He was elected in 1856 district attor- 
ney for the 10th judicial district of Mississippi, and re-elected in 
1859 ; resigned that office in the spring of 1861 and entered the 
Confederate service as a lieutenant in the 15th Mississippi regi- 
ment; was soon after elected lieutenant colonel of that regiment. 
In the spring of 1862 he was elected colonel of the 29th Missis- 
sippi regiment; was commissioned brigadier general April 23d, 
1863, to rank from December 13th, 1862, and major-general on 
June 10th, 1864, to rank from June 6th, 1864. After the sur- 
render, he practiced law at Coffeeville, Miss., until January, 
1871, when he removed to Grenada, Miss., and continued the 
practice there until March, 1885. He was a delegate at large to 
the National-Democratic Conventions in 1868, '76, '80 and '84; 
in 1868 was one of the vice-presidents of the convention, 
and in 1876, '80 and '84, was chairman of the Mississippi dele- 
gations in the conventions of those years. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Robt. Lowry, of Mississippi, to the United 
States senate, as a democrat to fill the vacany caused by the 
resignation of Hon. L. Q. C. Lamar, appointed by President 
Cleveland, Secretary of the Interior, and took his seat March 
12th, 1885. He was elected by the legislature of Mississippi 
in January, 1886, for the unexpired term aforesaid ; and was re- 
elected in January, 1888, and again elected in January, 1892, for 
the terms which expired March 3d, 1895, and that to which last 
elected, expiring March 4th, 1901. On account of ill health he 
resigned in January, 1S94, as Senator for the remainder of the 
then unexpired term ending March 4, 1895, but on the latter date 
re-entered the Senate by virtue of his said election for the term 
then beginning. Before the expiration of said last term, to-wit, 
on April 21st, 1898, after protracted illness, General Walthall 
died at his residence in Washington Citv. His remains were 

488 Mississippi Historical Society. 

brought under escort of a congressional committee to his old 
home town, Holly Springs.. Mississippi, and interred with honors 
in the graveyard there. 

In one of the most inspiring and magnificently eloquent eu- 
logies ever delivered in the U. S. Senate, Senator- Hoar, after 
speaking of the courtly and magnetic bearing of General Wal- 
thall as a senator, referred to the high estimate which he was 
credibly informed, was placed by the Confederate authorities 
on Gen. Walthall's military capacity for command. Among 
other reflections he recalled the comment of Justice and ex- 
Senator Lamar, once made in his presence, that he considered 
Walthall "the ablest military genius of the Confederacy, with 
the exception of Lee and, I think, Stonewall Jackson/' 

The author recalls a remark made him a few years after 
the war by Col. Jno. B. Sale, of Aberdeen, Miss., — now de- 
ceased — who from January 1864, to the close of the war, was 
"military secretary" on the staff of General Bragg, on duty at 
Richmond, Va. It was, that "Walthall was recognized by the 
authorities at Richmond, as being the best division commander 
in the Army of Tennessee, and was slated for the first vacancy 
occurring in the grade of lieutenant generalship of that Army/' 

It is reported that General Johnston is said to have remarked 
that, "had the war continued two years longer, Walthall would 
have been in supreme command of the Army of Tennessee." 

In a letter written in the '80s, by Senator Lamar to Col. W. H. 
Hardy, then of Meridian, Miss., appeared substantially, this 
exalted estimate: "Of all the great men Mississippi has pro- 
duced, General Walthall stands out in boldest relief, in moral 
purity, strength of mind, heroism of soul, and commanding in- 
fluence among men/' 

General Hood's estimate of Walthall's military capacity may 
be judged of by what he says on pages 306-307, of his "Advance 
and Retreat." Speaking of his retreat out of Tennessee, next 
following our disaster in front of Nashville, he says : 

"Lieutenant General Lee displayed his usual energy and skill 
in handling his troops on the 17th, whilst protecting the rear of 
our army. Unfortunately, in the afternoon he was wounded and 
forced to leave the field. * * * Major General Walthall, one 

History of Walthall ; s Brigade; C. S. A.—Sylccs. 489 

of the most able division commanders in the South, was here or- 
dered to formi a rear guard with eight picked brigades together 
with Forrest's cavalry ; the march was then resumed in the direc- 
tion of Columbia, Stewart's corps moving in front, followed by 
those of Cheatham and Stevenson" — the latter being Lee's corps. 
* * * . "I felt /confident that Walthall, supported on his flanks 
by the gallant Forrest, would prove equal to any emergency which 
might arise. I therefore continued, although within sound of the 
guns of the rear guard, to march leisurely, and arrived at Bain- 
bridge on the 25th of December." 

Senator John T. Morgan, of Alabama, himself a patriarch 
and one of the most distinguished members of the United 
States senate, stated in a recent interview, that if called upon 
to name the two greatest men with whom he had served in 
that branch of congress, he would assign the lamented Allen 
G. •Thurman, of Ohio, and Edward Cary Walthall, of Missis- 
sippi, to positions commanding the greatest distinction. He 
said they were the greatest men— with distinction unrivalled — 
who had served in the United States senate since — March the 
5th, 1877 — he (Morgan) donned the toga. After stating with 
emphasis, that Thurman was the biggest man intellectually of 
all with whom he had served, he added : 

"Without detracting from the greatness of Thurman, I must 
say that the most perfect senator I ever met was Edward Cary 
Walthall of Mississippi. When I say perfect in speaking of 
Walthall I mean to say that his qualifications encompassed every 
essential that fit a senator for honorable and profitable public serv- 
ice. In the first place, Walthall was the most charming man per- 
sonally I ever met. He was a Crichton in intellect and a Chester- 
field in manner. He was a gentleman whose company was ele- 
vating and ennobling. He was a statesman whose. example was 
at all times worthy of the sincerest imitation. 

"Grand in physical appearance, his mental proportions were 
grand also. But he was not physically strong, and for that rea- 
son his mental activities were circumscribed accordingly. With 
a stronger constitution his mentality would have been equal to 
that of Thurman. He had the ambition, the energy and natural 
aptitude for the fullest measure of greatness, but not being of a 
robust constitution, his means of prosecution were restricted. I 
loved Walthall and esteemed his companionship above appraise- 

490 Mississippi Historical Society. 

An Incident. 

"A colleague once told me of a conversation he accidentally 
overheard between Senator Hoar and Senator Walthall. The ad- 
miration of Senator Hoar for the distinguished Mississippian was 
well understood. The meeting between them was of the frank- 
est nature. T have the greatest respect for your colleague, Sena- 
tor George/ said Senator Hoar. 'He is in many respects a re- 
markable man, but frankly I rather eulogize you than him, for the 
plain reason that I never could approve of George's course as 
chairman of the Mississippi Democratic Executive Committee." 

"Senator Hoar," answered Senator Walthall, "I desire to say 
that I was a member of the Mississippi Democratic Executive 
Committee when Senator George was chairman and the very 
thing which you say has caused you to criticise him as chairman 
met with my absolute approval." 

That illustrated Walthall's true character. In truth he was 
as upright, unselfish, incorruptible and pure in life as Marcus 
Cato, and possessed what Burke characterized as the "chastity 
of honor that feels a stain like a wound," and whilst to a friend 
he was the vitalizing essence of loyalty, he was at the same 
time candid and outspoken in his advice or counsel. 

To the day of his death General Walthall retained a deep and 
abiding interest in the "Old Confederate Soldiers," and sin- 
cerely cherished a manifest interest in the scene and memories 
of 1861-'65. 

One of the most feeling, classical, and didactically historic 
addresses delivered by any one since the war, was delivered 
by General Walthall on June 3d, 1891, on the occasion of the 
unveiling of the Confederate monument in capitol square in 
Jackson, Mississippi, and in which stood and yet stands the 
life-size statue of ex-President Jefferson Davis, chiselled in 

With the citizen soldiery, and the fair womanhood of Missis- 
sippi, gracing the occasion, as also, the presence of distin- 
guished ex-confederates, who as officers and representatives of 
the federation of "United Confederate Veterans," had as- 
sembled in Jackson, for its second annual reunion, the scene 
was inspiring, whilst the immense audience, which only the 
canopied heavens could accommodate, stood transfixed 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— Sykes. 491 

throughout the orator's magnificent address — an address that 
will ever remain a southern classic. 

On October 15th, 1889 — being prior to the organization of 
the federation of "United Confederate Veterans" — the "Grand 
Camp Confederate Veterans of Mississippi" was organized at 
Aberdeen, Miss., when and where General Walthall was elected 
grand commander ; General W. S. Featherston, 1st lieut.-grand 
commander; General S. D. Lee, 2nd lieut.-grand commander; 
and General Will T. Martin, 3d lieut.-grand commander. 

Soon following the date of said election, the author was 
honored with a letter from his old chief, Gen. Walthall, re- 
questing him in consideration of the official relationship exist- 
ing between them in the war of the sixties, that he would again 
consent to serve him as adjutant-general; and conditioning his 
acceptance of the position to which he had just been elected, 
upon the author's acceptance of the tendered position of adju- 
tant-general. The author promptly and cheerfully notified the 
grand commander of his acceptance; whereupon, the latter an- 
nounced in orders the following named gentlemen and old 
army comrades, as composing his general and personal staff, 
viz. : 

Captain E. T. Sykes, of Columbus, Mississippi, Adjutant- 

Major L. W. Magruder, of Vicksburg, Mississippi, Aid-de- 

Captain T. C. Carter, of Meridian, Mississippi, Aid-de-Camp. 

Carter was a gallant soldier of Walthall's brigade. He has 
resided for many years past in Meridian, Miss., and is a lead- 
ing business man of that city. 

Magruder, noble fellow, was on the staff of Maj.-Gen. W. H. T. 
Walker up to the time (July 28, 1864) of the death of that 
gallant officer ; after which he was assigned to duty on Brig.- 
Gen. Brantley's staff. For many years prior to his recent af- 
fliction, he was a leading politician and lawyer at Vicksburg, 
Mississippi. His many, many friends, who are legion, deplore 
his affliction. 

Within a few days next after the death of General Walthall, 

49& > Mississippi Historical Society, 

the "Mississippi Division of the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy" held its second annual meeting in Columbus, Miss., 
when and where, on April 29th, 1898, there was adopted and 
promulgated the following resolutions expressive of the pre- 
vailing feeling of the women of the state : 

"Whereas, On the 21st instant it pleased the All-Wise Head 
of Church to remove by death from the scenes of his great useful- 
ness, Mississippi's superb warrior, statesman and patriot, the la- 
mented General and U. S. Senator, E. C. Walthall; therefore, 
be it 

"Resolved, That we, the Mississippi Division of the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy in annual convention assembled, 
sincerely lament his demise, and remembering his knightly gal- 
lantry on the battle-fields in the war between the States ; and fur- 
ther recalling that he was the first commander of our state organ- 
ization of Confederate Veterans, claim the privilege, as well as 
duty, of offering our spontaneous testimony to his pure and spot- 
less character, his great soldierly qualities, and eminent statesman- 
ship in the councils of the nation. Indeed, we feel that in the 
death of our General Walthall, we have lost the counsel and co- 
operation of one of earth's noblemen; 

"Resolved, second, That we tender our deepest sympathies to 
the loving wife and surviving family of our departed hero and 
friend, and commend them to the care of Him who will give them 
solace and support; 

"Resolved third, That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be 
furnished to the Clarion-Ledger, at Jackson, the Commercial-Ap- 
peal, at Memphis, to the New Orleans papers, and to the local pa- 
pers for publication ; and that the secretary of this convention be 
instructed to transmit to the family of the deceased hero and 
statesman, a copy of the same with the assurance of the heartfelt 
sympathy of our membership with them in their sore bereave- 

General Walthall was twice married. The maiden name of 
his first wife was Miss Sophy Bridges, a beautiful human 
nightingale. She died within a year after marriage, leaving no 

His second wife, to whom he was married in 1860, was Miss 
Mary L. Jones, of Mecklenburg county Va. She survived 
him, and died childless. 

History of Walthall's Brigade ; C. S. A.—Sxkes. 493 


Organization of Walthall's Brigade, Army of Tennessee, C. S. A., 
together with some of the more important events and remi- 
niscences of its War Record. 

In November, 18152, whilst the "Army of Tennessee*' was in 
camps at and near Tullahoma, Tenn., resting from the fatigue, 
and recuperating from the depletion of its ranks incident to its 
recent campaign through Kentucky, E. C Walthall, then colonel 
commanding the 29th Mississippi Regiment of Chalmers' Brigade, 
Wither's Division, Polk's Corps, was informed by General Bragg 
of his recommendation for promotion to the rank of brigadier 
general; and the information was accompanied by an order for 
him to report the next morning to Brigadier General J. Patton 
Anderson, of Hardee's Corps, then in camp near Estill Springs, 
on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, about nine miles south 
of Tullahoma, for assignment to the command of a brigade. 

At that time the author was captain of Co. "K," 10th Missis- 
sippi Regiment, in the same brigade, division, and corps with 
Colonel Walthall, and was induced by him to accompany him as 
his prospective assistant adjutant general. 

Reporting as ordered, and being assigned a brigade, which in 
the course of a few weeks underwent several changes in organiza- 
tion, the Colonel was ordered to move with it first, to Shelbyville, 
then to a point near Eaglesville, and from thence to Murfrees- 
boro, Tennessee. 

The brigade, of which Walthall was first given command, was 
composed of the following regiments, viz. : 

24th Mississippi, W. F. Dowd, Colonel. 

27th Mississippi, T. M. Jones, Colonel. 

30th Mississippi, G. F. Neill, Colonel, 

41st Mississippi, W. F. Tucker, Colonel. 

45th Alabama, Jas. G. Gilchrist, Colonel, 

494 Mississippi Historical Society. 

On December 26th, near Murfreesboro, the 41st Mississippi 
was transferred from Walthall's (3d) brigade, to Chalmers' (2d) 
brigade, in exchange for Walthall's old regiment — 29th Missis- 
sippi — commanded by Colonel W. F. Brantley. 

During said time the temporary brigade staff was, as announced 
in the following orders, viz. : 

Headquarters Walthall's Brigade, Anderson's Division, 
Hardee's Corps, Army of Tennessee, 
Near Shelbyville, Tenn., December 4, 1862. 
General Orders 
No. 1. 
The following Officers of the Staff of the Colonel Commanding 
are hereby announced : 

Captain E. T. Sykes, 10th Mississippi Regiment, Actg. i\.. A. 

Captain R. W. Williamson, 30th Mississippi Regiment, Vol. 

Captain Addison Craft, 27th Mississippi Regiment, A. Qr .-Mas- 

Dr. K. C. Devine, 27th Mississippi Regiment, Surgeon. 

(Sg) E. C. Walthall. 

Colonel Commanding. 

In a few days thereafter, the following addition to the tempor- 
ary staff, was announced, viz. : 

Headquarters Waijtiiall's Brigade, Anderson's Division, 
Hardee's Corps, Army of Tennessee, 
General Orders, December 9th, 1862. 

^ No. 3. 

Captain J. A. Hooper, A. C. S., is hereby announced as acting 
Brigade Commissary on the staff of the Colonel Commanding. 
He will be obeyed and respected accordingly. 

By command of Colonel E. C. Walthall. 

E. T. Sykes, 

A. A. A. General. 

And still later, the following announcement of brigade tempor- 
ary staff officers was made, by Colonel T. M. Jones, 27th Mis- 
sissippi Regiment, whilst in the temporary command of the bri- 
gade, viz. ; 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— Sykes. 493 

Headquarters 3d Brigade, Withers Division, 
Polk's Corps, Army of Tennessee, 
Near Murfreesboro, Term., Dec'r 27th, 1862. 
General Orders, 
No. 2. 
New Series. 

The following officers are announced on the staff of the Colonel 
Commanding, viz. : 

1st Lieutenant D. M. Currie, 24th Mississippi Regiment, Act- 
ing Inspector-General. 

2d Lieutenant J. H. Wood, 27th Mississippi Regiment, Acting 
Ordnance Officer. 
' They will be obeyed and respected accordingly. 

By command of Colonel T. M. Jones. 

E. T. Sykes, 

A. A. A. General. 

And yet later, Captain Addison Craft having been ordered to 
post duty at Chattanooga, Tenn., the following order filling the 
vacancy on the brigade staff occasioned thereby was made and is- 
sued, viz. : 

Headquarters Walthall's Brigade, 
Near Shelbyville, Tenn., Jan'y 28th, 1863. 
Special Orders, 
No. 12. 
Captain W. G. Beanland, A. Q. M., 29th Mississippi Regiment, 
will relieve Captain Addison Craft as Brigade Quartermaster on 
the staff of the Brigadier General Commanding. 

By command of Brig.-Gen'l Walthall. 

E. T. Sykes, 
A. A. A. General. 

Captain Craft had been the efficient Quarter-Master of the bri- 
gade from its organization in December previous, and had ren- 
dered most valuable and appreciative service throughout, and es- 
pecially during the Murfreesboro campaign and battle; and the 
author personally knows it to have been with supreme reluctance 
and regret, and only in obedience to the assignment by superior 
authority, of Captain Craft to post duty at Chattanooga, that Gen- 
eral Walthall consented to the severance of their headquarters' 

496 Mississippi Historic J. Society. 

family relations; relations doubly dear to each by reason of the 
fact that they were reared in the same town (Holly Springs), 
had been boys together and intimates from childhood. 

Immediately following the battle of Murfreesboro, the 34th 
Mississippi Regiment, Colonel Samuel Benton commanding, was 
transferred to Walthall's brigade to replace the 45th Alabama reg- 
iment, that had been transferred to Managault's brigade. By 
this exchange and transfer the brigade became wholly a Missis- 
sippi organization, and of which Walthall continued in command 
until the date of his promotion to the rank of Major General. 

Thus organized the brigade was composed of the 24th, 27th, 
29th, 30th, and 34th Mississippi Regiments, and Barrett's battery 
of artillery — the latter commanded by Captain Q. W. Barrett, of 

Save as to a change of batteries (Lumsden's — commanded by 
Captain C. L. Lumsden, a graduate of the Virginia Military Insti- 
tute, and at the outbreak of the war, Military Instructor of the 
corps of cadets at the University of Alabama — being on July 16th, 
1863, substituted for Barrett's, and later and just prior to the 
battle of Chickamauga. Fowler's battery — commanded by Captain 
W. H. Fowler — being exchanged for Lumsden's), the brigade 
organization continued throughout Walthall's service as Briga- 
dier General ; indeed to the close of the war. Both Lumsden's 
and Fowler's were Alabama batteries. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 497 


Battle of Murfreesboro — Losses in — Captain Lambert May — 
Capture of Artillery — Sketch of General J. Patton Anderson, 
Commanding the Brigade during said Battle — Lieutenant 
Colonel Jas. L. Autry — Death of. 

Immediately following its organization, and just prior to the 
battle of Murfreesboro (Stone River, as called by the Federals), 
General Walthall was taken dangerously ill, and was advised by 
General Bragg to accept a leave of absence until his health could 
be restored. For a few days after his departure for Virginia to be 
nursed by his wife at the home of her parents, the brigade was in 
turn commanded by Colonels G. F. Neill of the 30th, and T. M. 
Jones of the 27th Mississippi regiments. But the sudden ad- 
vance movement of, Rosecran's entire army on Bragg's troops 
in and around Murfreesboro, making it plain that a battle was im- 
minent, General Bragg on the evening of December 27th, as- 
sighed Brigadier General J. Patton Anderson to the temporary 
command of Walthall's brigade; and thus commanded, the bri- 
gade participated in and won imperishable renown in the engage- 
ment which followed. 

For the conspicuous part taken by the brigade in the sanguinary 
battle of Murfreesboro, I refer particularly to the official reports 
of General Anderson, in "War of the Rebellion — Official Records 
of the Union and Confederate Armies," Serial No. 29, pages 762- 
767 ; and of General Bragg, on page 668 of said number. 

But it is pertinent in this place to record the following special 
facts, viz. : 

The brigade headquarters books show that, at the time General 
Anderson assumed command, the brigade numbered an effective 
total of 1,800 ; and that in the battle of Murfreesboro only a few 
days thereafter, it lost "iGG officers and men, as follows : Killed, 
119 ; wounded, 584 ] missing, 63. During the morning of the first 

498 Mississippi Historical Society. 

day whilst swinging across a field — to the north and adjacent to 
the Wilkerson pike — in short range of grape, canister and shrap- 
nel, 62 officers and men were killed, and 139 wounded of the 30th 
Mississippi regiment (commanded by Lieutenant Colonel J. J. 
Scales) alone : all within a very short space of time, and upon an 
area not greater than an acre of ground. 3 

. The movements of the brigade immediately preceding the bat- 
tle, were : About midnight on the 27th, orders were received by 
General Anderson to move at an early hour the next morning, 
and form in line of battle by 9 A. M. The brigade was accord- 
ingly marched from its cantonments on the outskirts of Murfrees- 
boro, and with Chalmers' and Manigault's brigades of the same 
(Wither's) division, was drawn up in line of battle at right an- 
gles with the Nashville pike, and about 1,000 yards in front of 
the point where the pike crosses Stone river; Brigadier General 
Chalmers' right resting upon the pike very near the point where 
the railroad intersects it, and his left reaching up a slope in an 
open field, and resting about the crest of the hill, with an interval 
on the top of the hill of about 80 yards between General Chal- 
mers' left and Anderson's right. The line of the latter was -a pro- 
longation of -Chalmers', and extended across the Wilkerson pike 
some 300 yards into a dense cedar brake. Colonel Manigault 
(commanding Anderson's former brigade) was on the immediate 
left of Walthall's brigade, and was deflected to the rear at an 
angle of about 45 degrees. Walthall's brigade was posted from 
right to left as follows: Barrett's battery (four guns) on the 
crest of the hill, in open field ; the 27th Mississippi, Colonel T. M. 
Jones commanding; 29th Mississippi, Colonel W. F. Brantley; 
30th Mississippi, Lieutenant Colonel Junius J. Scales ; 24th Mis- 
sissippi, Lieutenant Colonel R. P. McKelvaine, and the 45th Ala- 
bama, Colonel James G. Gilchrist, commanding. The troops re- 
mained under arms during the afternoon and night of the 28th. 

On the 29th, rifle pits were constructed along the line of the 
27th Mississippi, which was in the open field. Slight earthworks 
were likewise thrown up to protect the cannoneers and horses of 
Barrett's battery against the enemy's sharpshooters. The other 
regiments, all of which were in the cedar forest, erected tern- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. AL—Sykes. 499 

porary breastworks of stone, great quantities of which covered the 
ground about them. Ere then a line of skirmishers had been 
thrown out several hundred yards in front, connecting on the right 
with those of General Chalmers', and on the left with those of 
Manigault's brigade. Only light skirmishing occurred that day 
resulting in only a few casualties. 

Commencing with the early morn of the 30th, the skirmishers 
became, and continued throughout the day, hotly engaged, the 
killed and wounded aggregating 35. About nine o'clock the same 
evening, the order for attack the next morning was received 
through division headquarters, and this order was promptly com- 
municated to the several regimental commanders. 

Soon after daylight the next (31st) morning, a few shots on our 
extreme left, quickly followed by the thick roll of musketry, and 
then by booming artillery, announced that the action had com- 
menced. As in the order for the movement we were instructed 
to conform elbows to the left, the extreme left had necessarily to 
advance some distance, swinging around upon the right, before 
Walthall's brigade could move out of its position — particularly so, 
as Manigault's line on our left was deflected, and making it neces- 
, sary for his left to describe an arc equal to the eighth of a circle, 
the length of his line being the radius, before reaching the point 
where it would be on a prolongation of Walthall's line. 

About 9 A. M. the first movement forward of Walthall's line 
began. From thence to the close of the engagement, and until 
our retreat began on the early morn of January 4th, 1863, its 
splendid conduct is fully and best told in the reports of the gen- 
eral, corps, division and brigade commanders. 

The most gallant of the many daring acts witnessed by the au- 
thor during the war, was performed on this occasion by Captain 
Lambert May, a volunteer aid-de-camp on the staff of General An- 
derson. It was at this time and turn in our brigade line, and 
when so many of our men were falling, that General Anderson 
realizing that to the success of the movement, two federal bat- 
teries in position on the knoll skirting a cedar brake to our imme- 
diate left front and having an enfilade fire on our wheeling line, 
should be captured or silenced, ordered his staff to direct a part of 

500 Mississippi Historical Society. 

the line to that duty. Whereupon Captain May, a naturalized 
Frenchman, whose home was in Kentucky, a man possessing some 
artless peculiarities common to his race, but clever, companion- 
able, and as courteous as Chesterfield, and as brave as a Homeric 
Achilles, rushed to that part of the line nearest the batteries and 
taking command thereof, ordered, and with pistol in one hand and 
saber in the other, led a charge upon and captured the batteries. 
Twas four guns of those batteries which shortly afterwards at 
Shelbyville, Tenn., were presented by General Bragg to the bri- 
gade in recognition of its splendid record made in the battle of 
Murfreesboro. May, gallant soldier, was dangerously wounded 
on the bloody field of Chickamauga (September 19th, 1863), by a 
minnie ball passing through his face. He died a few years ago at 
or near Meridian, Mississippi. One of his daughters is the wife 
of the cultivated gentleman, genial friend, and distinguished law- 
yer, the Hon. S. A. Witherspoon, of the Meridian bar. 

Of the many noble sons of Mississippi whose lives were of- 
fered in the battle of Murfreesboro a willing sacrifice upon their 
country's altar, was the accomplished and peerless soldier, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel James L. Autry, commanding the 27th Mississippi 
regiment, and one-time speaker of the house of representatives of 
that state. He fell pierced through the head by a minnie ball, 
causing instant death, whilst gallantly leading his regiment in a 
charge on the enemy. 

It is eminently appropriate in this connection, to record a cur- 
sory sketch of the military service of General Anderson up to and 
inclusive of the time he was in the temporary command of Wal- 
thall's brigade. 

On the breaking out of the war, J. Patton Anderson, though 
reared in Mississippi, and from that state appointed by President 
Pierce territorial governor of Washington, was residing in Flor- 
ida. He was a resident of Jefferson County when Florida passed 
her ordinance of secession, in 1861, and represented his county in 
the state convention which passed said ordinance. He likewise 
represented his state in the provisional congress at Montgomery, 
which framed the constitution of the Confederate States; but 
when the first call was made for troops to maintain the new gov- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 501 

ernment, he resigned his seat in congress to enter the military 
service. On so entering, he was appointed by its governor — John 
Milton — Colonel of the 1st Florida regiment, with orders to re- 
port to General Bragg, at Pensacola, Fla., and where he remained 
in the active command of his regiment until his appointment as 
brigadier general, February 10th, 1862. The brigade to the com- 
mand of which he was first assigned, was composed of the 1st 
Florida, 17th Alabama and the 5th and 8th Mississippi regiments. 
At various times whilst brigadier general, General Anderson was 
in the active command of a division. On February 17th, 1864, 
he was promoted major general; and after some service as such 
in Florida, he was ordered to the Army of Tennessee, and as- 
signed to the permanent command of Hindman's old division; 
and thus served until disabled by wounds received in the battle 
of Jonesboro, Ga., August 31st, 1864. 

The first year of General Anderson's service was comparatively 
inactive. For, apart from the two several bombardments of Fort 
Pickens, Fla., by the masterly defensive, as well as offensive, cor- 
don of fortifications extending from a point east of the navy yard, 
to and beyond Fort McRea, a distance of nearly five miles, the 
whole being almost equi-distant from Fort Pickens and its out- 
lying batteries ; and apart from the burning by the federals under 
cover of night, of the dry dock at the navy yard on September 
13th, 1861, the only incident of special importance or note, occur- 
ring during General Bragg's command at Pensacola, was the 
night attack on "Billy Wilson's Zouaves," encamped just outside 
and to the east of Fort Pickens, on the early morn of October 8th, 

The Confederate attacking force, consisting of two companies 
selected from each of the several regiments of the army, were or- 
dered to assemble at the navy yard at a given hour that night, pre- 
liminary to being transported in scows across the bay to Santa 
Rosa Island. Landing on the island whilst it was yet night, the 
attacking force was organized into three separate columns, com- 
manded respectively by Colonels J. Patton Anderson, 1st Florida ; 
J. K. Jackson, 5th Georgia, and Jas. R. Chalmers, 9th Mississippi 
— the whole commanded by Brigadier General (afterwards lieu- 

.502 Mississippi Historical Society. 

tenant general) Richard H. Anderson, and who was wounded in 
the retreat following the failure of the attacking column. 4 

In the battle of Shiloh, where he commanded the 2d brigade, 
Ruggles' division, 2d army corps, and in the battle of Perryville, 
where he commanded one of the two divisions constituting the 
"left wing" under Hardee, General Anderson won the commenda- 
tion of his superiors and the confidence of his soldiers. 

General Anderson was tall, shapely, erect of carriage, hand- 
some, chivalric in bearing and in action, warm hearted and genial 
in manner and address ; and when mounted on either of his two 
splendid war chargers — "Bragg" or "Yancey" — he looked the per- 
sonification of the conquering hero. In every respect he was the 
accomplished and lovable gentleman, and at the same time, rec- 
ognized as one of the best brigade and division commanders in the 
"Army of Tennessee." 

General Bragg in a letter to the author, under date of February 
8th, 1873, says of General Anderson, "He was as noble and true a 
soldier and gentleman as any age can boast." 

General Anderson died in Memphis, Tenn., on September 19th, 
1873, and among his last articulate words were : "And this is the 
anniversary of the battle of Chickamauga." 

As illustrative of the honesty and purity of character of Gen- 
eral Anderson, I feel justified in recording the substance of a 
unique and forceful "notice" which I recall as once having heard 
General Walthall say appeared in a newspaper published at the 
home town of General Anderson in North Mississippi, at the 
time of the general's return after the expiration of his term of of- 
fice as governor of Washington territory. It appears that when 
the general left North Mississippi to enter upon his term of office 
as said territorial governor, he was indebted to individuals in 
amounts largely in excess of his pecuniary abilty to pay, but that, 
whilst in said territory he made certain investments which prov- 
ing successful, enabled him to meet all his outstanding obliga- 
tions. Hence it was, that on his return to his old home in Mis- 
sissippi, he, without intimating his purpose, or consulting with 
any one, had inserted in his home paper, a notice of which the fol- 
lowing is the substance : 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— Sykes. 503 

"Your Redeemer Liveth. 

All creditors of J. Patton Anderson will, on presenting their 
claims to the undersigned, be paid in full of principal and interest 
of their several demands. 

(Sg) J. Patton Anderson." 

As the adjutant general of the brigade which he temporarily, 
and in the absence of General Walthall, commanded, and on whose 
staff I served throughout the absence on sick leave of the latter, I 
became quite intimate with General Anderson. And for reasons 
personal to myself, I feel justified, yea, deem it pardonable to 
quote at length the substance of an incident narrated by me in "A 
Cursory Sketch of General Bragg's Campaigns," and contributed 
in 1883, to the Southern Historical Society Papers" (Vols. 11 and 
12), published at Richmond, Va., viz. : On the evening of January 
2d, 18G3, Walthall's brigade, commanded by Brigadier General 
J. Patton Anderson, was ordered to move rapidly a distance of 
one and one-half miles, or thereabouts, to the support of General 
Breckenridge, who was being driven back .in his attack on the 
enemy's left. ' Being put in motion to the indicated point, and 
having to pass through an open field immediately in rear of the 
troops to our right, besides having to ford the intervening river 
(Stone), the brigade reached the designated supporting position 
just as night set in and whilst Major (afterwards, brigadier gen- 
eral) Felix H. Robertson, a young but promising officer, who at 
the breaking out of the war resigned his cadetship and left the 
military academy at West Point, to unite his fate with his people, 
and at the time referred to, was chief of artillery on the staff of 
Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk, was holding in check with his well 
massed artillery the exultant enemy, who, till then, was in hot 
pursuit of Breckenridge's retreating troops. During the night 
and incident to the confusion on such occasions, General Ander- 
son reported through me in writing to General Withers — his di- 
vision commander — that he could find no line to support, that 
there were no Confederate forces, save his own picket line, in 
his immediate front. 

From after developments, it was made plain that the communi- 
cation aforesaid, was promptly forwarded by General Withers 

504: Mississippi Historical Society. 

through corps to army headquarters; for, within a reasonable 
space of time, and whilst General Anderson and myself were sit- 
ting astride a log with the capes of our overcoats thrown over our 
heads as a protection from the cold and drenching rainfall, a 
courier rode up and delivered an order, directing General Ander- 
son, or his assistant adjutant general, to report at army headquar- 
ters without delay. Owing to the precarious condition of affairs, 
General Anderson did not deem it prudent to absent himself from 
the brigade, hence, directed me to accompany the courier. Fol- 
lowing the courier for several miles, we finally drew up in front 
of one of the finest mansions in Murfreesboro, and on entering 
and making myself known, I was invited by an aid-de-camp and 
brother-in-law of General Bragg — 1st Lieutenant Townson Ellis — 
into a large drawing room, elegantly furnished, and where sat the 
commander-in-chief, surrounded by his corps and division com- 
manders. Besmeared with mud, and tired from exposure and 
loss of sleep, I felt decidedly out of place in this galaxy of gener- 
als ; but, on entering the room I was in a measure relieved of my 
embarrassment by General Withers rising and introducing me as 
the officer who had penciled the dispatch about which the officers 
had been assembled, whereupon the commander-in-chief invited 
me to be seated. After a few words responsive to the pertinent and 
laconic questions propounded to me, I realized that General Bragg 
was satisfied and convinced of the accuracy of the statements con- 
tained in said written communication, and turning to and address- 
ing General Breckenridge, he so stated. My impression was, that 
General Breckenridge, after first doubting and questioning, like- 
wise recognized and acknowledged the correctness of the commu- 

I did not then, nor do I now conceive that General Breckenridge 
was censurable for the mistake which produced conditions so 
much endangering the safety of our army. His troops under his 
gallant lead, had just made a glorious fight, and on being repulsed, 
and in falling back (darkness in the meantime coming on), did 
not rally and form on the line designated, but formed further to 
the rear than he was ordered, thereby leaving Walthall's brigade 
front and flanks uncovered and exposed to the enemy. The 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.-Sykes. 505 

darkness of the night and the density of the undergrowth having 
prevented General Breckenridge from accurately discerning and 
forming his troops on the line where directed, was sufficient pal- 
liation and excuse, as his boundless number of friends conceived, 
for his recognized blunder. 

Before daylight the next morning, however, the brigades of 
Generals Pillow, Preston and Adams, of Breckenridge's division, 
had prolonged Anderson's right, and a few hours later the brigade 
of Brigadier General Jackson (J. K.) occupied most of the inter- 
val between Anderson's left and Hanson's right. 

General Anderson reports : "In endeavoring to give a simple 
statement of the part taken by the troops (Walthall's brigade) 
under my command in this great engagement, the capture of sev- 
eral batteries has been mentioned in passing. I have abstained 
from making a statement of the number or kind of pieces taken, 
for the simple reason that I did not stop to count them or examine 
their caliber. The 27th, 29th and 30th Mississippi, all participat- 
ing (but the 30th suffering more severely than the others), cap- 
tured a battery, of from four to six guns, near a log cabin in the 
edge of the cedars, on the right of the Wilkerson pike, and not 
far from a well used by the enemy in procuring their water on 
the night previous to the battle. This battery included a small 
iron rifled piece, somewhat detached from, and a short distance 
to the right of the other pieces, and lay in front of the 29th Mis- 
sissippi, which took it. In the log cabin, and strongly support- 
ing the battery, was a company of sharpshooters, all captured by 
the 27th Mississippi. 

Farther to the left was a battery, nearer the Wilkerson pike, 
from which the enemy were driven by the 24th Mississippi, sup- 
ported by the 45th Alabama. Some 15 or 20 prisoners were 
here captured at the pieces. 

Another battery was posted still farther to the left, and nearer 
the Wilkerson pike, close by which the left of the 45th Alabama 
(my left regiment) passed simultaneously with the right of Colo- 
nel Manigault. This battery, however, was silenced a few min- 
utes before we reached it — I think by one of our batteries playing 
from a direction where I supposed Colonel Manigault's left to be 

&06 Mississippi Historical Society. 

at the time his right reached the battery simultaneously with my 
left. As the batteries immediately in my front were being passed, 
I directed Captain May, of my staff, to have the pieces taken to 
the rear with as little delay as possible. He subsequently re- 
ported to me that he delivered to the chief of ordnance in Mur- 
freesboro eight pieces of different caliber ; and I afterward learned 
that there were two or three pieces taken from the same part of 
the field by other parties, whose names I could not learn." 

Referring to the position of the brigade whilst supporting 
Breckenridge during the day and night of the 3d, General Ander- 
son says in his report : 

"The troops remained in line of battle during the day ; many, 
however, were sent to the rear on account of sickness, caused by 
the fatigues and exposures of the six days and nights past. It 
rained nearly all day (3d), and at times so violently that fires 
could not be kept up and blankets and clothing were wet, and 
cooked rations were in a condition, from the same cause, not at 
all inviting, even to a half-famished soldier. 

About sundown 1 received an order from Major General With- 
ers to withdraw my command at 9 o'clock that night from its po- 
sition and take up the line of march down the Shelby ville pike. 
At the moment the hour arrived, and just as the column was 
about to be put in motion, I was directed to suspend the execution 
of this until further notice. 

At 11 o'clock the order was repeated, the movement to com- 
mence at 1 o'clock the next morning. 

At 1 o'clock the morning of January 4, my command moved 
right in front, following the rear of Brigadier General Pillow's 
brigade, until we reached the public square in Murfreesboro, 
where I rejoined Major General Wither's division, to which I be- 
longed, and marched with it to this place (Shelby ville) without 
the loss of a man or anything else." 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 507 


Walthall Assumes Command of His Permanent Brigade — Nomi- 
nation of Permanent Staff — Permanent Staff Commissioned 
— Roster of — Battery of four (4) guns presented Brigade. 

General Walthall having sufficiently regained his health, re- 
turned to the army then at Shelbyville, Tenn., on January 17th, 
1863, when and where he found awaiting him his commission as 
brigadier general. He thereupon issued and had promulgated the 
following general order : 

Headquarters Walthall's Brigade, Wither's Division, 
Pqlk's Corps, Army of Tennessee, 
Near Shelbyville, Tenn., January 18th, 1863. 
General Orders, 
No. 3. 
Brigadier General Walthall has this day assumed command of 
this Brigade. 

(Sg) E. C. Walthall, 

Brigadier General. 

Selecting his permanent staff, General Walthall addressed an 
application to the adjutant and inspector general, Richmond, Va., 
of which the following is a copy : 

Headquarters Walthall's Brigade, Wither's Division, 

Polk's Corps, Army of Tennessee, 
Camp Autry, near Shelbyville, Tenn., February 12th, 1863. 
General : 

I have the honor to nominate the following staff officers, and 
ask that they be appointed. • 

E. T. Sykes, now a Captain in the 10th Mississippi Regiment, to 
be Captain and A. A. General. 

W. A. Rayburn, now a Captain in the Army of Mississippi, to 
be Major and A. Q. Master. 

508 Mississippi Historical Society. 

John A. Hooper, now A. C. S. to the 34th Mississippi Regi- 
ment, to be Major and A. C. S. 
B. A. Walthall, to be 1st Lieutenant arid Aid-de-Camp. 
I am, sir, your Ob't Serv't, 

(Sg) E. C. Walthall, 

Brigadier General. 
Adj't & Inspt'r General, 
S. Cooper, 

Richmond, Va. 

On the 20th of January previous, and only two days after as- 
suming command, General Walthall issued the following order: 

Headquarters Walthall's Brigade, 
Near Shelbyville, Tenn., Jan. 20, '63. 
General Orders, 
No. 5. 
First (1st) Lieutenant George M. Govan, 9th Mississippi Regi- 
ment, is announced as Assistant Inspector General on the staff of 
the Brigadier General Commanding. 
He will be obeyed and respected as such. 

By command of 
Brigadier General E. C. Walthall, 

E. T. Sykes, 
A. A. A. General. 

In general orders No. 12, dated near Shelbyville, Tenn., Jan- 
uary 20th, 18G3, B. A. Walthall was announced as aid-de-camp 
to the general commanding the brigade; and in special orders No. 
12, dated near Shelbyville, January 28th, 1863, Captain W. G. 
Beanland, A. Q. M., 29th Mississippi regiment, was ordered to re- 
lieve Captain Addison Craft, as acting brigade quartermaster. 

The officers named and recommended in the application of Gen- 
eral Walthall of February 12th, 1863, to General Cooper, adjutant 
and inspector general, Richmond, Va., having been favorably 
acted upon, and severally commissioned on April 30th/ 1S63, to 
rank from February 12th, 1863, the brigade staff (including Dr. 
Divine, surgeon, and Lieutenant Govan, the latter preferring not 
to resign his commission in the line) was fully organized. Sur-. 
geon Divine served on the staff until May 16th, 'G3, when, in spe- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 509 

cial orders No. 80, of that date issued at Camp Bragg near Lew- 
isburg, Term., Dr. J. R. Griffith, 30th Mississippi regiment, was 
ordered to, and relieved him as brigade surgeon. 

Lieutenant Govan served on the brigade staff as acting inspec- 
tor general from January 20/63, to the date of General Walthall's 
promotion to a major generalship; and continued to serve as such 
under General Brantley, until appointed Major of the consolidated 
24th Mississippi regiment on the 10th of April, 1865. 

The permanent staff of the brigade and which (with the excep- 
tions named) continuously served until a change of brigade com- 
manders — consisted of the officers given on the following page. 

Of this list of officers Captain Sykes was the sole and only 
one who had been acting as such consecutively from the date of 
the organization of the brigade — the other staff positions being 
from time to time temporarily rilled by detailed officers, as shown 
by the preceding orders detaching and assigning them. 

Later, in special orders No. 130, dated near Chattanooga, 
Tenn., October 10th, 1863, Lieutenant J. P. Carter, 27th Missis- 
sippi regiment, was announced as acting ordnance officer of the 

And still later, to-wit, on November 1st, 1863, near Chatta- 
nooga, General Walthall had made and issued the following spe- 
cial order No. 139 : 

"Lieutenant D. M. Currie, ordnance officer of this brigade, hav- 
ing reported for duty, will relieve Lieutenant J. P. Carter, acting 
ordnance officer, under special orders No. 130 from these head- 
quarters, under date of October 15th, 1863." 

In addition to the foregoing regular, and acting brigade staff 
officers, the staff was, on two several, but short and distinctively 
unimportant, occasions, augmented by the services of gentlemen 
in the capacity of volunteers, to-wit: At Shelbyville, Tenn., in 
the spring of 1863, J. K. Clinton, the cultivated and brilliant con- 
versationalist, noted political orator and quondam Baptist preacher, 
served for a short time as volunteer aid-de-camp to General Wal- 
thall. And for a short time just subsequent to the battle of 
Chickamauga, and whilst the brigade was on Missionary Ridge, 


Mississippi Historical Society. 



111 the early part of June, 18G4, and 
just priol" to General Walthall's 
promotion to a major-general- 
ship, E. T. Sykes was trans- 
ferred by the war department to 
the staff of Gen. W. 11. Jackson, 
commanding a division of cav- 
alry, as assistant adjutant gen- 
eral thereof, and continued thus 
to serve, to the close of the war. 

Relieved by Surgeon J. R. Griffith, 
30th Mississippi regiment, May 
10th, 1803. 

Relieved Lieut. J. H. Wood, of the 
27th Mississippi regiment. 

° iA 

Feb. 12, '03... 
Feb. 12, '03 . . . 

• ' 

o 03 


April 30, '03 

Not commis- 
sioned on 
the staff 

April 30, '03 

April 30, '03 

April 30, '03 

Not commis- 
sioned a staff 



A. A. General. 

A. A. I-G 

S urn-con 

A. Q. M 



1st Lieut 

9th Miss. 

1st Lieut 



Lieutenant. . . 
21th Miss. 




B. T. Sykes 

Geo. M. Go van. . . 

B. A. Walthall 
K. C. Divine 

W. A. Rayburn . . . 
Jno. A. Hooper . . . 
D. M. Currie 

History of Walthall's Brigade ; C. S. A.—Sykes. 511 

Mr. Marshall Hairston, a young man, personal friend and neigh- 
bor of General Walthall, joined us and for a few weeks interven- 
ing that date and the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission- 
ary Ridge, served acceptably as volunteer aid-de-camp on the 
staff of the brigadier-general commanding. Neither of said 
gentlemen held commissions in the army, nor were they entitled 
to pay as officers. They were not announced in orders as brig- 
ade state officers. 

Captain Sykes accompanied Colonel Walthall from near Tulla- 
homa, when en route to report to General Anderson at Estill 
Springs for assignment to the command of a brigade. After- 
wards, and whilst Walthall was absent from the brigade on sick 
leave, Captain Sykes served on the staff of General J. Patton An- 
derson, both during the battle of Murfreesboro, and so long as 
that accomplished officer was in the temporary command of Wal- 
thall's brigade. 

In recognition of the distinguished services rendered by the 
brigade in the battle of Murfreesboro, and as a mark of General 
Bragg's appreciation thereof, he addressed through his adjutant- 
general, the following communication to its commander: 

Headquarters Army of Tennessee, 
General: Shelbyville, Tenn., March 22d, 1863. 

I am directed by the General Commanding, to say that Colonel 
H. Oladowsky, his Chief of Ordnance, has received inductions 
to prepare a battery of four guns captured from the enemy at 
Murfreesboro, to be presented to your brigade as a compliment 
to the Mississippians who fought so bravelv upon that bloody 

You know how desperately and unwaveringly our troops fought 
on that occasion, and how many valuable sacrifices the capture of 
the guns cost. They are presented to your brigade with the hcpe 
and belief that the brave Mississippians to whose care they are 
entrusted, will nobly defend and protect them, and never allow 
them to be recaptured, if earnest fighting will prevent it. 

The General wishes you to suggest the names of four officers — 
Mississippians — who fell at Murfreesboro, to be engraven upon 
the guns presented to the troops of your brigade. 

I am, General, with high respect, 

Your Ob't Serv't, 
'Sg) Kinlock Falconer, 

Brigadier General Walthall. A. A. General. 

Commanding Brigade. 

512 Mississippi Historical Society. 

To which communication, the following reply was made and 

Headquarters Walthall's Brigade, Wither's Division, 
Camp Autry, near Shelbyville, Tenn., 24th March, 1863. 
Captain : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communi- 
cation of the 22d inst, and submit the following as suitable names 
to be engraven upon the captured guns which the commanding 
general designs presenting to this brigade. 

Lieutenant Colonel James L. Autry, 27th Mississippi Regiment. 

Captain Henry Harper, 29th Mississippi Regiment. 

Captain Kershaw Williams, 29th Mississippi Regiment. 

Second Lieutenant Thomas W. Boone, 30th Mississippi Regi- 

I deem it not improper to say that the officers and men of this 
command feel deeply sensible of the endorsement of their conduct 
on the memorable battle field of Murfreesboro, which the com- 
manding general's action implies. Proud of approval from so 
high a source, arid grateful for the honor done the gallant dead 
of this command, they assure their commander that the guns which 
will bear the names of those whose memory they honor, shall 
never be recaptured by our oppressors, if earnest effort and the 
willing sacrifice of life will prevent it; and that in the next en- 
gagement, they will contribute no less to the victory which they 
feel confident will follow, than they did to that which crowned 
our army at Murfreesboro. 

I am Cap't, very respectfully, 

Your Ob't serv't, 

(Sg) E. C. Walthall, 

Capt. Kinlock Falconer, Brigadier General. 

A. A. General. 

The guns thus presented were a part of the two captured bat- 
teries previously referred to — and I feel that I will be indulged 
by the soldiers of Walthall's brigade to give in the commenda- 
tory language of both their division and corps commanders, men- 
tion of said capture. General Withers, their division comman- 
der, says, in his report of that battle, on pages 755-756 of Serial 
No. 29, "War of the Rebellion" : 

"Anderson's (Walthall's Brigade) left, being now moved for- 
ward immediately after the right of Manigault, was quickly en- 
gaged with the strong force in front. No brigade occupied *a 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 513 

more critical position, nor were the movements of any invested 
with more important consequences. Opposite, there were three 
batteries strongly supported by infantry. The capture of the 
batteries and rout of the supports was a necessity. Anderson 
was, therefore, directed to take the batteries at every cost. Stew- 
art's brigade had been moved up into the woods within cl6se sup- 
porting distance. In rapid succession Anderson threw forward 
his regiments from left to right, and terrific was the fire to which 
they were subjected. Time and again checked, and almost re- 
coiling 1 before the tremendous fire, the regiments were as often 
rallied by their gallant and determined officers, and the brigade 
advanced by its cool, steadfast, and skilful commander. His right 
temporarily falling back in some confusion, caused by the fall of 
the gallant commanders of the two right regiments (Lieutenant 
Colonel James L. Autry, commanding Twenty-seventh Missis- 
sippi, killed, and Colonel W. F. Brantley, of the Twenty-ninth Mis- 
sissippi, stricken down by the concussion from a shell exploding 
near him), Brigadier General Stewart was ordered forward to the 
support. * * * Anderson's right, quickly rallying and press- 
ing forward, vigorously attacked and drove back the enemy. This 
completed the rout of his first line and the capture of the bat- 
teries. Our loss, however, was very heavy — the Thirtieth Mis- 
sissippi alone having within the limits of an acre 62 officers and 
men killed and 139 wounded." 

General Polk, their corps commander, in his report of said 
battle, pages 686-689, lb., says: 

At 9 A. M. Brigadier General J. Patton Anderson, on Mani- 
gault's right, moved, in conjunction with its left brigade, forward 
upon the line in its front. That line rested with its right near 
the Wilkerson pike, and is understood to have been Negley's di- 
vision of Thomas' corps, which constituted the center of the 
enemy's line of battle. It was posted in the edge of a dense 
cedar brake, with an open space in front and occupied a position 
of strength not inferior to that held by Sheridan's right. His 
batteries, which occupied commanding positions, enabled him to 
sweep the open field in his front, were served with admirable skill 
and vigor, and were strongly supported. Anderson moved for- 
ward his brigade with firmness and decision. The fire of the 
enemy of both artillery and infantry was terrific, and his left for 
a moment wavered. Such evidences of destructive firing as were 
left on the forest from which this brigade emerged have rarely, 
if ever, been seen. The timber was torn and crushed. Nothing 

514 Mississippi Historical Society. 

but a charge could meet the demands of the occasion. Orders 
were given to take the batteries at all hazards, and it was done. 
The batteries, two in number, were carried in gallant style. Ar- 
tillerists were captured at their pieces, a large number of whom 
and of their infantry support were killed upon the spot, and one 
company entire, with its officers and colors, were captured. The 
number of field guns captured in this movement was eight, which, 
together with four others, from which the gunners had been 
driven by the heavy firing from Maney's long-range guns and 
Manigault's musketry on the left, made twelve taken on that part 
of the field. This was one of the points at which we encountered 
the most determined opposition, but the onward movement of the 
Mississippians and Alabamians was irresistible, and they swept 
the enemy before them, driving him into the dense cedar brake, to 
join the extending line of his fugitives. This work, however, 
was not done without a heavy loss of officers and men. The 
Thirtieth Mississippi, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Scales, 
in the act of charging, lost 62 officers and men killed and 139 
wounded ; others lost in proportion. Here the brave Lieutenant 
Colonel James L. Autry, of the Twenty-seventh Mississippi, fell 
while cheering and encouraging his troops." 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. N.—Sykes. 515 


Brigade at Shelbyville — At Lewisburg — Walthall's discipline — 
Walthall as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 15th Mississippi Reg- 
iment at Fishing Creek — Colonel of the 29th Mississippi 
Regiment at Munfordville — Colonel Rob't A. Smith — Wal- 
thall's discipline continued — Private John Malone — Col. 
T. M. Jones — Walthall Presented by his officers with a 
horse &c. 

On falling back from Murfreesboro, Polk's Corps, of which 
Walthall's Brigade was a part, went into winter-quarters near 
Shelbyville, Tenn. From then to the date of Bragg's retreat to 
Chattanooga the June following, the brigade rotated monthly 
with the other brigades of the Corps in performing outpost duty 
on the principal roads facing the enemy; and once, to-wit, on 
April 26th, 18G3, whilst Gen'l Earl Van Dorn was operating with 
his cavalry in front of Columbia, on the left of our Army, the 
brigade was sent near Lewisburg, about 6 miles east of Colum- 
bia, as his infantry support, and was encamped there at the time — 
May 7th, 1862 — of the untimely death of that incomparable cav- 
alry leader by the assassin's (Dr. Peters of Columbia) bullet. 

It can be safely said that no troops of that or any other Corps 
in the Confederate army, made so good use of a respite from ac- 
tive campaigning, as did Walthall's Brigade. Himself a perfect 
master of drill, as of every element which pertained to the art 
of war, Walthall, by the constant drilling of his brigade under 
his personal command or supervision, brought them to the per- 
fection of veterans of the old service. 

His soldiers were not only the pride and admiration of his own 
heart, but were the recipients of praise and compliment from 
their superiors in the army; especially of those of the "West- 
Point School," who delighted to be present at and witness their 

516 Mississippi Historical Society. 

maneuvers on the peaceful fields of drill, as they had before, and 
were so often afterwards, to view their aptitude and dexterous 
movements under their superb leader, upon the sterner and more 
dreadful fields of battle. As in the first, they had few equals, 
so in the latter, it was conceded, that they were without super- 

Then, as now, the soldiers of Walthall's Brigade recognized 
the fact that their high standing in the Army, was due more to 
the acknowledged military accomplishments, and magnetic per- 
sonal qualities of their commander, than to any special qualities 
of their own. And so great was their confidence in him, that 
they were prepared with cheerfulness, to overlook in him, appar- 
ent exactions of military discipline and ready compliance with 
orders, which, if emanating from another, would have received 
only reluctant obedience. They always felt that their welfare 
and best interest were uppermost in his thoughts ; and confiding 
in his knowledge of their necessities, they implicitly obeyed his 
orders, and followed whatever his unerring judgment dictated, 
or his magnificent presence led the way. 

Few volunteer officers rose superior to the interest of self, or 
hazarded their popularity at home by rigidly adhering to the de- 
mands of duty in camps, or on the field of battle. But, be the 
duty popular or unpopular in its tendencies, or the order appar- 
ently harsh and exacting, Walthall was sure to exact obedience 
or execute it, trusting his vindication always to the good sense 
of his soldiers, and which he felt sure, would in time, as it did, 
do him ample justice. 

As evidence of his strict but just discipline, Gen'l Walthall 
conscientiously, yet rigidly enforced General Orders No. 39, 
from the War Department at Richmond, Va., under date of 
May 26th, 1862, authorizing and directing commanding gen- 
erals in the field to organize — what Gen'l Bragg aptly styled 
"Dragnet" — Courts, to rid the army of incapable or inefficient 
officers, who by election or seniority, were entitled to promotion. 
After that date no soldier, be he officer, non-commissioned officer, 
or private — could reasonably hope to receive promotion in Wal- 
thall's Brigade, who was not, by reason of the requisite qualifi- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 517 

cations, entitled to it. As to this, I refer to General Orders 
No. 2, page 86, and General Orders No. 4, pages 87 and 88, of 
"Brigade Order Book," previously referred to in this sketch. 
Numerous instances of non-promotion for failure to pass the 
required examination are recorded within the lids of said Order 

The basic principle underlying Walthall's matchless command 
over his soldiers was the recognition by them of his unquestioned 
gallantry, his exact and equal justice, and his superb personal- 
ity. Both officers and men knew of his conspicuous courage, 
dauntless and splendid handling of the loth Mississippi Regi- 
ment, of which he was Lieutenant-Colonel in command (W. S. 
Statham, its Colonel, being absent on sick-leave), at "Fishing 
Creek," or "Mills-Springs" (as named by the Federals), in Jan'y, 
1862, where Brigadier-General ZollicofTer was killed, and where 
Major-General George B. Crittenden was in supreme command 
of the Confederate forces engaged. They knew that it was 
Lieutenant-Colonel Walthall and his Mississippians who made 
imperishable fame in that small, yet bloody engagement; and 
that it was Walthall and the remnant of his gallant Mississippi- 
ans that covered Crittenden's retreat out of Kentucky into East 
Tennessee, and saved his army from capture by the Federals un- 
der the command of General George H. Thomas. And they fur- 
ther knew that it was in recognition by President Davis of Wal- 
thall's exceptionally meritorious services on that occasion, that 
the President commissioned him a Colonel in the Provisional 
Army of the Confederacy, with authority to raise a regiment — 
and which on being raised, was numbered the 29th Mississippi, 
and joined the army under General Beauregard, at Corinth, soon 
following the battle of Shiloh. 

They knew of his gallantry and the splendid handling of his 
regiment in the ill-fated and unauthorized attack by General 
Chalmers' unsupported brigade directed by him on the enemy in 
his fortified position at Munfordville, Ky., Sept'r 14th, 1862, and 
when under orders of Gen'l Chalmers, Col. Walthall, command- 
ing the 29th Miss., Col. Bishop (W. H.), commanding the 7th 
Miss., and Col. White (T. W.), commanding the 9th Miss. Regi- 

518 Mississippi Historical Society. 

merits — but more prominently, and almost alone the 29th Miss, 
made the charge on Fort Craig, silenced its fire; and had it not 
been that a piece of artillery of Colonel Scott's (La.) battery, 
which had been unadvisedly brought up by him, and opening fire 
on the Fort around the ditch of which Walthall and his men 
were halted, and in the confusion incident thereto, necessitating 
the withdrawal of the 29th as best it could from the besieged 
fort — Walthall would have captured Ft. Craig. At the time of 
the withdrawal of his command the garrison in the fort was 
cowed and the men were afraid to show their heads above the 
parapets ; in fact, at the time Walthall received and executed the 
order to withdraw, he was preparing to bridge the ditch and en- 
ter the fort. For the safety of his men in withdrawing, Wal- 
thall's wise foresight prompted him to temporarily leave at the 
ditch his senior Captain and brave old soldier — Robert Robeson 
(then nearing his sixtieth winter) with his company, under or- 
ders to keep up a fire, until the regiment, which he thought, as it 
proved true, would not in the meantime be missed, could reach 
the woods several hundred yards in the rear, after which the old 
Captain was to scatter his men and reach the regiment as best they 
could. On the capture of the place three days later, Gen'l Bragg 
directed that the flag which was floating over Ft. Craig on the 
14th, previous, and which was riddled by the bullets of Walthall's 
men, be presented to the 29th Mississippi regiment. 

This unauthorized and uncalled for attack by Gen'l Chalmers 
resulting in a most unfortunate, engagement for our arms, will 
ever remain vividly impressed on the memory of the officers and 
men of Chalmers' Brigade as an instance of over weaning ambi- 
tion of a Brigade commander, taking and assuming hazards in 
the hope of achieving success, and winning a Major-General's 

During said engagement, the troops of the brigade participat- 
ing were a part of the 7th Miss. — Col. W. H. Bishop comd'g ; 
the 9th Miss.— Col. Thos. W. White comd'g; the 10th Miss.— 
Col. Robert A. Smith comd'g; part of the 29th Miss.— Col. E. C. 
Walthall comd'g; the 44th Miss. — Lieut. Col. James Moore 
comd'g; the battalion of Sharpshooters, Major W. C. Richards 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C S. A.—Sykes. 519 

comd'g; and the brigade battery, commanded by Cap't James 

Of these commanders, Cols. Smith and Moore were killed, and 
Major Richards was severely wounded. Said engagement will 
remain especially and vividly engraven on memory's .tablet of 
the officers and men of the 10th Miss, regiment — which being on 
the extreme left of the brigade, opened the fight shortly after 
sunrise by charging for a full quarter of a mile through an open 
field under a heavy fire from the enemy's strongly constructed 
fortifications. Among its killed was the knightly young soldier, 
with promise of few military equals, Col. Robert A. Smith, and 
the clever and brave old soldier — Lieut.-Col. Tames Bullard. In 
fact, the loss in this regiment was unduly heavy— being greater 
than the aggregate loss in all the other organizations of the brig- 
ade. Company "K" of said regiment, commanded by Cap't E. T. 
Sykes, lost six (6) killed, and twenty-five (25) wounded. 

For full particulars of this engagement, as for the preliminar- 
ies leading up to, and the assigned reasons for making it, the 
reader is referred to the report of Gen'l Chalmers, made Sept'r 
19th, 1862, and appearing in Serial No. 22, "War of the Rebel- 
lion," pages 973-9S0. In his preliminary report made on the 15th 
previous, lb., page 972 — the general, among other things, thus 
confesses his mistake, but seeks to palliate it: "I fear that I 
have incurred censure at headquarters by my action in this mat- 
ter, but with the information in my possession, I felt that it was 
my duty to make the attempt, and I could only believe that the 
result would be successful." 

On the foregoing report, Gen'l Bragg, from his headquarters 
at Knoxville, Tenn., under date of November 3, 1862, (Serial 
No. 22, "War of the Rebellion," page 980), made the following 
indorsement : 

"This attack was unauthorized and injudicious; but the con- 
duct of the troops and commander in action reflects credit on 
both, and adds but another proof to the many of their distin- 
guished gallantry. The loss of the gallant and admired Colonel 
Smith, with the other valuable officers and men of this distin- 
guished brigade, will be mourned by their comrades and country." 

520 Mississippi Historical Society. 

General Bragg' s estimate of Col. Smith may be best judged 
from the tone of the following letter of his written shortly after 
the close of the war to a friend in Jackson, Miss. 

"Superintendent's Office, 
Water Works Dep't, Commercial" Bank, 
Dear Sir:— New Orleans, Jan'y 22, 1868, 

It affords me great pleasure to receive your note of the 4th 
inst. enclosing the carte de visite of my late friend and fellow 
soldier, Colonel Robert A. Smith, tenth Mississippi Volunteers. 
Entering the service at an early age, without military experience 
or education, the Colonel fell in the gallant discharge of an al- 
most desperate assault, in less than eighteen months, esteemed 
and honored for his acquirements and heroic deportment. To 
me his loss was severe, for I had looked to him for support, in a 
much higher and extended command. 

Please convey my thanks to the Colonel's brother for this 
mark of kind remembrance, and believe me truly, 

(Sg) Braxton Bragg/' 

The correspondence between Gen'l Chalmers, and Cols. Wil- 
der (J. T.) and Dunham (C. L.) commanding the federal 
forces at Munfordville, covering the 14th and 15th Sept'r, 18G2, 
is given on pages 931-982, of Serial No. 22 "War of the Rebel- 
lion." Whilst the correspondence between Gen'l Bragg and the 
same federal officers two days thereafter, and culminating in the 
surrender of the federal garrison consisting of 4,148 officers and 
men, is fully set out on pages 9G8-979 of same serial No. of 
"War of the Rebellion." 

Another element of recognized strength in Walthall's charac- 
ter was his uniform system of rewards and punishments. His 
administration of such was always tempered with conscientious 
impartiality and regulated and governed by an equable and dis- 
cerning judgment. Bravery on the field of battle, or faithful 
discharge of duty in camp or on the march, was sure of its re- 
ward, whilst cowardice in battle, or shirking of duty in camp, 
was equally sure to be visited with condign punishment. 

As evidence of the first, I will cite only a single instance — that 
of a boy soldier, whose bearing and conduct on many occasions 
had been observed by his Brigade Commander, and evoked from 
him prompt recognition, and direction to his Adj't-Gen'l to pre- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 521 

pare and transmit to the Colonel of the boy-soldier the follow- 
ing commendatory communication: 

"Headquarters Walthall's Brigade, 

Near Dalton, Ga., May 2d, 1864, 
Colonel : 

The Brigadier General Commanding directs me to call your 
attention to the soldierly conduct of private John Malone, com- 
,pany I, twenty-ninth Miss. Regiment, as noticed by him on sev- 
eral occasions. His prompt and ready discharge of duty en- 
titles him to the favor of his commanding officers ; and as a mark 
of their appreciation, it is directed by the Brig.-General Com- 
manding that he be excused from all guard or other duty for the 
space of one month,. 

It is hoped that the example of private Malone may excite a 
generous emulation in his companions, and that by their efforts 
they may merit distinctive indulgence, which, in this case, is so 
eminently due and freely accorded. 
I am, Colonel, 

Very respectfully, your ob't servant, 

E. T. Sykes, 
A. A. General. 
To Lieut.-Colonel J. M. Johnson, Comd'g, 
29th,' 30th & 34th Miss. Regiments." 

That soldier-boy of the GO's now lives in Desoto County, 
Miss., and boasts of being the proud possessor of this commen- 
datory communication of the long ago. He has been heard in 
recent years to say, that he "prized it beyond price," and valued 
it as the French soldier under the first Napoleon, did his Cer- 
tificate in, and Cross of the "Legion of Honor." Many similar 
instances of commendatory mention can be seen scattered 
throughout the "brigade order book." 

As evidence of his impartial and disciplinary punishments, and 
of his inflexible rule to "let the chips fall where they may," I will 
instance the single case of Col. Thomas M. Jones, 27th Miss. 
Reg't, who, though a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, 
and at the commencement of hostilities held the rank of 1st Lieut. 
in the U. S. Army, resigned his commission, and was appointed 
a captain in the C. S. Army; and shortly afterwards was ap- 

I— i-W ^ KI ^ 

522 - Mississippi Historical Society. 

pointed by Gen'l Bragg, then commanding at Pensacola, Fla., 
Colonel of a newly formed regiment, numbered and called the 
27th Mississippi — was thought to be devoid of physical courage, 
at least was subject to the open criticism of always feigning sick- 
ness, or some other excuse, when a battle appeared imminent. 
Conspicuous in this respect, was his abandonment of his Reg*t 
on the eve of the battle of Murfreesboro, and leaving the com- 
mand thereof to its only remaining field officer — the gallant 
Lieut.-Colonel Jas. L. Autry, who fell on that bloody field. 5 So 
notorious was his conduct on that occasion, that on Gen'l Wal- 
thall's return to duty at Shelbyville, Tenn., intimation was given 
Col. Jones that his resignation would be acceptable. Accord- 
ingly, on March 26th, 1863, Colonel Jones' resignation was pre- 
sented at Brigade headquarters, and was duly forwarded through 
the regular military channel to Army headquarters. Colonel 
Jones assigned ill health as incapacitating him for active field 
duties, and preferred to fall back on, and assume the duties in- 
cident to his commission as Captain of Ordnance in the regular 
(C. S. A.) Army. Walthall's indorsement on said resignation 
represented the utter incapacity of the applicant for command in 
the field, and stated without reservation, the reason why the res- 
ignation should be accepted. A similar indorsement was made 
by Gen'l J. Patton Anderson, comd'g the Division. It followed 
that the resignation was. promptly accepted by the commanding 
general of the Army. Immediately after tendering his resigna- 
tion Col. Jones left the brigade, never again to be honored with 
a command in the Army of Tennessee. 

"As evidencing the mutual confidence, esteem, and reciprocal 
good feeling existing between brigade commander and his regi- 
mental and company officers, I record in this connection a touch- 
ing reminder never to be forgotten by the parties concerned. In 
the fall or winter of 1S63, it was arranged by Gen'l Walthall's 
regimental and company officers to present him with the finest 
horse that could be purchased, together with equipments, consist- 
ing of saddle, bridle, and trappings to be made for the occasion. 
Ample means was subscribed for that purpose, and as soon as 
practicable thereafter, Maj. George W. Reynolds, 29th Miss., 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 523 

was granted leave of absence to execute this important and 
highly appreciated commission; and which served to cement 
anew the bond of affection and esteem which from the first had 
existed between the general and his officers. The presentation 
of the magnificent and deeply appreciated present, gave relief and 
coloring to the somber shadows of war. 

Then, too, the love and esteem of those with whom we are in 
daily contact and pleasant association, like the love of fame or 

"Howe'er concealed by Art, 
Reigns more or less in every human heart/' 

and was naturally shared in by Gen'l Walthall in the retrospect 
of his army career. 

524 Mississippi Historical Society. 


Retreat of Army to Chattanooga — Brigade at Atlanta — Im- 
pressment of horses for the artillery — Chickamauga Cam- 
paign — Alexander's Bridge — Battle of Chickamauga — 
Casualties of Brigade in — Hindman in McLemore's Cove — 
General Longstreet— General Polk — General W. H. T. 
Walker — General Liddell (St. John R.) — General Gordan 

On the 24th day of June, 1863, General Rosecrans, command- 
ing the Federal forces (Department of the Cumberland) at and 
near Murfreesboro, commenced a series of movements with a 
view of creating the impression of a main advance on Bragg's 
center' and left in the direction of Shelbyville, where a part of 
Polk's Corps was encamped, whilst he would strike the decis- 
ive blow by a rapid march, in force, upon Bragg's right under 
Hardee; and after defeating or turning it, then to move on Tul- 
lahoma, and thereby seize upon Bragg's base and line of com- 
munications from that point. 

In furtherance of that purpose, Rosecrans moved upon, and 
took possession of Liberty and Hoovers Gaps, and which gave 
him a commanding position. From thence he had only to ad- 
vance — as he soon afterwards did — to Manchester and Win- 
chester, to accomplish the flank movement on Bragg's right at 
Tullahoma, and thereby force him to retreat. This was at once 
begun via Decherd, Cowan, and thence across the mountain 
near Sewanee, to the Tennessee river — which was crossed on 
pontoons laid a short distance from and above Bridgeport — 
thence on to Chattanooga. 

On the 26th day of July, 1863, whilst the main body of our 
Army was in and around Chattanooga, Walthall's Brigade 
was sent by rail to Atlanta, to protect that place from a threat- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 525 

ened raid by a portion of the enemy's cavalry. It there re- 
mained in camp ("Camp Cobb") until the 23d day of August, 
following, when it was ordered, and in pursuance thereof, re- 
turned to the Army near Chattanooga. 

During its stay in Atlanta, the Brigade had a rather novel 
duty assigned it by the commander of the Army. Finding it 
necessary to have more and better horses for his artillery, and 
ascertaining that there were quite a number of serviceable ones 
in Atlanta, General Bragg gave orders to General Walthall to 
proceed to impress the requisite number of such. 

The latter, appreciating the absolute necessity for secrecy 
in his preparations for successfully executing said order, quiet- 
ly had printed the necessary information in the form of a no- 
tice to the citizens; and after placing early the next morning, 
g;uards at every road and by-path leading out of Atlanta, with 
instructions to permit no horse to be carried out, had the 
printed instructions distributed broadcast throughout the city, 
notifying the owners of horses to bring them by a given time to 
a given place in the city (under a penalty for non-compliance), 
where they would be inspected by a board of officers named 
in the notice, and such as were accepted, would be appraised 
and duly settled for. 

For several days, and until the requisite number of horses 
had been accepted, consternation reigned among the owners of 
horses in Atlanta; and every conceivable device was resorted to 
by them to circumvent the terms of the notice, and evade com- 
pliance therewith. Some went so far as to secrete their horses 
in the cellars or basements of their residences ; indeed, a pair of 
very fine horses was found by one of the details sent out in 

search, secreted by a certain general (D ), in one of the 

rooms of his comfortable home. 

The aid of Gov. Joe Brown was finally invoked by the resi- 
dents affected; and he, in their behalf, protested most vigor- 
ously, but unavailingly. He even resorted to a denunciatory, 
yet fruitless, correspondence with the general of the Army. 
Nevertheless, the order was enforced, the horses secured, and 

526 - Mississippi Historical Society. 

Bragg's artillery thereby put in proper condition for the cam- 
paign culminating in the battle of Chickamauga. 

Returning to, and rejoining the main body of the army, the 
Brigade remained in the vicinity of Chattanooga, until Septem- 
ber the 8th, when Bragg began his movements preparatory to 
the battle of Chickamauga. For that engagement, Walthall's 
and Govan's Brigades were temporarily brigaded together 
and composed Liddell's 6 Division, of Walker's (W. H. T.) r 
"Reserved Corps," a decided misnomer, as the record of the 
opening, continuance, and closing of that great and memorable 
battle, attests. The tactical and strategetical movements of 
the two opposing Armies preliminary to this great battle, were 
masterly. On reaching Chattanooga, Bragg strengthened the 
immediate position, and threw up defensive works at points 
along the Tennessee river as high up as Blythe's Ferry. Rose- 
crans however, with an effective aggregate force of 70,000 men 
divided into five corps under his immediate command — with 
Burnside advancing with a force of 25,000, from Kentucky to- 
ward Knoxville — having effected a passage of the river at var- 
ious points, and seizing important mountain gaps, threatened 
Chattanooga by the pass over Lookout, and pressing forward 
through the lower passes of Lookout Mt, threatened Lafayette, 
and Rome and even Dalton, Ga. Thus Bragg was forced to 
take new position. In doing so, his movement was not, in mili- 
tary parlance, a retreat, but a maneuvering to meet the enemy 
in front, whenever and wheresoever he should emerge from the 
mountain gorges. Then, too, the enemy, by a direct route, was 
as near our main depot of supplies as we ourselves were, and 
our whole line of communication was exposed, whilst he was 
positively secured and protected by mountains and the river. 

Thus it was that Bragg retired his army from Chattanooga, 
and put it in position from Lee & Gordan's Mills to Lafayette, 
on the road leading south from Chattanooga, and fronting the 
east slope of Lookout Mountain. In the meantime, Thomas* 
corps, about 8,000 strong, in the act of passing one of the gaps 
leading from McLemore's Cove — enclosed between Lookout 
and Pigeon mountains — to Alpine's in Broomtown valley, was 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. K.—Sykes. 527 

suddenly confronted by a portion of our forces under General 
Hindman, who had been sent there with positive orders to at- 
tack and rout, or capture Thomas' command. For this pur- 
pose, Hindman had been given an adequate force — a force com- 
posed of his own and Buckner's Divisions consisting of 10,000 
men, and Martin's cavalry, about 500 — besides a force -of two 
divisions — Cleburn's and W r alker's — at least 8,000 more im- 
mediately in the enemy's front, with orders to attack as soon as 
Hindman's guns were heard on the flank and rear. 

Though Thomas was, by the blunders of Hindman, permit- 
ted to escape, this sudden show of Bragg's strength, excted un- 
easiness and doubt in the mind of Rosecrans. It appeared that 
he could not determine whether it evinced a purpose on the 
part of Bragg to give battle, or, whether it was a ruse to secure 
a safe retreat. But, in the caution of his nature, he gave the 
benefit of the doubt to the first contingency, and therefore com- 
menced a backward movement, with orders to close on the cen- 
ter, and directed Crittenden, at Gordon's Mills, to securely en- 
trench. This determination and precaution was the result of 
information that Longstreet had been ordered to Bragg, and 
the further advice that Meade had been ordered to attack Gen- 
eral Lee — at least to threaten him so as to prevent him from 
further reinforcing Bragg. 

The disappointment, incident to the conduct of Hindman in 
McLemore's Cove, necessitated a change of plans and further 
maneuvering on the part of Bragg. And so it was, that about 
1 P. M. on Friday, the 18th of September, 1863, Walthall's Bri- 
gade which was leading the advance, was formed in line of 
battle and drove the enemy's outlying forces, consisting of 
Wilder's Lightning Brigade, back across Chickamauga Creek ; 
but the bridge (Alexander's), over which the enemy retired. 
was so effectually destroyed by them as to render passage of 
the stream at that place impracticable for our men. This con- 
dition of affairs having been reported to Maj.-Gen. Walker, 
commanding the corps, he ordered Walthall to move by the 
right flank under direction of a guide furnished him, to "By- 
ram's Ford," about one mile below Alexander's Bridge. Fol- 

528 Mississippi Historical Society. 

lowed by the other brigades of the corps, Walthall crossed the 
Creek at "Byram's Ford" without opposition, and then mov- 
ing about a mile towards Lee & Gordon's Mills on the Vineyard 
road, halted and bivouacked for the night. In this preliminary 
engagement, the 29th Mississippi Regiment, Col. Brantley com- 
manding, lost severely, whilst in the 34th Mississippi Regiment, 
Maj. Pegram commanding, the casualties were only 1 officer 
and 24 enlisted men, wounded. The 24th Mississippi sustained 
no loss, whilst the 27th and 30th Mississippi Regiments lost but 
slightly. The tablet now placed at Alexander's Bridge recites 
that Walthall's aggregate loss was something over 140 officers 
and men. 

Moving soon after day-light next morning to a point about 
yi of a mile distant from the bivouac of the night preceding, 
the brigade was halted ,on the roadside, until about 11 o'clock 
A. M. Whilst resting there, some of the troops of Long-street's 
Corps marched past, and feeling their supposed superior keep- 
ing as members of the "Army of Northern Va.," were disposed 
good naturedly to twit us, of the "Army of Tenn.," as not know- 
ing what it was to fight and win battles, and that they had come 
all the way from Virginia to show us. After the battle of 
Chickamauga had been fought, those same troopers were free 
to admit their mistaken estimate of the fighting qualities of the 
soldiers of the "Army of Tennessee ;" and equally free to con- 
cede that the federal troops from the West, under Rosecrans, 
were more stubborn fighters than were the Eastern troops, 
with whom the "Army of Northern Va." had been, till then, 

At or about 11 A. M. heavy firing was heard to our right, and 
Walthall was ordered to put his brigade in motion and advance 
in line of battle to the support of Ector's and Wilson's brigades, 
then engaged with the enemy, and being largely outnumbered, 
were sorely in need of reinforcements. Walthall's brigade, with 
Govan's brigade on its left, moved rapidly forward in line of 
battle and soon encountered the enemy in strong force. This 
advance was made under a heavy artillery and musketry fire; 
but, pushing rapidly forward with a shout, it broke the first, 

History of Walthall's Brigade ; C. S. A.—Sykes. 529 

and then a second line of the enemy, and passing over two full 
batteries, it captured 411 prisoners, of whom 23 were commis- 
sioned officers. The prisoners claimed to be of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 
4th and 16th U. S. Infantry, and of Company "H", 5th U. S. . 
Artillery. Among them was one 1st Lieutenant of the 4th In- 
diana Battery. 

A large proportion of the horses of the batteries over which 
Walthall's brigade passed, having been either killed or dis- 
abled, it was impossible to remove the guns as they were cap- 
tured. 8 Accordingly, Lieut.-Colonel Reynolds, of the 30th 
Mississippi, and Field-Officer of the day was with a detail from 
the 34th Mississippi regiment, put in charge of the captured 
guns with orders to move them to the rear as rapidly as prac- 
ticable ; but unfortunately for us, it resulted that after we had 
passed over the enemy's second line, re-enforcements came up 
from his reserve, thereby enabling him to turn our brigade right 
flank, and forcing us to withdraw and take position under or- 
ders from the Division Commander, to the right of the position 
from which Maj.-Gen. Cheatham's Division was preparing to 
advance. As a result, only one of the captured guns was, or 
could be, removed. 

In the daring dash last referred to, and which continued for 
at least an hour, the brigade suffered heavily. Lieutenant-Col- 
onel R. P. McKelvaine, commanding the 24th, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel J. B. Morgan, of the 29th Mississippi Regiments, were 
each severely wounded. The first named by a minnie ball pen- 
etrating the right cheek and passing out at the mouth ; the last 
named, by a minnie ball passing through the thigh. As Col. 
Morgan was instantly felled from his horse, and the extent of 
his wound not then being known to me, I, who was on my 
horse near by and directing the litter-bearers as to his removal 
from the field, never dreamed that I would again see him alive; 
and yet, in the course of time, the gallant officer — like the 
equally gallant Colonel McKelvaine — was back at his post of 
duty. However, the Colonel never fully recovered from the 
effects of said wound, but ever after, and until the day of his 
death, limped in walking. 

530 Mississippi Historical Society. 

At different times during the two days fighting on the field 
of Chickamauga, Walthall's Brigade actively and effectively 
participated. Making its last advance about 5 p. m. of the even- 
ing of the second day (Sunday), it crossed the Chattanooga 
and Lafayette road, near the McDonald's house into an unculti- 
vated field, when it was subjected to a terrific enfilade fire from 
a battery on a hill in the vicinity of Cloud's house to our right, 
from another concealed in a clump of bushes within 300 yards 
, of our right, and from still another to the left of Govan, who 
was on the left prolongation of our brigade front. 9 Our artil- 
lery was promptly turned upon these batteries, but without 
apparent effect; at least, neither was silenced, nor their fire 
abated. Consequently, the brigades of Walthall and Govan, 
after enduring in an exposed position a continuous musketry 
and cannonade fire for about twenty minutes, were forced to 
fall back across the road to the position from which we had 
just before advanced. Being thus forced to withdraw, the en- 
emy cut off and captured most of the skirmishers that had cov- 
ered our front in the advance, and had reached and taken shel- 
ter in the woods beyond and skirting the open field — among 
them Col. J. J. Scales of the 30th Mississippi, who, at the time 
. was in command of the skirmishers. Falling back to a position 
near where General Breckinridge w r as in reserve, Walthall and 
Govan reformed their commands, and rectifying their align- 
ments, soon moved back near the said road, where, with imma- 
terial changes in position, they remained until the next morn- 
ing, when about eight o'clock, Walthall, as did the other com- 
mands of the corps, moved towards Chattanooga, in pursuit 
of the fleeing enemy. 

During said battle, the Regiments of Walthall's brigade were 
commanded as follows: 

24th Mississippi by Lt.-Col. R. P. McKelvaine, until disabled 
from wounds ; then by Maj. W. C. Staples, until disabled from 
wounds ; then respectively, by Capts. B. F. Toomer, and J. D. 
Smith! — both of whom were slightly wounded. 

27th Mississippi by Colonel J. A. Campbell. 

29th Mississippi by W. F. Brantley. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 531 

30th Mississippi by Col. J. J. Scales. He was captured about 
the close of the battle. Maj. J. M. Johnson promoted Lt.-Col- 

34th Mississippi by Maj. W. G. Pegram, until disabled from 
wounds ; then by Captain Bowen ; then by Lt.-Col. H. A. Reyn- 
olds, of the 30th Mississippi — specially assigned to the regiment 
by the Brig.-Gen'l Comd'g. He was killed during the fighting 
on the morning of the second day — Sunday. The Brig.-General 
in his official report of that battle, says : "No braver man or bet- 
ter soldier fell upon the field of Chickamauga than this faithful 
and accomplished officer, whose loss is deplored throughout this 
command." After the fall of Col. Reynolds, Capt. J. Hi Bowen 
of Co. "I", again succeeded to the command. 

Fowler's (W. H.) battery, attached to Walthall's brigade, 
rendered signal service throughout the engagement. During a 
movement of our troops on the first day of the battle,' four (4) 
guns of this battery were posted in rear of Liddell's , division, 
and opening fire on a battery of the enemy that was shelling our 
troops on the left, silenced it in a few minutes. 

One section of this battery, under the command of Lieutenant 
Phelan (John), in an attempt to follow the brigade in a move- 
ment to General Cheatham's right — by reason of another com- 
mand being mistaken for Walthall's, passed beyond its right — 
and was put in position where the infantry supporting it was 
soon forced to fall back before a superior force of the enemy. 
All the horses of this section of the battery being killed, or dis- 
abled, one of its guns was in consequence thereof captured, but, 
by the gallantry of its men, it was soon recaptured. The killed 
and wounded of this section of the battery, was heavy. 

Out of 10 field, 134 company officers, and 1,6S3 enlisted men, 
carried in the battle by this brigade, there was lost 705 — of 
whom 81 were killed and 624 were wounded — as is shown by 
the reports of the brigade and the several regimental comman- 
ders. 10 : ; ; 

These patent, though imperfectly narrated incidents and facts 
are mentioned and emphasized, in order to sustain and make 
good my assertion, that the corps of which Walthall's brigade 

532 Mississippi Historical Society. 

was a part during the Chickamauga campaign and battle, was in- 
appropriately termed the "reserved corps." It having opened, 
and actually taken part in the continuous fighting up to, and in- 
cluding the closing scenes of that bloody drama, entitles it to 
the designation of — if names imply anything — the "advanced 

As understood by knowing ones, the necessity for fighting the 
battle of Chickamauga would never have been forced upon 
General Bragg, had General Hindman done his duty in McLe- 
more's Cove, a few days previous. For, pursuant to an under- 
standing between himself and General Hindman, the former 
moved with two divisions up the mountain near Lafayette, and 
there awaited the expected sound of Hindman's guns in the 
Cove in his front. But the guns of Hindman were not heard 
as hoped by Bragg; consequently, the "golden opportunity of 
bagging that portion of the enemy under Thomas," as tritely re- 
marked by Governor Isham G. Harris, of Tennessee, (then a vol- 
unteer-aid on General Bragg's Staff) was lost to us; and the 
battle which soon followed, became a necessity. For this blun- 
der, or failure of Hindman's, he was soon after relieved of com- 
mand and "charges and specifications" were preferred against 
him by General Bragg. 11 Whereupon General Hindman re- 
quested a "court of inquiry," but before the request was finally 
acted upon General Bragg addressed a communication to the 
President, stating in substance that after the President's action 
in the case of Lieutenant-General Polk, who had likewise been 
suspended from command for "disobedience of the lawful com- 
mand of his superior officer on the field of Chickamauga," with 
charges and specifications pending, he, Bragg, felt it a duty to 
request similar action towards Major-General Hindman. Ac- 
cordingly, the President indorsed on said communication an or- 
der for Hindman to report for duty, and on reporting, he was 
assigned to the command of Wither's old division. 12 Later and 
during the Atlanta campaign, he was transferred to the Trans- 
Mississippi department, in which he served till the close of the 

It may be proper to state here, that though most of Long- 


History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 533 

street's soldiers from Virginia arrived on the field in time to par- 
ticipate in the battle of the first (19th) day, the General did not 
arrive until after nightfall of the first day ; and it was then that 
General Bragg assembled his corps and division commanders at 
his headquarters, and when he divided his army into wings — the 
right under the command of General Polk, and the left wing 
under the command of General Longstreet. 

The battle from its inception to its close, was furious; but, 
had the orders of General Bragg to General Polk given on the 
night of the 19th to move on the enemy at daylight the next 
morning — the remainder of the army "to await his advance and 
to move forward when he (Polk) had become engaged — been 
obeyed, it is believed that the results of that battle, glorious and 
welcomed as they were, would have been more glorious ; but as 
it resulted, the anxious anticipations of the morning's first gun 
had to be indulged until the humored delay reached long past 
the morning's sunrise. For this faltering, if not open disobe- 
dience of orders, General Polk was, a few days later, suspended 
from command of his corps, and "charges and specifications'' 
were preferred by General Bragg against him. 13 And though 
-afterwards reinstated by the President, General Polk was as- 
signed to a new field of duty, namely, to s command the "Army 
of the Mississippi" with headquarters then in the State of Mis- 
sissippi. During the "Atlanta campaign," that army was or- 
dered to move to North Georgia, and unite with the "Army of 
Tennessee." It joined the latter army at Resacca. Later, on 
June 13th, 1864, during said campaign, General Polk was shot 
through and instantly killed by a cannon ball fired from the 
enemy's battery at a cluster of officers headed by Generals John- 
ston, Hardee and Polk, whilst in observation on "Pine Moun- 
tain," near Marietta, Ga. 

General Bragg in referring to this delay in the movement of 
Polk's corps on the morning of the 20th, comments thus : "It 
was nine o'clock before I got him (Polk) into position, and 
about ten before the attack was made — five precious hours in 
which our independence might have been won." 14 

534 Mississippi Historical Society. 


Pursuit of enemy, and taking position on Lookout Mt. and Mis- 
sionary Ridge. — Battle of Lookout Mt.—Battle of Mission- 
ary Ridge. — Hostile correspondence between Generals J. 

. K. Jackson and E. C. Walthall. 

Finding on the morning of the 21st, that failing, by reason 
of Polk's delay in renewing the attack — as ordered — on the 
morning of the day previous, to cut off the enemy's probable re- 
treat into his stronghold at Chattanooga, General Bragg was 
left the only alternative of moving forward in pursuit. In this 
movement, he was preceded by General Forest and his troop- 
ers who sorely pressed and harrassed the retreating foe up to 
the time they reached shelter within the fortifications at Chat- 

General Bragg deeming it advisable to adopt a policy which 
would reduce the enemy by starvation, into a surrender, rather 
than hazard an open attack upon his fortified position ; or, even 
pursue the plan suggested by General Beauregard, viz., to cross 
the Tennessee river and march direct to the Ohio river — which 
last would have exposed our rear, and placed our communica- 
tions at the mercy of the enemy — took position on Missionary 
Ridge, Lookout Mountain, and the intervening ground, and 
commenced fortifying. By so doing, all the passes of Lookout 
Mountain which had been in possession of the enemy since our 
abandonment of Chattanooga during the month previous, and 
which covered the enemy's line of communication and supplies 
with, and from, Bridgeport, were regained by us. 

For the purposes of the campaign adopted by General Bragg, 
viz., to starve the enemy, who had been, or was soon to be, ef- 
fectually cut off from his base of supplies, and which came nigh 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A. — Sykes. 535 

proving a brilliant success, the reader is referred to the report 
of General Bragg, in "War of the Rebellion," Serial No. 51, 
pgs. 21, 23, 25, and 26. Also to his letter in the Appendix "D." 

To cut off the enemy's supplies and force him, if possible, to 
evacuate Chattanooga, Wheeler with his cavalry, was ordered 
to cross the Tennessee river and destroy a large wagon train 
known to be in the Sequahatchie Valley on its way to Rose- 
crans. This was accomplished by Wheeler, together with cap- 
turing McMinnville, and other places on the railroad, and then 
making his retreat out of Tennessee by fording the river at 
Decatur, Ala., and thus almost completely cutting off the sup- 
plies for Rosecrans' army. 

As Bragg occupied the entire south side of the river from 
Lookout Mt. to Bridgeport; and further, as the latter place, 
with Stevenson, was supplied from depots at Nashville, and 
Louisville by a single railroad, and the wagon road on the north 
side of river being rendered unsafe by the unerring fire of our 
sharpshooters, Rosecrans was reduced to the necessity of haul- 
ing his supplies a distance of sixty miles over mountain roads, 
and thereby reducing him to an almost starving condition. 
And this condition would have resulted in the forced surrender 
of Rosecrans, had not General Grant with large reinforcements 
in the meantime arrived at Chattanooga and assumed command 
of the federal troops there — supplemented by the additional 
fact, that Longstreet with his corps had just before been de- 
tached by order of the President, to operate against Burnside 
at Knoxville. 

Whilst this was happening, Bragg's infantry was disposed 
along the commanding heights in front of Chattanooga — Wal- 
thall being in pos^tioin on Missionary Ridge. 

On the 8th day of October, 1863, and whilst we were occupy- 
ing the above designated position, a reorganization of the 
Army of the Tennessee was announced and effected. Where- 
upon, the Regiments of Walthall's brigade, by reason of re- 
duced numbers resulting from its casualties in the battle of 
Chickamauga, were subjected to a temporary consolidation, as 
follows : The 24th and 27th, under command of Col. J. A. Camp- 

53G Mississippi Historical Society. 

bell; the 29th and 30th, under command of Col. W. F. Brantley; 
the 34th under command of its colonel (Samuel Benton) re- 
mained intact. Thus organized it constituted the 2nd brigade, 
of Hindman's division (Hindman being then in arrest for al- 
leged misconduct in McLemore's Cove, the division was com- 
manded by Brig. Gen. J. Patton Anderson). This temporary 
organization, as will be noted further on, lasted only a short 
time, and the regiments resumed their original autonomy prior 
to the battles on the 24th and 25th of November following. 
Fowler's battery, commanded by Captain W. H. Fowler, con- 
tinued with the brigade during said time, in fact, it remained as 
a part of the brigade to the close of the war. 
■ The uniform monotony of the next six weeks was occasional- 
ly relieved by night attacks as feelers of the enemy, and which 
feints now and then appeared as though they would prove pre- 
cursors of a general engagement, finally, Hooker with his 
corps of fresh troops from the "Army of the Potomac," having 
joined Grant, and by reason of Longstreet's alleged disobedi- 
ence of orders, by interposing only one, instead of two brigades 
— as ordered by General Bragg to do i: ' — effected the crossing 
of the Tennessee river opposite the north side of the ridge just 
below the mouth of Lookout creek, Walthall's brigade was 
hastened to Lookout Mountain to the support of the Confed- 
erate forces then there under Major-General Stevenson and 
occupying position on top of the Mountain. Walthall's brig- 
ade took position under orders oa the west side of Lookout 
and near the northern slope, with his pickets in line extending 
along Lookout creek from the turnpike bridge near its mouth 
to the railroad bridge across it, and thence up the mountain 
side to the cliff. 

But Hooker having gained a foothold and lodgment just 
across the creek at the base of the mountain side, early in the 
morning of November 24th, and whilst Grant was deploying a 
heavy force in Bragg's immediate front, made his successful 
attack on our troops on the mountain side; and after fighting 
during the entire evening of the 24th, and until a late hour that 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 537 

night, succeeded in capturing Lookout Mountain, and thereby 
placing himself in direct communication with Thomas' right 
in Chattanooga. But, this was not accomplished, until Hooker 
had battled long and hotly, first with Walthall, and later with 
Walthall, reenforced by Pettus' and Moore's brigades — and 
strange to say, unaided by the other brigades on the mountain 
top under command of Major-General Stevenson, and whose 
duty it was to assist in repelling Hooker. 

On withdrawing from the mountain side, Walthall moved 
under orders to McFarland Springs, where his brigade biv- 
ouacked for the remainder of the night, and from whence it 
moved the next morning and took position on Missionary 

Had it not been for the conduct of Brigadier-General J. K. 
Jackson, then in command of an improvised division composed 
for the emergency of Walthall's, Moore's and Pettus' brigades, 
Hooker in all probability, would have been unsuccessful. 16 

For the gallant and heroic defense made by Walthall's bri- 
gade whilst occupying the mountain side up which the enemy's 
infantry in overwhelming numbers came, assisted by batteries 
at Moccasin-bend, alike with batteries brought over with them 
and placed in position on a ridge beyond Lookout creek, is best 
told in General Walthall's graphically detailed report of that 
battle. The facts as shown, disprove the Northern war poet's 
(George H. Boker) colored statements, and dissipates into thin 
air the seeming Homeric beauties of sentiment claimed for his 
battle "Above the Clouds," and wherein he poetises with undue 
license, thus: 17 

"Give me but two brigades, said Hooker, frowning at fortified 
And I'll engage to sweep yond mountain clear of that mock- 
ing rebel rou't, 
At early morning came an order that set the general's face 
aglow : 
"Now," said he to his staff, draw out my soldiers, 
"Grant says that I may go!" 

* * * * * * * 

538 Mississippi Historical Society. 

The lower works were carried at one onset, like a vast roaring 

Of steel and fire, our soldiers from the trenches swept out the 
enemy : 

And we could see the gray-coats swarming up from the moun- 
tain's leafy base, 

To join their comrades in the higher fastnesses — for life or death 

the race!" 
****** * 

The truth is, had General Walthall received the asked for re- 
enforcements of his division commander, there could be no 
question but that his, Moore's and Pettus' brigades, would have 
driven Hooker back, and have held the mountain side. The at- 
tacking force under Hooker consisted of Greary's division, and 
two brigades of another army corps, and were at first con- 
fronted by only a part of Walthall's brigade, and until late in 
the day when it was supported by Pettus' and Moore's brig- 

General Bragg says in his official report of this engagement: 

"A very heavy force soon advanced to the assault and was 
met by one brigade — Walthall's — which made a desperate resist- 
ance, but was finally compelled to yield ground. Why this com- 
mand was not sustained, is yet unexplained. The commander 
on that part of the field — Maj.-Gen'l Stevenson 18 — had six brig- 
ades at his disposal. Upon his urgent appeal another brigade 
was dispatched in the afternoon to his support, though it ap- 
peared his own forces had not been brought into action, and I 
proceeded to the scene." 

General Walthall says in his official report of that engage- 
ment : 

"At no time during this prolonged struggle, whose object was 
to prevent the occupation by. the enemy, first of the irrportant 
point near the Craven house, and afterwards, the only road down 
the mountain lead : ng from Major-General Stevenson's Division to 
the main body of the army, did I have the benefit of my division 
commander's personal presence. After I was relieved and while 
awaiting orders to move, I saw him for the first time coming 
down the mountain on his way, as he told me, to see the general- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 539 

The division commander referred to by Walthall, was Brig- 
adier-General J. K. Jackson of Georgia, then in temporary com- 
mand of a division, and dubbed "Mudwall/' 19 in contradistinction 
to the great "Stonewall," of the army of Northern Virginia. It 
was to "Mudwall" that Walthall, during the engagement, vainly 
sent staff officer after staff officer, as likewise couriers, in. search 
of, and of whom the report was in each instance made, that the 
division commander could not be found, nor his headquarters 

Immediately after the engagement these facts were openly 
commented upon by officers and men cognizant of them. Gen- 
erals Walthall, Pettus, and Moore, the last two commanding Ala- 
bama brigades, and who like Walthall vainly endeavored during 
the engagement to communicate with Jackson, severally called 
attention in their official reports of that engagement to the fact 
of their inability to thus communicate. 20 

On the appearance of these reports, made in December fol- 
lowing, and the return to duty of General Walthall from At- 
lanta, where he had been confined with the wound received in 
the fight of the 25th previous on Missionary Ridge, a bellicose 
correspondence, inaugurated by Jackson, began between the two 
generals — the same being conducted on the part of Jackson by 
Major-General W. H. T. Walker, and on the part of Walthall 
by Colonel John B. Sale. 21 For a time, it was believed by those 
cognizant of the correspondence, and interested in the outcome, 
that the "code duello" would be appealed to; but, on investiga- 
tion, the truth of the representations contained in the reports 
was recognized by the friends of Jackson to be susceptible of be- 
ing established by convincing proof, and hence it was deemed 
advisable by Jackson's friends, especially by General Walker, — 
who at first demanded of Jackson, that he "Call them out, sir! 
Call them out !" meaning challenge the three generals in turn 22 — 
to let the matter drop where it had been taken up. 

In the battle of Lookout, the regiments of Walthall's brigade 
were commanded as follows: 

The 2 -1th Mississippi by Col. W, F. Dowd. 

The 27th Mississippi by Col. J. A. Campbell. This officer hav- 

540 Mississippi Historical Society. 

ing been captured in the early part of the engagement, the com- 
mand of the Regiment devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel A. J. 
Jones. Colonel Campbell died whilst a prisoner of war. 

The 29th Mississippi, by Col. W. F. Brantley. 

The 30th Mississippi, by Maj. J. M. Johnson. 

The 34th Mississippi by Col. Sam'l Benton. 

The field officers of this brigade who were especially com- 
mended by their immediate commander in his report for their 
conspicuous bravery, zeal and co-operation were, Col. W. F. 
Brantley, of the 29th, and Lieutenant-Colonel R. P. McKelvaine, 
of the 24th Mississippi regiments. 

But it was reserved for the day following — the 25th of No- 
vember, 1863 — for Walthall to display a mastery in the art of 
military tactics, and for which, be it said to the discredit of his 
incomparable corps commander Lieutenant-General Hardee — -he 
did not get credit in official reports. Strange, and only to be 
accounted for as due to a weakness in Plardee's character, he was 
not content with his numerous, well earned, and brilliant laurels, 
but was ever grasping after others, even to the detriment or in- 
jury of deserving subordinates — unless those subordinates were 
in his permanent corps and under his immediate command. 

It was not until long after the official report of General Bragg 
was prepared, that a copy of it accidentally fell into the hands 
of General Walthall, when he discovered the injustice, so sting- 
ing to military pride, that General Hardee had done him by 
claiming in his report to General Bragg, the credit of the Napol- 
eonic move that saved a portion of Hardee's corps from capture 
in the battle of Missionary Ridge. 23 The movement alluded to 
is referred to in General Bragg's official report in these words, 
and evidently as reported to him by General Hardee : 

"Lieutenant-General Hardee, leaving Major-General Cleburn 
in command of the extreme right, moved towards the left when 
he heard the heavy firing in that direction. He reached the 
right of Anderson's division 2 " 1 just in time to find that it had 
nearly all fallen back, commencing on its right where the enemy 
had first crowned the Ridge. By a prompt and judicious move- 
ment he threw a portion of Cheatham's division directly across 
the Ridge facing the enemy who was now moving in strong 


History of Walthall's Brigade ; C. S. A.—Sykes. 541 

force immediately on his left flank. By a decided stand here the 
enemy was entirely checked and that portion of our force to the 
right remained intact." 

Now, the facts, as claimed by General Walthall, of that 
change of front under fire, were these — and will be seen to be 
in part true as reported above ; but in their essential features, 
and just where the honor and credit is claimed by General Har- 
dee, the report is lacking in the elements of correctness or fair- 
ness. That portion of Cheatham's division thrown "directly 
.across the Ridge facing the enemy," and which "enabled the 
force on the right to remain intact/' was Walthall's brigade; 
but General Hardee had nothing to do with throwing it in that 
position. He was merely a looker-on whilst the movement was 
being made, and doubtless approved, at the time as he after- 
wards, in his official report, commended it. General Walthall 
made the movement by General Cheatham's permission, and in 
his presence, and as he generously, but incorrectly says in his 
report, "by direction — instead of by permission' — of General 
Cheatham, the major-general commanding." 25 

Walthall feeling that to thus pluck victory from the jaws of 
defeat would be worth the cost of a supreme effort, conceived — 
as by inspiration — the idea, and in the presence, and with the ap- 
proval of his division commander, executed the movement, and 
he alone is entitled to the credit of its success ; though in his gen- 
erosity, he was willing to share the credit with his division com- 
mander — Major-General B. F. Cheatham. In a correspondence 
with the latter some years subsequent to the close of the war, 
General Cheatham says, the inception and execution of said 
movement was due only to Walthall. 

The movement was occasioned in this wise — as General Wal- 
thall always claimed, and was proud to repeat. When the 
troops to Cheatham's left were driven back, that officer took 
two - of his three brigades and endeavored to regain the lost 
ground — leaving Walthall's, it being his right brigade — in the 
line. The two brigades thus taken and moved forward under 
orders of General Cheatham, were soon driven back and retired 

542 Mississippi Historical Society. 

down the Ridge in the direction of Chickamauga station. 26 It 
was then that Walthall realizing the desperate situation, as if by 
the inspiration of genius, threw his brigade "across the Ridge," 
and thereby checked the advancing enemy, and "preserving in- 
tact our force to the right." This change of front made under 
a heavy fire of ' the enemy advancing along the crest of the 
Ridge, was peculiarly brilliant and creditable to Walthall. The 
fire between him and the enemy was kept up until after dark, 
and the position was held by Walthall until after dark and until 
8 :45 o'clock p. m. — at which hour General Cheatham ordered the 
brigade to withdraw to Chickamauga Station, by way of the rail- 
road bridge. 

Leaving a line of skirmishers under command of Captain G. W. 
Reynolds of the 29th Mississippi, in front of the position just 
abandoned by the brigade and about midway between it and the 
position held by the enemy, the brigade was withdrawn in good 
order to the place indicated. During its withdrawal, Captain 
Reynolds, a brave, reliable, and in every respect an accomplished 
officer, and who commanded the absolute confidence and esteem 
of his brigade commander, covered and gallantly protected its 

In making the change of front referred to, General Walthall 
received a painful wound caused by a minnie-ball passing 
through his foot; but, like Colonel Jefferson Davis, at the battle 
of Buena Vista, he remained in the saddle during the entire ac- 
tion, and did not surrender the command of his brigade until 
after it reached the railroad station as ordered. Then and 
there, General Bragg came to Walthall's headquarters and ad- 
vised that he go at once to Atlanta for treatment. Walthall re- 
mained in Atlanta under treatment for about eight weeks, and 
after his return to the brigade he was required to use crutches 
fully four weeks before entirely recovering from the effects of 
said wound. 

As the brigade had suffered heavily at Lookout Mountain the 
day previous, Walthall, in speaking to his staff and others about 
this change of front on Missionary Ridge so gallantly accomp- 
lished under a galling fire of small arms, and under the spur, or 


History of Walthall's Brigade ; ,C. S. A.—Sykes. 543 

rather inspiration of the moment, rightly considered it one of, if 
not the most creditable performance of its acknowledged bril- 
liant record. And certainly a performance so beneficial in its re- 
sults, should be credited where it belongs; at least Mississippi-- 
ans should be advised of the fact, and see to it that it is so 

In substantiation of all I have said as to this "change of 
front," and of what General Walthall, in the abandon of camp 
life so frequently referred to, I have in my possession a letter 
from General Cheatham written to General Walthall since the 
war, wherein he says: 

"My recollection of the affair of Missionary Ridge is nearly 
identical with the account detailed by you in your official report 
of that engagement, under date of December 15th, 1863." Fur- 
ther writing he says: "I don't recollect ever seeing Gen'l Bragg's 
or Gen'l Hardee's reports of that engagement." 27 

Commenting on the capture of Missionary Ridge, it is con- 
ceded that the victory was as great for the enemy as the blow 
was severe to us. For days previous, and to the moment of the 
happening of this unlooked for and unaccountable disaster, it 
was surmised and confidently believed by General Bragg that 
the enemy was at the point of starvation, and ultimately would 
have to surrender, or retire northward in a disorganized con- 
dition. But, as it resulted, the enemy instead of surrendering 
or retreating, was largely reinforced, and by armies flush with 
recent victories, and giving us battle, won the day. It was a des- 
perate alternative to Grant, and was by him with Spartan cour- 
age and "bull-dog" tenacity, equally desperately accepted. 

Grant succeeded, and tested by the measure of military esti- 
mates, was justly entitled to wear the plume and enjoy the hon- 
ors of victory. The aphorism of Tallyrand, "nothing succeeds 
like success," is as applicable to military results, as to the under- 
takings of individual enterprises. 

Whether or not General Grant won by superior forces, or by 
superior military skill, it was none the less a victory that made 
for its conquering hero a name in the military annals of this 

544 Mississippi Historical Society. 

country — as elsewhere — second only to that of the immortal 
Robert E. Lee; and a victory which secured for him the high, 
and then exalted rank, first, of Lieutenant-General, next General 
of the Army, and finally, President, for two terms, of the United 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 545 


Army of Tennessee retreats to, and goes into winter quarters 
at Dalton, Ga. — Bragg asked to be relieved of command. 
— Sketch of General Bragg. — Generals Hardee and John- 
ston in command. — Hon. B. H. Hill. — Cleburn's repulse 
of Hooker at Ringold Gap. — Reflections as to General Cle- 
burn's plan to arm and make soldiers of certain slaves. — 
Correspondence of Government Officials and military offi- 
cers as to. — What the Confederate Congress finally did as 
to making soldiers of certain slaves. 

"The Army of Tennessee" fell back and went into winter- 
quarters at Dalton, Ga. 

General Bragg, realizing that some of his officers were dis- 
satisfied with, and were disposed to criticise his military opera- 
tions as also his fitness to command, soon after getting the 
army in position at Dalton, patriotically requested the Presi- 
dent to relieve him of its command, and his consequent embar- 
rassment — "an army whose fortunes he had followed, and 
whose fate he had shared through the trying vicissitudes of 
more than two years of active operations." 28 

On General Bragg's retirement from the command of the 
Army of Tennessee — an event Lee deplored — the command of 
the army temporarily devolved upon Lieutenant-General Har- 
dee, who was in a short time superseded by General Joseph E. 
Johnston, assigned as its permanent commander. 29 

General Braxton Bragg was born in Warrenton, N. C, on 
the 21st day of March, 1817. and was the son of Thos. Bragg, 
a member of a very distinguished family of that state. He 
graduated from West Point (U. S. Military Academy) in 1837, 
and was among the distinguished five of his class. On gradu- 

546 Mississippi Historical Society. 

ating, he was appointed 2nd lieutenant in the 3rd artillery, 
United States army. 

In December 1837 he was adjutant of his regiment ; in July 
following (1838) was made 1st lieutenant. 

He first saw military service in the Seminole War in Florida, 
serving under Colonel Zachary Taylor. At the close of that 
war he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina. 

On the breaking out of the War with Mexico, he was or- 
dered to Corpus Christi to join his old commander, General 
Taylor. He distinguished himself in the defense of Fort Brown 
May 9, 1846, for which he was brevetted a captain, which rank 
he attained in full in June following; fought gallantly at Mon- 
terey in September and was brevetted a major; and again at 
Buena Vista, where he won marked distinction, and was brev- 
etted a lieutenant-colonel. In his report of the latter battle, 
General Taylor spoke of the skillful handling by Bragg of his 
artillery, and gave him the proud distinction and credit of sav- 
ing the day on the field. "A little more grape, Captain Bragg" 
became the slogan of the war. 

March 3, 1855, he was appointed major of the 1st cavalry, 
but declined, and resigned from service, January 3rd, 1856. 
Thenceforth until the commencement of the Civil War, he and 
his wife — nee Miss Eliza B. Ellis, who intermarried June 7, 
1849 — resided on their extensive planting estate in Lafourach 
Parish, La. 

On the organization of the Confederate States government 
he was appointed brigadier-general and assigned to duty at 
Pensacola. He remained in command there until February 
1862 — having been in the meantime promoted to be a major- 

Moving his command of 17,500 troops (the finest and best 
disciplined body of troops the Confederacy ever had) from 
Pensacola by rail via Montgomery, Atlanta, Chattanooga and 
Huntsville, to the vicinity of Corinth, and from Mobile, via the 
M. & Q. R. R. Co., to the vicinity of Jackson, Tenn., at which 
place he established his headquarters on March 6, 1862, he 
awaited the concentration by General Albert Sidney Johnston of 

history of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— Sykes. 547 

his troops preparatory to the battle of Shiloh. In that battle 
General Bragg bore an important and conspicuous part. He 
was promoted to the rank of general vice General A. S. John- 
ston killed in action on that field and on the withdrawal of Gen- 
eral Beauregard from the command of the department in May 
following, succeeded him in that post. In July he moved his 
army by rail from Tupelo via Mobile, Montgomery and Atlanta 
to Chattanooga, and in August successfully turned General 
Buell's left flank, and passing through East Tennessee, entered 
Kentucky at the head of his own and Kirby Smith's forces — start- 
ing from the two distant points of Chattanooga moving via Glas- 
gow, and from Knoxville via Cumberland Gap and Richmond. 
But Buell, leaving his posts in North Alabama and moving on a 
much shorter line, succeeded m reaching Louisville before Bragg, 
and the latter was compelled to retire after fighting the battle of 
Perryville, October 8, 1862. The only fruits of this campaign 
were abundant necessary supplies for the Confederacy. 

In December- January ('62 and '63) following, Bragg fought 
the indecisive battle of Murf reesboro ; and in September, (19 and 
20) 1863, he fought and won the memorable battle of Chicka- 

The battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge prov- 
ing disastrous to our arms, and General Bragg realizing that his 
usefulness with the Army of Tennessee had been seriously im- 
paired — if not destroyed — asked the President to relieve him 
from its command. This being done, he was forthwith appointed 
"military adviser" of President Davis and assigned to duty at 
the seat of government at Richmond. 

After the surrender General Bragg returned to New Orleans — 
his fine plantation home having been confiscated by the U. S. 
Government — and subsequently went to Texas as inspector of 
railways. Parts of 1872 and '73 he was in charge of the engi- 
neering department of the harbor at Mobile, Ala. 

He died at Galveston, Texas, September 27, 1876, of paralysis 
of the brain, at the age of 58 years and 8 months. He was buried 
at Mobile, Ala., where his older brother, Judge John Bragg, re- 

548 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Thomas Bragg, the late ex-Governor of North Carolina, and 
who succeeded Judah P. Benjamin as attorney general of thejCon- 
federacy, was also his brother. 

Mrs. Eliza B. Bragg, his widow, yet survives him in virtual re- 
tirement, save as to her manifest interest in alLthat pertains to 
the Confederate soldier and his dead cause. 

Tall and stately, with the gracious, elegant manners of the old 
South, this distinguished lady is the living, breathing personifica- 
tion of a great and noble epoch that has passed away. And her 
presence as an honored guest at the recurring reunions of Con- 
federates in New Orleans, give inspiration to the notable occa- 
sions. She resides, and has been living since the death of her 
distinguished husband, in New Orleans with her brother, Major 
W. C. Ellis. There was never issue of marriage of General and 
Mrs. Bragg. 

In his matchless address before the Georgia Branch of the 
Southern Historical Society at Atlanta, Ga., February 18th, 1874, 
the late Hon. B. H. Hill of Georgia, rehearsed the substance of a 
conversation occurring in Richmond between himself and General 
Lee soon after General Bragg ceased to command the Army of 
Tennessee — "an event Lee deplored/' the Senator said. 

Referring to newspaper criticism of commanders in the field, 
and which greatly contributed to Bragg - ' s retirement from active 
command, General Lee remarked that, "We made a great mis- 
take, Mr. Hill, in the beginning of our struggle, and I fear, in 
spite of all we can do, it will prove to be a fatal mistake." On 
being asked by Mr. Hill what mistake he referred to, the general 
replied : 

"Why, sir, in the beginning, we appointed all our worst gen- 
erals to command the armies, and all our best generals to edit the 
newspapers. As you know, I have planned some campaigns and 
quite a number of battles. I have given the work all the care 
and thought I could, and sometimes when my plans were com- 
pleted, as far as I could see, they seemed to be perfect. But, 
when I have fought them through, I have discovered detects, 
and occasionally wondered I did not see some of the defects in 
advance. When it was over I found by reading a newspaper, 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 549 

that these best editor generals saw all the defects plainly from 
the start. Unfortunately, they did not communicate their knowl- 
edge to me until it was too late." 

I am frank to acknowledge myself an admirer of the character, 
discipline and military genius of General Bragg; and I know .that 
many of his old soldiers share in this admiration. I believe if we 
had had more officers like him, and they had been properly sup- 
ported by their subordinates, the result of our cause would have 
been different. 

General Bragg believed, and rightly, that officers of rank alike 
with subalterns and common soldiers, should be held to strict ac^ 
count for their conduct, and that retributive justice should be ad- 
ministered to each and all alike. The same policy always charac- 
terized the military discipline of the immortal Stonewall Jackson; 
and the latter's unparalleled success in arms, coupled with his 
Cromwellian character and ready promptness to punish insubor- 
dination, or resent interference on the part of superiors, alone 
saved him from being emasculated or removed at the insistence 
of disgruntled or carping officers who had suffered merited, or 
supposed rebuke at his hands ; or by the hasty and inconsiderate 
encouragement of the insubordination of inferiors, and of inter- 
ference with responsibilities of commanders in the field. Nota- 
bly, in January, 18G2, on the occasion of General Loring being or- 
dered by the secretary of war — without consultation with Jack- 
son — back from Rommey to Winchester, because of complaint 
made by Loring and his officers. Whereupon Jackson promptly 
wrote out and forwarded his resignation, and only consented to 
its withdrawal upon due apology made him by the war depart- 
ment, and the explicit assurance that his military plans and opera- 
tions were not to be interfered with by higher authority without 
consultation with him. 

Returning to the retreat from Missionary Ridge to Dalton, it 
is appropriate for me to record an excerpt from the letter of Gen- 
eral Bragg to the author, under date of February 8th, 1873, in 
words as follows : 

''The enemy could make but a feeble pursuit, for want of ar- 
tillery horses." In support of this assertion he refers to Gen- 

550 Mississippi Historical Society. 

eral Grant's report. Continuing his comments, he says : "At the 
mountain gorge near Ringold, I believed he could be success- 
fully repulsed, and the army quickly withdrawn. General Cle- 
burn, one of the best and truest soldiers in our cause, was placed 
at that point in command of the rear guard. Late at night, 
hours after all the army was at rest, my information being all 
in, I called for a reliable, confidential staff officer, and gave him 
verbal directions to ride immediately to Cleburn, about three (3) 
miles in my rear, at this mountain gorge, and give him my posi- 
tive orders to hold his position up to a named hour the next day, 
and if attacked, to defend the pass at every hazard. The message 
was delivered at Cleburn's camp fire; he heard it with surprise 
and expressed his apprehension that it would- result in the loss of 
his command, as his information differed from mine and he be- 
lieved the enemy would turn his position and cut him off. 'But/ 
said he, true soldier as he was, 'I always obey orders, and only ask 
as a protection, in case of disaster, that you put the order in writ- 
ing.' This was dqne as soon as materials could be found, and the 
staff officer returned and reported the result of his mission. He 
had not reached me, however, before the attack in front, as I ex- 
pected was made. Cleburn gallantly met it, defeated the enemy 
under Hooker, drove him back, and then quietly followed the 
army without further molestation. Mark the difference (compar- 
ing him with certain officers named in his letter) in conduct and 
results. A good soldier, by obedience, without substituting his 
own crude notions, defeats the enemy and saves an army from dis- 
aster. And mark the credit he gets for it. The Confederate Con- 
gress passed a vote of thanks to the gallant Cleburn and his com- 
mand for saving Bragg's army. Not to this day has it ever been 
known that he did it in obedience to. orders and against his judg- 
ment — which, however, does not detract from, but rather adds to 
his fame. Captain Samuel A. Harris, assistant adjutant general, 
of Montgomery, Alabama, was the staff officer who delivered the 
order. He is now an Episcopal clergyman, with the largest con- 
gregation in New Orleans, and has recently repeated the whole 
matter to me as distinctly as if it had occurred yesterday." 

The entire army recognized the gallantry, devotion, and mili- 
tary prowess of Cleburn, and for a year prior, and up to the day 
of his death, officers and men were anxiously expecting his pro- 
motion to the grade of lieutenant general, and few, very few knew 
why he was not so commissioned. But the record which I now 
give will explain. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 551 

On page 296 of "Advance and Retreats," General Hood, re- 
ferring to General Cleburn's radical, or at least, advanced views, 
says ; "He was a man of equally quick perception and strong 
character, and was, especially in one respect, in advance of our 
people. He possessed the boldness and the wisdom to earnestly 
advocate, at an early period of the war, the freedom of the negro 
and the enrollment of the young and able-bodied men of that race. 
This stroke of policy and additional source of strength to our ar- 
mies, would, in my opinion, have given us our independence." 

Now, whilst it is true as a part of the history of those trying 
yet, desperate times, that General Johnston, as also his corps and 
division commanders (two of the latter, with scorn and emphasis) 
repudiated and rejected the suggestion advocated by Cleburn in 
the secret counsel assembled at General Johnston's headquarters 
at Dalton, Ga., January 2d, 1864, as did also, the President and 
secretary of war, as soon as informed ; yet, later on, and when too 
late, the Confederate congress, and officials — civic and military — 
notably, General Robert E. Lee, advocated in a modified form the 
enlistment of slaves, and ultimately passed a bill in congress, to fill 
the ranks by arming the negroes. Said bill was first passed by 
the lower house of the Confederate congress, but on its reaching 
the senate it was considered and defeated. However, upon a re- 
consideration brought about by the insistence of the Virginia 
legislature, as expressed in its resolutions of February 16th, 1865, 
her two U. S. senators (Hons. R. M. T. Hunter and Allen T. 
Carperton) were induced to change their votes, and thereupon the 
bill was passed and became a law. As passed, the bill made no 
change in the relation of owners of slaves, but authorized the 
general-in-chief (Robert E. Lee) to employ twenty-five (25) per 
cent of all able-bodied males between the ages of eighteen and 
twenty-five years, in military service, in whatsoever capacity he 
might direct. They were to receive the same pay, rations and 
clothing, as other troops. At this time (February-March, 
1865) public opinion in favor of the measure had become almost 
unanimous both among civilians and soldiers. 

Now, the chief difference contemplated in the organization and 
morale of the slaves was radically marked in the plan adopted 

552 Mississippi Historical Society. 

by congress, as compared to the suggestions made and ably advo- 
cated by General Cleburn, and embodied in a well considered and 
prepared written paper read by him at the council of officers here- 
tofore mentioned. The act of congress contemplated organiza- 
tions of negroes under command of white officers. Cleburn's 
plan contemplated the commingling of the races by placing them 
in alternate files, in the same companies — insisting that such 
would give the proper morale necessary to make good soldiers of 
the slaves, overlooking as he did the absolutely ruinous effect 
such would have upon their white comrades. Therein consisted 
the grave and insuperable objection to Cleburn's plan — a plan 
which cost him promotion, yea, ever after kept him from attain- 
ing his just and well merited deserts — a lieutenant generalship. 

The correctness of the foregoing statement and reflections is re- 
enforced by the following correspondence bearing upon the sub- 
ject, and now on file in the war department at Washington. The 
correspondence explains how and on what occasion General Cle- 
burn made the proposition referred to, and how it was received. 

The Western Confederate army lay at Dalton, Ga., during the 
winter of 1863-4, which preceded the Atlanta campaign. From 
Dalton, General Patton Anderson wrote General Leonidas Polk, 
as follows : 


Dalton, Ga., Jan. 14, 18154. 
To Lieutenant General L. Polk, 
Enterprise, Miss. 

General : After you have read what I am about to disclose to 
you I hope you will not think I have assumed any unwarrantable 
intimacy in marking this communication as "confidential." My 
thoughts for ten days past have been so oppressed with the weight 
of the subject as to arouse in my mind the most painful apprehen- 
sions of future results, and have caused me to cast about for a 
friend of clear head, ripe judgment and pure patriotism with 
whom to confer and take counsel. My choice has fallen upon 
you, sir, and I proceed at once to lay the matter before you. 

On January 2d I received a circular order from the headquar- 
ters of Hindman's corps informing me that the commanding gen- 
eral of the army de-.ired division commanders to meet him at his 
quarters at seven o'clock that evening. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A. — Sykes. 553 

At the hour designated I was at the appointed place. I met 
in the room General Johnston, Lieutenant General Hardee, Major 
Generals Walker, Stewart and Stevenson, and in a few moments 
afterward Major Generals Hindman and Cleburn entered, Briga- 
dier General Bate coming in a few minutes later. The whole, 
with the general commanding, embracing all the corps and divi- 
sion commanders (infantry) of this army, except Major General 
Cheatham, who was not present. In a few minutes General 
Johnston requested Lieutenant General Hardee to explain the ob- 
ject of the meeting, which he did by stating that Major General 
Cleburn had prepared with great care a paper on an important 
subject addressed to the officers of this army, and he proposed 
that it now be read. 

General Cleburn proceeded to read an elaborate article on the 
subject of our past disasters, present condition and inevitable fu- 
ture ruin unless an entire change of policy might avert it. 

' That change he boldly and proudly proposed to effect by eman- 
cipating our slaves and, putting muskets in the hands of all of 
them capable of bearing arms, thus securing them to us as allies 
and equals, and insuring a superiority of numbers over our ene- 
mies, &c. 

Yes, sir, this plain, but in my view monstrous, proposition was 
calmly submitted to the generals of this army for their sanction 
and adoption, with the avowed purpose of carrying it to the rank 
and file. 

I will not attempt to describe my feelings on being confronted 
by a project so startling in its character — may I say, so revolting 
to Southern sentiment, Southern pride and Southern honor ? 

And not the least painful of the emotions awakened by it was 
the consciousness which forced itself upon me that it met with 
favor from others besides the author in high station then present. 
You have a place, General, in the Southern heart perhaps not less 
exalted than that you occupy in her army. No one knows better 
than yourself all the hidden powers and secret springs- which 
move the great moral machinery of the South. You know whence 
she derived that force which three years ago impelled her to the 
separation and has since that time to this present hour enabled her 
to lay all she has, even the blood of her best sons, upon the altar 
of independence, and do you believe that that South will now 
listen to the voices of those who would ask her to stultify herself 
by entertaining a proposition which heretofore our insolent foes 
themselves have not even dared to make in terms so bold and un- 

What are we to do? If this thing is once openly proposed to 
the army the total disintegration of that army will follow in a 

554 Mississippi Historical Society. 

fortnight, and yet to speak and work in opposition to it is an agi- 
tation of the question scarcely less to be dreaded at this time and 
brings down the universal indignation of the Southern people 
and the Southern soldiers upon the head of at least one of our 
bravest and most accomplished officers. Then, I repeat, what is 
to be done? 

What relief it would afford me to talk to you about this matter, 
but as that may not be, do I go too far in asking you to write me ? 

I start in a few days to go to my home in Monticello, Fla., 
where I expect to spend twenty days with my family, and I assure 
you, General, it would add much to the enjoyment of my visit if 
you would favor me by mail with some of the many thoughts 
which this subject will arouse in your mind. 

Believe me, General, very truly your friend, 

(Sg) Patton Anderson. 

General Cleburn's, proposition received such a rebuff that he de- 
stroyed his own copy of the paper he read in advocacy of it; and 
the copy of it sent to Richmond, has not been found among the 
captured Confederate records. However, its main features are 
to be seen in the following summary of its points preserved by 
Major Charles S. Hill, the accomplished statistician of the state 
department, who was with Cleburn's chief of artillery at the time 
the memorial was prepared. The memorial was lengthy, and 
each point was carefully elaborated. It urged on the Confeder- 
ate congress the emancipation of all slaves and their conscription 
into the army. The reasons given therefor were : 

First — Such a course would relieve the Southern people of a 
yearly tax, an unproductive consumption, because the slave con- 
sumed more than his profit, thus distinguishing the profit of the 
negro from the profit on cotton. 

Second — It would animate the undying gratitude of that race. 

Third — It would create in the negro a greater self-respect and 

. Fourth — With gratitude and ambition the service of the soldier 
would be both reliable and valuable. 

Fifth — That the moral effect throughout the world, but espe- 
cially Europe, would be generally strengthening and beneficial to 
the South. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. Ai—Sykes. 555 

Sixth — That the result would be the signal for immediate Euro- 
pean recognition, and indeed, action. Germany and Italy would 
have been disarmed of their prejudice. Napoleon would have 
instantly been encouraged to become a Lafayette, and Great Brit- 
ain would not have been afraid to back him in parliamentary dec- 
laration, no matter how the working classes would have felt. 

Seventh — That it would raise the blockade and give us provi- 
sions and clothing. 

As the officers assembled at the reading of said memorial were 
enjoined to secrecy, Cleburn's proposition was kept a profound 
secret, save at certain points where it accidentally leaked out, un- 
der a like band of secrecy. As was to be expected, the memorial 
alarmed the angered Confederate authorities, and they appre- 
hended that if it should become known among the rank and file 
of the army it would cause trouble. 

The following letters concerning it show how it was received : 

Confederate States of America, 

War Department, 
Richmond, Va., Jan. 24, 1864. 
To General Joseph E. Johnston, 
Dalton, Ga. 
General : Major General Walker has communicated directly to 
the President copies of a memorial prepared by Major General 
Cleburn, lately the subject of consultation among the generals of 
divisions in your command, as also of a letter subsequently ad- 
dressed himself to the generals present, making the avowal of 
the opinion entertained by them in relation to such memorial, 
with their replies. I am instructed by the President to communi- 
cate with you on the subject. He is gratified to infer from your 
declination to forward officially General Walker's communication 
of the memorial that you neither approved the views advocated in 
.it nor deemed it expedient that after meeting, as they happily did, 
the disapproval of the council, they should have further dissem- 
ination or publicity. The motives of zeal and patriotism which 
have prompted General Walker's action are, however, fully ap- 
preciated, and that action is probably fortunate, as it .affords an 
appropriate occasion to express the earnest conviction of the 
President that the dissemination, or even promulgation of such 
opinions under the present circumstances of the Confederacy, 
whether in the army or among the people, can be productive only 
of discouragement, distraction, and dissension. 

556 Mississippi Historical Society. 

The agitation and controversy which must spring from the pres- 
entation of such views by officers high in public confidence are to 
be deeply deprecated, and while no doubt or mistrust is for a mo- 
ment entertained of the patriotic intents of the gallant author of 
the memorial and such of his brother officers as may have favored 
his opinions, it is requested that you will communicate to them, as 
well as all others present on the occasion, the opinions as herein 
expressed of the President, and urge on them the suppression not 
only the memorial itself, but likewise of all: discussion and contro- 
versy respecting or growing out of it. 

I would add that the measures advocated in the memorial are 
considered little appropriate for consideration in military circles, 
and, indeed, in their scope pass beyond the bounds of Confederate 
action and would, under our constitutional system, neither be com- 
mended by the Executive or Congress, nor entertained by that 
body. Such views can only jeopardize among the States and peo- 
ple unity and harmony, when for successful co-operation and the 
achievement of independence, both are essential. 

With much respect, very truly yours, 

(Sg) James A. Sedden, 
x Secretary of War. 

On receipt of the foregoing, General Johnston communicated 
the views of President Davis thus expressed, to the officers pres- 
ent at the meeting aforesaid. His communication was in the 
form of a circular letter, and worded and addressed as follows : 

Dalton, Jan. 31, 1861, 
Lieutenant General Hardee, Major General Cheatham, Major 
General Hindman, Major General Cleburn, Major General 
Stewart, Major General Walker, Brigadier General Bate, 
Brigadier General J. P. Anderson : — 
Generals: I have just received a letter from the Secretary of 
War in reference to Major General Cleburn's memorial read iti 
my quarters about the 2d instant. 

In this letter the Honorable Secretary expresses the earnest 
conviction of the President. 

(Here follow extracts from said letter.) 

Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Sg) J. E. Johnston, 

P. S. — To Major General Cleburn : — Be so good as to commu- 
nicate the views of the President expressed above to the officers 
of your division who signed the memorial. 

(Sg) J.E.J. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 557 

General Johnston next wrote the Secretary of War as follows : 

Dalton, Feb. 2d, 1864. 
Hon. J. A. Sedden, 

Secretary of War : ' 

Sir : — I had the honor to receive the letter in which you express 
the views of the President in relation to the memorial -of Major 
General Cleburn on the 31st tilt, and immediately transmitted 
his instructions in your own language to the officers concerned. 

None of the officers to whom the memorial was read favored 
the scheme, and Major General Cleburn, as soon as that ap- 
peared, voluntarily announced that he would be governed by the 
opinion of those officers and put away his paper. The manner of 
strengthening our armies by using negroes was discussed, and no 
other thought practicable than that which I immediately proposed 
to the President. 

I regard the discussion as confidential, and understood it to be 
so agreed before the party separated. This and General Cle- 
burn's voluntary promise prevented any apprehension in my mind 
of the agitation of the subject of the memorial. I have had no 
reason to suppose that it made any impression. 

Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Sg) J. E. Johnston, 

But, as previously said, before the war closed, General Cle- 
burn's plan gained many adherents in the Confederacy, and prior 
to the act of the Confederate congress (February-March, 1865), 
to-wit, as early as the fall of 1864, Hon. Henry W. Allen, Gov- 
ernor of Louisiana, wrote : 

Executive Office, 
Shreveport, La., Sept. 26, 1864. 
To Hon. James A. Sedden, 
Secretary, of War, 
Richmond, Va. 
My Dear Sir: The time has come for us to put into the army 
every able-bodied negro man as a soldier. This should be done 
immediately. Congress should, at the coming session, take ac- 
tion on this most important question. 

The negro knows that he cannot escape conscription if he goes 

to the enemy. He must play an important part in the war. He 

caused the fight and he will have his portion of the burden to bear. 

We have learned from dear-bought experience that negroes 

558 Mississippi Historical Society. 

can be taught to fight, and that all who leave us are made to fight 
against us. I would free all able to bear arms, and put them in 
the field at once. They will make much better soldiers with us 
than against us, and swell the now depleted ranks of our armies. 
I beg you to give this your earnest attention. 

With assurances of my friendly regard and very high esteem, 
I remain, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Sg) Henry W. Allen, 
Governor of Louisiana. 

For a more detailed and circumstantial account of the "Me- 
morial" prepared by Major-General Pat R. Cleburn, addressed 
to and read by him to the commanding-general, corps and divi- 
sion commanders of the Army of Tennessee at a council sum- 
moned by General Johnston at his headquarters in Dalton, Ga., 
January 2, 1864, with' resulting correspondence, and its ordered 
suppression by the authorities at Richmond the reader is re- 
ferred to Serial No. 110, War of the Rebellion, pp. 586, 593, 594, 
596, 598, 606, 608. 

In so far as contemplating the enlistment of slaves as soldiers 
in the Confederate army, apart from the mode of their service, 
the "memorial" thus suppressed, only anticipated the Act of 
the Confederate Congress, Approved March 13, 1865, entitled, 
"An Act to increase the military force of the Confederate 
States." See Serial No. 129, pp. 1161-2, "War of the Rebel- 

As early as February 18, 1865, General R. E. Lee in a letter 
to Hon. E. Barksdale, house of representatives (from Missis- 
sippi), Richmond, favored, yea, advocated the policy, based 
upon necessity, of the employment of negroes as soldiers in the 
Confederate army. But, he based such service upon the prom- 
ised freedom to the slave. Though the congress saw fit to 
enact the law for the service, it made no provision for the free- 
dom of the slave. See McCabe's Jr., Life of General R. E. Lee, 
pp. 573-576. 

Whether, in the light of subsequent events, the said "memo- 
rial" should have been treated and dignified as producing an 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 559 

epoch in the war, or should have been dismissed, at least passed 
over as an episode, it is nevertheless recognized by knowing ones 
at the time, that it lost to its gallant author the well deserved pro- 
motion to the first thereafter occurring vacancy in the rank of 
lieutenant general, army of Tennessee, and to which Major-Gen- 
eral Alexander P. Stewart was, on the death of General Leonidas 
Polk, promoted. 

560 Mississippi Historical Society. 


The Army at Dalton, Ga., and its routine duties whilst there. — 
Reflections as to the suitability of General Johnston as its 
commanding officer. — Retreat begun. — Battle of Resaca. — 
Army at Cassville. — Battle Order read to the troops. — New 
Hope Church. 

During the winter and spring (1863-4) months that the 
army was at Dalton the usual routine of camp-life was pur- 
sued, varied only by weekly inspections, and an occasional re- 
view, and the putting into execution the findings of court mar- 
tials then and there constantly in session; and once, a "sham 
battle," participated in by the whole army. I make bold to 
say that during said time more men were shot at Dalton as the 
result of court martial findings, than were shot during the en- 
tire time of General Bragg's command; and yet, no adverse 
criticism, or charge of brutality, was, or is heard. Besides 
the numerous executions by shooting, men who had been found 
guilty of desertion under palliating circumstances, were weekly 
brought out, paraded before their brigades with barrels over 
their heads, then halted, stripped, and the letter D — meaning 
desertion — tattooed with India ink on their buttock. And yet, 
doubtless, by the evolution of events and the "irony of fate/' 
yea, by the perversion of well meant and womanly goodness, 
some of these men are now the proud possessors and are un- 
worthily wearing the "cross of honor," which in its inception 
and purpose, was designed and intended only to acknowledge 
and reward merit in the true, faithful, and valiant Confederate 

Whilst at Dalton, several feints en force, were made on it 
by Sherman's army — particularly, during the month of April, 
'64. On those occasions the Army of Tennessee was marched 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 561 

out to and manned the fortifications protecting Dalton. On 
those occasions Walthall's brigade was assigned position a few 
miles out from and due north of that place. Finally, on the 
12th of May, 1864, the Confederate army evacuated Dalton, 
when commenced the celebrated "Atlanta campaign;" a re- 
treat conducted in defiance of that axiom of the military art 
and which finds the logical end of defence, in surrender. It is 
a truthful reflection of the military critic, who says a country 
is not saved by retreats, however regular, or by skill, however 
great, when positions are chosen only to be abandoned. Par- 
ticularly was it true that the Fabian policy, which seems to 
have been adopted by General Johnston, was not suited to the 
conditions confronting the Confederacy, and the illimitable 
resources of men and supplies, that the Federal army had at 
its "beck and nod f an,d in fact, it is never advisable, though 
a Hannibal is opposing, unless the defensive army can main- 
tain itself by ample recruits and supplies. 

The truth is, General Johnston so demoralized his troops by 
constantly abandoning positions apparently impregnable, that 
it became a "by-saying" with them, that he had his "pontoons 
ready to retire on Cuba." As evidence of the uncertainty in 
the minds of the authorities at Richmond as to what General 
Johnston would next do, reference is made to the interview 
between the Hon. B. H. Hill, then Confederate States Senator 
from Georgia, and General Johnston at Marietta, Ga., just be- 
fore the army fell back from there, and to the subsequent inter- 
view between Senator Hill and the President at Richmond. 30 
Especial attention is directed to the masterful speech of Sena- 
tor Hill, made before the Georgia branch of the Southern His- 
torical Society at Atlanta, February 18, 1874, and in which he 
pronounced his matchless eulogy on General Robert E. Lee, 
which has become an American classic, and wherein, speaking 
of Jefferson Davis, he said : 

"He was as great in the cabinet as was Lee in the. field. He 
was more resentful in temper, and more aggressive in his nature 
than Lee. His position, too, more exposed him to assault fr< m 
our own people. ' He had to make all appointments and though 

562 Mississippi Historical Society. 

often upon the recommendation of others, all the blame of mis- 
take was charged to him, and mistakes were often charged by d : s- 
appointed seekers and their friends which were not mad~. He 
also made recommendations for enactments, and through these 
measures, especially the military portion, invariably had the con- 
currence of, and often originated with Lee, the opposition of mal- 
contents was directed at Davis. It is astonisHne how men in 
high position, and supposed to be great, would make war on the 
whole administration for the most trivial personal disappointment. 
Failures to get places, for favorites of every ordinary character, 
has inspired long harangues against the most important measures, 
and they were continued and repeated even after those measures 
became laws. 'Can you believe/ he said to me once, 't^at men — 
statesmen — in a struggle like this, would hazard an injury to the 
cause because of their personal grievances, even if they were well 
founded?' 'Certainly/ I replied, 'I not only beHeve it but know 
it. There are men who regard themselves with more devotion 
than they do the cause. If such men offer you counsel you do 
not take it. or ask appointments, you do not make, however you 
may be sustained in such action by Lee and all the cabinet, and 
even the congress, they accept your refusal as questioning their 
wisdom and as personal war on them/ 'I cannot conceive of such 
a feeling/ he said. 'I have but one enemy to fight, and that is our 
common enemy. I may make mistakes, and doubtless I do. but 
I do the best I can with all the lights at the time before me. God 
knows I would sacrifice most willingly my life, much more, my 
opinions, to defeat that enemy/' 

As to the removal of General Johnston from command of the 
army of Tennessee, Senator Hill says: 

"I have heard it said that I advised that removal. This is not 
true. I gave no advice on the subject, because I was not a mili- 
tary man. You have all heard it said that Mr. Davis was moved 
bv personal hostility to General Johnston in making this removal. 
This is not only not true, but is exceedingly false. I do know 
much on the subject of this removal. I was the bearer of mes- 
sages from General Johnston to the President, and was in Rich- 
mond and sometimes present, during the discussions on the sub- 
ject. I never saw as much a^ony in Mr. Davis' face as actually 
distorted it when the possible necessity for his removal was at 
first suggested to him. I have never heard a eulogy pronounced 
upon General Johnston by his friends as a fighter, equal to that 
which I heard from Mr. Davis during these discussions. I know 
he consulted with General Lee fully, earnestly, and anxiously be- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 563 

fore this removal. T know that those who pressed the removal, 
first and most earnestly, in the cahinet, were those who had heen 
most earnest for General "Johnston's original appointment to that 
command. All these things I do personallv know. I was not 
present when the order for removal was determined upnn, but I 
received it immediately after from a member of the cabinet, and 
do not doubt its truth, that Mr. Davis was the very last man who 
gave his assent to that removal, and he only eave the order when 
fully satisfied it was necessary to prevent the surrender of At- 
lanta without a fight." 

In substantiation of the foregoing characterization of Gen- 
eral Johnston, I appeal to an unsent message of President 
Davis to Congress under date of February 18, 1865, published 
in "The War of the Rebellion," Series I, Vol. 47, page 1304, 
and reproduced in the August, 1906, "Confederate Veteran," 
pages 365-369. The President's reason for withdrawing said 
message appears in a letter -of his to Colonel James Phelan, 
then a senator from Mississippi, published in the same volume 
of the "Record." I likewise refer to pp. 556-561 of Vol. 2 of the 
"Rise and Fall of the Confederate States," where is given an 
extract from a letter of Hon. Benjamin H. Hill of Georgia. 

It may be not only pertinent, but instructive at this place, 
to refer to the military experience and capacity of General 
Johnston, as well as to his preiudices and moral weaknesses. 

As quartermaster-general in the "old army." General Johns- 
ton was familiar with every detail of that department, as also, 
with the details of the commissary, and other leading army 
departments. General Dick Taylor, in his "Destruction and 
Reconstruction," writes of him thus : 

"As a master of logistics, and skill in handling troops, he was 
great. Yet he cannot be said to have proven a fortunate com- 
mander." It is claimed by his admirers and admitted bv his 
critics that, in all that books can teach or academies instill of mili- 
tary art, General Johnston excelled. It is conceded that he pos- 
sessed talent of a very high order, as also endless energy vigor- 
ously applied. But, with it all. he seemed lacking in military 
genius or inspiration. Tn the creative genius which finally tri- 
umphs in war, and which books and academies can only initiate 
and record, but never teach — such elements as were possessed in 

564 Mississippi Historical Society. 

an eminent and unequaled degree by the first Napoleon, and by 
Marlborough ; by Suvoroff, and by Skoboleff, of the Russian ; by 
Von Molke, of the German ; by Stonewall Jackson, and Bedford 
Forrest, of the Confederate armies, General Johnston is shown 
by the results, to have been signally wanting. 

"Leaving out of view Bentonville and the closing scenes in 
North Carolina, which were rather the spasmodic efforts of de- 
spair than regular military movements, General Johnston's 'of- 
fensive' must be limited to Seven Pines or Fair Oaks." 

In the spring of 1864, the war department, the President, and 
Generals Lee and Braeg, were anxious and urgent that General 
Johnston make an ofTensive campaign into Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky; and to that end the authorities offered to reenforce his 
army by Polk's troops from Mississippi, Lonestreet's corps 
then in East Tennessee, and from Beauregard's command in 
South Carolina and Georgia — thereby assuring Johnston of an 
army of 75,000 men. 31 But no. ' As when telegraphed to at 
Atlanta by the President, asking if it was his "purpose to hold 
that place," his laconic response was as evasive as the Delphine 
Oracles, viz., "It will depend upon circumstances." 

"At a retreat," savs General Taylor, "the precision and coolness 
of his movements dti.rim? the Geonria campaign, would have en- 
hanced the reputation of Moreaii ; but it never seemed to have oc- 
curred to him to assume the offensive during the turning- move- 
ments of his flanks, movements involving time and distance. 

* * * I am persuaded that General Johnston's mind was so 
jaundiced by the unfortunate disagreement with President Davis, 

* * * as to seriously cloud his judgment and impair his use- 
fulness. He sincerelv believed himself the Esau of the govern- 
ment, grudgingly fed on bitter herbs, while a favored Jacob en- 
joved the flesh pots. * * * Destiny willed that Davis and 
Johnston should be brought into collision, and the breach, once 
made, was never repaired. Each misjudged the other to the end." 

, The estrangement alluded to by General Taylor, originated 
in the difference of their views as to the proper construction 
of the resolution of the Confederate congress providing for the 
relative rank to be given officers of the "old army," joining the 
Confederate service, and is best told by General Taylor, in his 
prince of books, "Destruction and Reconstruction," thus: 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 565 

"Immediately after the birth of the Confederacy, a resolution 
was adopted by the provisional congress, declaring that military 
and naval officers resigning the service of the United States gov- 
ernment to enter that of the Confederacy would preserve their 
relative rank. Later on, the President was authorized to make 
five appointments to the grade of general. The appointments 
were announced after the battle of Manassas, and in the follow- 
ing order of seniority, namely: Samuel Cooper, Albert Sidney 
Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. Johnston, and G. T. Beaure- 
gard. Now, near the close of President Buchanan's adminis- 
tration, in I860, General Jessup, quartermaster general of the 
United States army, died, and Joseph E. Johnston, then lieutenant 
colonel of the first United States cavalry, was appointed to the 
vacancy. Now, the quartermaster general had the rank and pay, 
and emoluments of a brigadier general; but the rank was staff, 
and by law this officer could not exercise command over troops 
unless by special assignment. When in the spring of 1861, the 
officers in question entered the service of the Confederacy, Cooper 
had been adjutant general of the United States army, with the 
rank of colonel; Albert Sidney Johnston, colonel and brigadier 
general by brevet, and on duty as such, Lee, lieutenant colonel of 
"the second" cavalry, and later colonel of the 1st cavalry vice Sum- 
ner, retired, and senior to Joseph E. Johnston in the line before 
the latter's appointment above mentioned; Beauregard, major of 
engineers. In arranging the order of seniority of generals, Pres- 
ident Davis held to the seniority of line to staff rank, while Joseph 
E. Johnston took the opposite view, and sincerely believed that in- 
justice was done him." 

No impartial or reflecting student of public men and the times 
can question for a moment the correctness, wisdom, and un- 
selfishness of President Davis' construction of the meaning 
and intent of the resolution of the provisional congress. It is 
but one of the innumerable evidences of his unselfish patriot- 
ism and unerring judgment, and justified the exalted estimate 
of him by Georgia's Confederate Senator — the Hon Ben. H. 
Hill — when subsequently eulogizing Mr. Davis, and his com- 
mander of the armies in the field, he spoke the following 
congratulatory words for the students of history : 

"No people, ancient or modern, can look with more pride to the 
verdict which history will be compelled to render upon the merits 
and character of our two chief leaders — the one in the military 

566 Mississippi Historical Society. 

and the other in the civil service. Most other leaders are great 
because of fortunate results, and heroes because of success. 
Davis and Lee, because of qualities in themselves, are great in the 
face of misfortune and heroes in spite of defeat. 

"When the future historian shall come to survey the character 
of Lee, he will rind it rising like a huge mountain above the undu- 
lating plain of humanity, and he must lift his eyes high towards 
heaven to catch its summit. He possessed every virtue of other 
great commanders without their vices. He was a foe without 
hate; a friend without treachery; a soldier without cruelty; a 
victor without oppression, and a victim without murmuring. He 
was a public orncer without vices; a private citizen without 
wrong; a neighbor without reproach; a Christian without hy- 
pocrisy, and a man without guile. He was Caesar without his 
ambition; Frederick without his tyranny; Napoleon without his 
selfishness, and Washington, without his reward. He was obe- 
dient to authority as a servant, and royal in authority as a true 
king. He was gentle as a woman in life; modest and pure as 
a virgin in thought; watchful as a Roman vestal in duty; sub- 
missive to law as Socrates, and grand in battle as Achilles. ■* 

As the engagements between the army of Tennessee under 
General Joseph E. Johnston, and the federals under General 
Sherman, ranging at intervals from May 13th at Resaca, to 
July 18th, near Atlanta, when and where General Johnston 
was superseded by General John B. Hood, did not assume the 
proportions of general engagements, it is only necessary to 
add that, Walthall's brigade participated in most of them — 
and in some, notably Resaca and New Hope Church. But, so 
far as the brigade and its division were concerned, these en- 
gagements were as momentous and sanguinary, as though 
they had assumed the full proportions of general engagements. 
Thus, at Resaca, where General Johnston made his first stand 
after leaving Dalton, a part of the army, consisting of Hood's 
corps, in which Walthall's brigade, of Hindman's division 
was, was for the greater part of two days engaged with Mc- 
Pherson's corps after it had debouched from Snake Creek Gap 
near the salient of Hood's line occupied by Walthall, and held 
its position against repeated assaults, until the army was with- 
drawn at midnight of the 14th, and with difficulty and great 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 567 

hazard of life, crossed over the bridge to the south side of the 
Oustenaula river, en route to Cassville, via Adairsville. 

It may be, and doubtless by the general reader will be con- 
sidered, presumptuous in me — a subaltern without technical 
military education, to criticise any military movement of so 
great a commander as General Johnston ; and yet, I feel con- 
strained to comment — and I am sure that I am not alone in the 
commentary — and to say that, I cannot appreciate why General 
Johnston, instead of withdrawing his whole force directly 
south on the main road to Re^aca, did not throw a surncient 
force in Snake Creek Gap behind McPherson, and having the 
Army of the Mississippi under Polk, at the southern mouth 
of the Gap where it terminated at Resaca, "bottle up" Mc- 
Pherson. Certainly, the mind of General Johnston did not on 
that occasion run in the channel that Forrest's did, when on 
a certain occasion General Abe.Buford, one of his division com- 
manders, and a West Point graduate, protested against a 
movement being made by Forrest, that it would expose his 
flanks to the enemy, the latter replied: "Well, God damn it, 
if the enemy gets on my flanks, won't I be on his ; so, what 
difference does it make?" However, General Johnston may 
have thought, that had he entered the Gap in rear of McPher- 
son, the latter would turn about, and having Sherman with a 
force behind him, "bottle him — Johnston — up." The difference 
between him and Forrest was, that the latter took chances, and 
won "by getting there first with the most men." Johnston on , 
the other hand, adopted his West Point strategy, and lost. 
That is the difference between boldness backed by common 
sense, and science conforming strictly to military rule, without 
rhyme or reason. 

In the engagement at Resaca, Walthall's brigade was gal- 
lantly supported by Tucker's Mississippi (afterwards Sharp's) 
brigade, which several times rushed up from its position in 
the ravine immediately in rear, tendering its support in each 

The brigade's loss in two days' fighting was heavy, both in 
its killed and wounded. Among the killed was, Lieut.-Col. 

568 Mississippi Historical Society. 

A. J. Jones, commanding the 27th Mississippi regiment; and 
among the wounded were many officers and men, including 
General Walthall, who received only a slight abrasion on the 
forehead by a passing minnie-ball. Lieutenant Colonel Jones, 
and several men of his regiment were killed by the fragments 
of a shell, which had exploded immediately over them. 

As the enemy from an eminence to our left front obtained 
an enfilade fire from its artillery on a part of our entrenched 
line, their shells would sometimes fall in, or explode just above 
our trenches. Once whilst this was occurring, a most gallant 
act was performed by a soldier of the brigade, whose name, 
I regret, has escaped me — for it deserves canonizing. The 
soldier seeing a shell fall in the trenches near him with smok- 
ing and burning fuse, timely seized it, and with nonchalant 
manner, accompanied with words of triumph, threw it over 
the works before it exploded. His words in substance were, 
"Return from whence you came." 

During this engagement General Walthall was constantly 
exposing himself as an encouragement to his men, and giving 
attention to every part of his line. In one of these exposed 
positions and whilst the enemy was assaulting his line, his 
spirited and highly prized bay charger was shot from under 
him, at which he called upon his adjutant general for, and 
mounted his horse — thereby leaving the latter afoot which, under 
the dangerous conditions of the occasion, was entirely satisfac- 
tory and acceptable to him. 

Hood's corps, of which Walthall's brigade of Hindman's di- 
vision was a part, being in rear of the army on its withdrawal 
from Resaca, entered Cassville at about 12 M., on the 18th 
of May, 1864. We found there, Hardee's corps, and "The 
Army of Mississippi," the latter under General Polk, massed 
by brigades in front of the town. About 8 o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the 19th, Hindman's division was moved out and took po- 
sition on the prolongation of the contemplated line of battle. It 
was here and then that the "celebrated battle order" of General 
Johnston was read to the troops, announcing in substance, that our 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— fykes. 509 

retreat was ended, and that if the enemy appeared in his front, 
battle would then and there be given him ; at least, from thence 
on, our movements would be forward. But, to the amazement 
of the troops — and imagine their surprise — they were soon 
faced about and marched back to a range of hills immediately 
in rear of Cassville (Walthall, being in rear of and near the 
city grave-yard), and there formed line of battle behind hastily 
constructed breast-works. The only recompense to the in- 
fantry for this disappointment, was the opportunity to witness 
a fight between the cavalry of the two armies in the plain be- 
low — and at which some laughed and said it was like child's 

In this position on the range of hills, General Hardee's corps 
occupied the extreme left, the army of Mississippi the center, 
and Hood the extreme right, and we were momentarily expecting 
battle. During the night following, however, and to the sur- 
prise of us all — save to the commanding general and his corps 
commanders and their respective staff officers, the army was 
ordered to, and did cross the Etowah, via the "Cartersville 
bridge, and proceeded in the direction of New Hope Church, 
where a few days later, Stewart's division signally repulsed 
the attack on our lines, made by General Logan. During the 
fighting at New Hope, Walthall's brigade was held in position 
at and near the church, as a support to Stewart in the event 
of need. 

The name Cassville suggests a romance about which, were 
I "to tell tales out of school," or my honorable friend, Judge 
J. W. Buchanan, now the Mississippi solicitor of the Frisco 
system of railroads with headquarters in Memphis, Tenn., but 
in the sixties, a captain commanding the "Buena Vista Hor- 
nets," in the 24th Mississippi regiment, was disposed to in- 
dulge his reflective faculties, we could raise the curtain upon 
a most romantic war incident, in which he and a young "Ken- 
tucky belle" were the principal actors. However, I will tell just 
enough to recall the romance to those who were behind the scene 
at the time, and are in a reminiscent mood. The romance grew 
out of the following facts : As Bragg was retreating out of Ken- 

570 Mississippi Historical Society. 

tucky, October, 1862, and Walthall's brigade was passing 
"Camp Dick Roberson," a young and beautiful Kentucky 
woman imbued with the spirit of loyalty to the Southern 
cause, decided to share for the time, the fortunes and fate of 
our army; and placing herself under the protection of the gal- 
lant, and otherwise charming captain, was escorted to Knox- 
ville, Tenn., from whence she journeyed to, and sought refuge 
with relatives at Cassville, Georgia. More than a year passed, 
and when our army was at Dalton, this "Kentucky belle ' was 
informed in letters received, through the lines irom friends at 
home, that her property was in process of being confiscated, 
and could be saved to her only by her return to Kentucky. 
This she decided on doing, and from her temporary home at 
Cassville, appealed to the gallant young captain to assist her 
in securing the necessary papers authorizing her to pass 
through our lines, which he did, and served as her friendly and 
courteous escort through ours to the federal lines. This in- 
formation came to my knowledge by reason of my official 
functions ; and I was too glad to aid my friend Joe, in his inter- 
ested application for the necessary pass to that end. 

Chivalric, and romantic Captain Joe would have doubtless, 
after the close of the war, renewed with the beautiful "Ken- 
tucky belle," their mutual attachment of '02-64, had it not 
been for the dangerous wound received by him at Jonesboro, 
Ga., August 31, 1864, and which kept him prostrate upon his 
back for the succeeding four years, during which time the ro- 
mance faded, and he took unto himself a wife, and to whom, 
I dare say, this giving away of army secrets, will be news, and 
possibly, provoke comment. 

The reason given by General Johnston for falling back from 
Cassville, instead of giving battle as announced in orders he 
would, is a matter of difference and dispute between him and 
two (Generals Polk and Hood) of his corps commanders. One 
interested in this feature of the campaign, is referred to "John- 
ston's Narrative," and "Advance and Retreat" by Hood, where 
will be found elaborated the respective and angered contentions 
of the officers concerned. 


History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. K.—Sykes. 571 

As it was the policy of Sherman to continue extending his 
left in the direction of the railroad, it was necessary every few 
days for our troops to take new position to keep in his front; 
and so it was, that from New Hope Church to Kenesaw 
Mountain, May 20, June 10, there was an almost continuous 
skirmish, at times resulting in fierce fighting. 


572 Mississippi Historical Society. 


E. T. Sykes, adjutant general of the brigade, transferred to 
Jackson's Cavalry Division for duty as adjutant general 
thereof. — Walthall's promotion to a Major Generalship and 
his accomplishments as such. — Command of Infantry rear 
guard of General Hood's army out of Tennessee. — Colonel 
Samuel Benton as senior colonel in command of brigade. — 
Colonel W. F. Brantley, 29th Mississippi, commissioned 
Brigadier General and assigned first, to the temporary and 
after the death of General Benton, to the permanent com- 
mand of the Brigade. — After which the name was changed 
to that of "Brantley's Brigade," and by which name it was 
afterwards, and until the close of the war, known and des- 
ignated. — Sketch of General Stephen D. Lee. 

The connection of the author of this sketch with Walthall's 
brigade ceased in the early part of June, 1864, by transference 
to Jackson's (W. H.) cavalry division, as assistant adjutant 
general thereof. 32 

Soon thereafter, General W^althall was promoted to the com- 
mand of a division, composed of the brigades of Canty, Rey- 
nolds and Quarles; and later, of the brigades of Quarles, Shelly 
and D. H. Reynolds of Stewart's corps, army of Tennessee. His 
commission as major general was dated June 10, 1864, to rank 
from June 6, 1864. 

In this higher and more extended field of command, Walt- 
hall proved himself the equal, if not superior, of any division 
commander in the army of Tennessee. 

From Marietta, to the close of the Georgia campaign; in 
Hood's advance into, and retreat out of Tennessee ; at Benton- 
ville, North Carolina, and up to the day (April .26, 1865), of 
Johnston's surrender at Greensboro, North Carolina, he did 


History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 573 

noble service as a division commander, and won the unlimited 
confidence and unstinted praise of his superiors. This was 
particularly so in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, Tenn., 
and most notably in his joint command with Forrest, in cover- 
ing the retreat of Hood's army out of Tennessee. Those who 
were behind the scenes and know best, say that Walthall was 
booked for promotion to the grade of lieutenant general on the 
first vacancy in that rank occurring in the army of Tennessee. 
Of this retreat, Walthall, in his report dated Verona, Miss., 
January 14, 1865, War of the Rebellion, Serial No. 93, p. 724, 
modestly says : 

''The night of the 17th (December, 1864,) we encamped near 
Spring Hill, and about 2 P. M. the next day the corps (Stewart's) 
took position north of Duck river, to cover the crossing of the 
army on pontoon bridge at Columbia. Here we intrenched — 
Major General Loring's division on the right and mine on the left, 
and remained till 11 o'clock on the night of the 19th, when we 
moved across the river and encamped a short distance from Co- 
lumbia, and on the Pulaski pike. 

Early the next morning reaching the quarters of the command- 
ing general, in obedience to a message from him borne me by a 
member of his staff, he directed me, with a special command to be 
organized for the purpose, to report to Major General Forrest 
to aid in covering the retreat of the army, then in motion toward 
Pulaski, his purpose being to cross the Tennessee river near Bain- 
bridge, if practicable. This organization was made up of the 
following brigades, viz.: Gen. W. S. Featherston. Colonel J. B. 
Palmer's, Strahl's brigade, commanded by Colonel C. W. Heis- 
kell, Smith's brigade, commanded by Colonel Olmstead, of 
Georgia, Maney's. commanded by Colonel H. R. Field, with three 
of my own command, namely. Brigadier General D. H. Reynolds, 
Ector's, commanded by Colonel D. Coleman, and Onarles', com- 
manded by Brigadier General George D. Johnston. When these 
brigades were collected I reported to Major General Forrest, as 
directed, and was not again under Lieutenant General Stewart's 
orders till the evening of the 27th, when I was directed by him, 
after crossing Shoal creek, two miles from Bainbridge, to take 
position at the ford and remain until further orders. * * * 
The remnant of his command, after this campaign of unprece- 
dented peril and hardships, reduced by its battles and exposure, 
worn and weary with its travel and its toil, numbered less when it 

574 Mississippi Historical Society. 

reached its rest near Tupelo, than one of its brigades had done 
eight months before." 

The achievements of this infantry rear guard, in conjunction 
with the cavalry under Forrest, and which saved Hood's army 
from rout, if not annihilation, is thus modestly outlined by 
General Walthall. Its achievements if fully written, or if they 
had been accomplished and told by some others less deserving, 
would fill a volume. And yet, strange to relate, General Hood, 
in his book, "Advance and Retreat,*' and his official reports, fails 
to give properly, the brigades of infantry which constituted 
Walthall's rear guard. President Davis, in his work, "The 
Rise and Fall of the Confederacy," falls into the same error; 
and General Forrest in his report makes the same mistake. 

On Walthall's promotion, the command of his old brigade 
devolved upon its senior colonels in turn and order of seniority, 
namely: On Colonel Samuel Benton of the 34th Mississippi, 
until his disability occasioned by wounds received in front of 
Atlanta, on July 22, 1864, and resulting in his death some eight 
or ten days thereafter in a hospital at Griffin, Georgia, to which 
place he had been carried for treatment; next upon Colonel 
W. F. Brantley of the 29th Mississippi regiment. These two offi- 
cers were appointed brigadier generals on the same day, to-wit. 
July 26, 1864, and to rank from that date, Brantley's commis- 
sion reaching him during the day of June 28th. Benton, how- 
ever, was appointed the permanent, and Brantley the tempo- 
rary brigadier of the old brigade, the latter to hold and exercise 
-said rank only in the absence of, and conditioned upon the 
death or permanent disability of Benton. Benton having died 
before Brantley received his commission, the latter operated 
and was treated and recognized as a permanent commission 
from the date of its receipt by Brantley. 

Benton was a man of marked intellectuality, fluent of speech, 
facile, and commanding in manner and action, and though 
never attaining the prominence at the bar which some of his 
associates reached, he was, nevertheless, recognized to be a 
good lawyer, with a bright future. Unlike his renowned 
uncle, the Hon. Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri, he was a whig 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. h.—Sykes. 575 

in politics, and being well grounded in the philosophy of gov- 
ernmental polity, and likewise being a ready debater, he was 
once done the distinguished honor of being selected by the 
whigs of Holly Springs, to reply to Mr. (Honorable Jefferson) 
Davis, who had been advertised to, and did speak in that highly 
intellectual and cultured little city: and so well did, Benton 
champion his side of the debate, that the great statesman and 
orator, took occasion to compliment his young opponent on 
his effort. 

As a whig, Benton once (1852) represented the county of 
Marshall in the lower house of the state legislature. He like- 
wise represented Marsha 1 1 county in the "secession conven- 
tion" of 1860, and voted for the ordinance which severed the 
political relations of Mississippi with the federal union. 

"True to his convictions, and proving his faith by his works, 
he organized a military company which responded to the first 
call of President Davis on Mississippi for troops. His com- 
pany became a part of the original Ninth Mississippi infantry 
which, with the tenth, was organized at Pensacola, Fla., in 
April, 1861, with James R. Chalmers, colonel of the Ninth, 
and Moses Phillips, colonel of the Tenth, and briead^d to- 
gether, first under General Ruggles, next General Gladden, 
and then under Chalmers. Those regiments being twelve 
months troops, Captain Benton, on the expiration of said term 
of service returned home and raised a regiment (the 34th Mis- 
sissippi) of which he was elected colonel, and which after serv- 
ing through Bragg's Kentucky campaign in a brigade com- 
manded by Colonel T. M. Jones of the 27th Mississippi regi- 
ment, became one of the five famous regiments of Walthall's 

Following the promotion of Walthall to a major-generalcy, 
Benton being the senior colonel in the brigade, succeeded to its 
command, and was in the command thereof when, in the battle 
of July 22, 1864. in front o^ Atlanta, he received the wounds 
resulting in his death a few days later. One of said wounds 
was made by a minnie-ball passing through the foot and neces- 
sitating the amputation of that limb; the other wound was 

576 Mississippi Historical Society. 

caused by a fragment of an exploded shell striking him over 
the heart. This last wound though at first not thought to be 
mortal was found to be on closer examination made in the 
hospital at Griffin, Ga., a fatal wound. 

The remains of General Benton were temporarily buried by 
Captain Addison Craft and other personal friends, in a private 
burying plot of a friend of the captain's residing in Griffin. They 
remained thus interred for three years, when they were disinter- 
red and removed to Holly Springs, Miss., where they were finally 
buried, and now rest beneath a somewhat pretentious monument 
with only the name, "Samuel Benton," inscribed thereon. 

General Brantley — Benton's successor in command of the bri- 
gade — was a most successful business man, and a lawyer of 
marked attainment in his profession. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1852, at Greensboro, then the county seat of Choctaw, but now 
a small village in the county of Webster, Miss. He had a broad 
mental grasp, coupled wkh great personal courage, and the un- 
yielding tenacity of purpose, which from the start brought him 
success in his chosen profession, and which assured him fame and 
fortune. So it was that at the commencement of hostilities be- 
tween the states, he had attained rank among the members of the 
legal profession of Mississippi. He was a member of the seces- 
sion convention of '60 and voted for the ordinance which severed 
Mississippi's political relations with the federal government. 
Soon after the establishment of the Confederate States govern- 
ment, he raised a company, which with other companies, formed 
the 15th, Mississippi infantry regiment. Later he was promoted 
its major, and commanded the regiment in the battle of Shiloh. 
On the organization of the 20th Mississippi regiment in the spring 
of 1862, he was elected its lieutenant colonel, and on the promo- 
tion of Walthall to a brigadier generalship, Brantley became colo- 
nel of said regiment. 

As has been correctly said by another, Brantley "was a man of 
intense convictions, strong will, and some prejudices. Such men 
generally excite antagonism, but have strong friendships, and 
Brantley was no exception to the rule." Indeed, not a few of his 
men, and even officers, looked upon him a> a martinet, unduly ex- 



History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A. — Sykes. 577 

acting, and at times unnecessarily severe in his discipline. Cer- 
tainly, it cannot be, truth fully denied that he failed to secure and 
maintain the supreme confidence of the men and officers of his 
brigade — either in camps, on the march, or in action — and that he 
fell far short of Walthall in all the essentials of a perfect brigade 
commander, or in any sense a great commander of men in the 
field. The officers and men naturally contrasted the two, and al- 
ways at the disadvantage of their last commander. 

Coming safely through the war and resuming the practice of 
law with a most encouraging promise of the future, he was soon 
thereafter in an unguarded and unsuspecting moment foully as- 
sassinated by an unknown and never detected enemy. His re- 
mains were interred with Masonic and other civic honors, at 
Greensboro, Miss. 'Twas there that he achieved his first suc- 
cesses, and won honors in his profession; and there an appropri- 
ate monument commemorates his life work. 


Brantley's brigade staff consisted of the following officers, viz. : 

Captain John C. Harrison, assistant adjutant general. 
Captain D. C. Sweatman, aid-de-camp. 
Captain L. W. Magruder, ordnance officer. 
Major Addison Craft, assistant quartermaster. 
Major John Hooper, assistant commissary sergeant. 

Shortly before the surrender of the "Army of Tennessee/' then 
commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston, to-wit, on April 10th, 
1865, at Smithfield, North Carolina, the five regiments that had 
composed Walthall's, and afterwards Brantley's brigade, were 
consolidated into one regiment, known and designated as the 24th 
Mississippi regiment. Thus consolidated it was officered by ap- 
pointees for the purpose, viz. : 

R. W. Williamson, formerly of the 30th Mississippi, colonel. 

Clifton Dancy, formerly of the 34th Mississippi, lieutenant 

George Govan, formerly of the 9th Mississippi, major. 

This new 24th Mississippi regiment, with other consolidated 
regiments, constituted a new brigade under the command of Gen- 
eral Brantley and thus continued until the surrender on the 26th 

578 Mississippi Historical Society. 

following — the army being then at and near Greensboro, North 
Carolina. 83 

Though outside the specific scope of this sketch which was un- 
dertaken to record chiefly the history and service of the brigade 
whilst commanded by General Walthall, I nevertheless feel that I 
may with perfect propriety, yea, shall, add the reflection, that the 
same esprit de corps and chivalric bearing which characterized 
the brigade whilst under the immediate command of Wa!thall, 
continued to animate and inspire it under its succeeding com- 

Thus, in the battles around Atlanta (July 22 and 28, 1864) ; at 
Jonesboro (Aug. 31-September 1st, 1864) ; and at Franklin Tenti. 
(Dec. 17, 1864), it, as Sharp's ("High-Pressure"), Adam's 
(John), Featherston's and Sear's brigades — all five Mississippi 
commands — was, throughout, markedly conspicuous. And whilst 
on the last named field. Sharp's captured and passed through the 
"locust grove," and Adams fell with many of his men on the en- 
emy's breastworks, Brantley's brigade assaulted the works to 
their left front, capturing and occupying the ditch in front there- 
of> and whilst there, and unable to scale the works, received and 
withstood a galling and incessant fire from a portion of the enemy 
who had come out of their works on Brantley's left, and opened 
an enfilade fire on his line. The ordeal was trying; but, with 
Spartan bravery Brantley's men held their ground until the bat- 
tle ,was over. With the coming of the morning, General Stephen 
D. Lee — their corps commander — rode up and viewing the scene 
with its dead and wounded of the night before, took off his hat, 
and with tears in his eyes, and in tremulous voice said : "Men ! I 
have read of the deeds of the 'old guard,' I have witnessed the 
valor of the Army of Northern Virginia, but I have never read 
of, or witnessed anything comparable in valor to the scene before 
me, and your deeds of last night — where troops remained steady 
and unawed under an enfilade fire, and though being killed by the 
hundreds held their ground ; and I now and here promise you that 
so long as my voice has influence with the commander of the 
army, Brantley's brigade shall never lose its identity." General 
Lee in so far as events, and the depleted condition of the army 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 579 

justified, kept his word ; and when the army of Tennessee was in 
North Carolina just prior to the final surrender, the then frag- 
ments of the old brigade were ordered to be consolidated with and 
absorbed by another and stronger brigade, General Lee went in 
person to General Johnston, and by his appeal and influence 
averted the consummation of the contemplated order oi consoli- 
dation, as previously determined on. Thus, whilst many other 
old brigades were ultimately broken up and their fragments dis- 
tributed among different commands, the regiments of Brantley's 
brigade, though finally consolidated — as previously stated — pre- 
served their brigade identity to the end. 33 

Owing to his prominence, and the fact of his having been the 
corps commander of the "old brigade" during his entire service as 
lieutenant general with the Army of Tennessee, I consider it ap- 
propriate to record an encyclopedic sketch of the military and 
civic life of General Stephen Dill Lee — the now second in rank 
of the surviving Confederate officers. 

He was born in Charleston, South Carolina, September 22, 
1833, his parents being Dr. Thomas and Caroline (Allison) Lee. 
He graduated at West Point in 1854; was 1st lieutenant 4th ar- 
tillery United States army, 1854-61, and for three years regi- 
mental quartermaster of same. » 

On the formation of the Confederate government, Lieutenant 
Lee resigned from the United States army, and being commis- 
sioned a captain in the Confederate States army was assigned 
to duty on the staff of General Beauregard, at Charleston ; 
in conjunction with Colonel Chestnut of the same staff, he 
bore General Beauregard's message to, and demand of Major 
Robert Anderson for the surrender of Fort Sumter; as also, the 
final notification of the opening of the Confederate batteries on 
the fort. His service in the Confederate army covered the grades 
of captain, major, lieutenant colonel, colonel, brigadier general, 
major general and lieutenant general. He took part in the battles 
around Richmond, in 1862 ; in 2d Manassas, Sharpsburg, Vicks- 
burg campaign ; commanded Confederates at Chickasaw Bayou, 
Miss., where he defeated the Federals under Sherman ; and in the 
battles of Tupelo, Miss.; Atlanta and Jonesboro, Ga. ; Franklin, 

580 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Nashville, and in North Carolina under Johnston — in all of which 
he rendered conspicuous service. 

At 2d Manassas, and again at Sharpsburg, the artillery under 
his command saved the day, and crowned him victor. Thus when 
President Davis called on General R. E. Lee to name his best ar- 
tillery officer for promotion and service at Vicksburg, Miss., un- 
der Pemberton, Colonel S. D. Lee's name was given, whereupon 
he was promptly commissioned a brigadier general and ordered to 
Mississippi. After being exchanged as a Vicksburg prisoner, he 
was appointed major general and placed in command of the mili- 
tary department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, and 
was in command of the cavalry when in June, 1864, he was ap- 
pointed lieutenant general. After fighting the battle of Harris- 
burg, Miss., was ordered to Atlanta to assume command of Hood's 
old corps. 

Mr. Davis said of him after the war, that he was equally a suc- 
cess as a commander of artillery, infantry and cavalry. 

February 9th, 1865, he was married to Regina L. Harrison, 
daughter of the distinguished lawyer, Hon. Jas. T. Harrison of 
Columbus, Miss. She was one of the most brilliant and accom- 
plished ladies of the Southland. She departed this life, October 
3d, 1903, leaving but one child, Hon. Blewett H. Lee of Chicago, 
111., who is assistant general counsel of the Illinois Central 
R. R. Co. 

Immediately following the close of the war General Lee was 
a cotton planter; in 1ST0 was state senator; 1880-1899 was presi- 
dent of Mississippi agricultural and mechanical college; 1890, 
member of the Mississippi constitutional convention. Since 1899, 
has been one of the commissioners of the "Vicksburg military 
(U. S.) park" ; and was elected by the U. C. V. reunion at its ses- 
sion at Nashville, Tenn., in 1904, to succeed the lamented General 
John B. Gordon, as its commander. The last two positions he is 
at present occupying, and most acceptably and enthusiastically 

Some years ago the degree of LL. D. was conferred on him 
by the Tulane University of Louisiana. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— Sykes. 581 


Anecdotes of the War — Oliver Wilds, the Young Wounded Sol- 
dier at Shiloh — Charles Timberlake, or "Cub," the Colored 
Carrier of the Columbus Newspaper. 

As it will accord with the experience of many old soldiers who 
actively participated in the trying scenes of the war, there were 
many pleasant incidents to grow out of its hardships and carnage ; 
and I feel that I will be indulged the privilege of recording one 
of the many such coming within the range of my own experience, 
and only realized in its completeness long after the close of the 
war, namely: During a lull in the firing on the morning of the 
first day's (April 6th, 1862) righting at Shiloh, the 10th Mississ- 
ippi regiment (of which the author of this sketch was adjutant). 
of Chalmers' brigade, W r ither's division, Bragg's corps — -being the 
extreme right regiment in the front line and nearest the Tennes- 
see river — was temporarily halted, and just before the advance 
movement was resumed, the colonel (Robert A. Smith) sent his 
adjutant to the left of the regiment with an order to one of the 
captains, and whilst on his way he was observed and spoken to by 
a young soldier who proved to be a private in the "Natchez South- 
erns" of said regiment, seated by and resting against a tree, with 
his pantaloons rolled up above the knee and bleeding profusely 
from a wound just before received, at or near the knee. The 
adjutant responded to the appeal to try to stop the flow of blood. 
Taking out his handkerchief and using it as a tourniquet, he 
called upon the lieutenant colonel (Bullard) who was near by, to 
direct t"he litter-bearers to come and carry the young soldier to 
the rear. In course of time, the adjutant's connection with the 
regiment ceasing by reason of his promotion to brigade staff duty, 
he never again saw the young soldier during the war, and though 
not knowing of his subsequent fate, the old adjutant often during 

582 Mississippi Historical Society. 

the silent hours of repose, recalled the pallid features and bleeding 
wound of the young soldier boy from Natchez. Time rolled on 
without hearing from, or learning of the subsequent fate of the 
young soldier, until at the second reunion of the "Confederate 
Veterans of Mississippi," held at Natchez in the month of Oc- 
tober, 1891 ; and then by the merest circumstance, the old adjutant 
was given a clue to the identity, whereabouts, and the nearby pres- 
ence of the once young soldier boy. It occurred in this wise. 
Seated with Governor Stone — the then commander of the "Mis- 
sissippi Veterans" — in the vestibule of the then new and elegant 
"Natchez" hostelry, soon after the adjournment of the day's ses- 
sion of the "grand camp," the old adjutant was presented by a 
resident veteran with a copy of a "memorial souvenir," being a 
pamphlet containing a "roll of the several military organizations 
which entered the service of the Confederate States of America 
from the city of Natchez, and Adams county, Mississippi." 

Turning over and examining its interesting pages, the adjutant 
was reminded of the incident of the young soldier boy of the six- 
ties; and desiring to learn his subsequent fate, so remarked to 
General Will T. Martin, and the other Natchez veterans then 
present. They promptly, and in unison replied : "Why, that was 
Oliver N. Wilds." Thereupon, we turned to the roll of the 
"Natchez Southerns" and there found the record: "Wilds, O. N., 
wounded, disabled, Shiloh, 6, 1862, discharged." Promptly, the 
old adjutant asked: "Is he dead or alive? If alive, where does 
he live, and what has been his subsequent career?" "Alive," was 
the response in unison, and further, "he was at the meeting this 
morning, and will attend the banquet tonight. He lives just 
across the river in Louisiana ; is a prosperous business man, and 
in every respect happy and contented with his fortune and sur- 
roundings." The adjutant expressing his agreeable surprise and 
delight, and evidencing a desire to see his quondam young soldier, 
one of the company went out and soon returned accompanied by 
Mr. Wilds. Instantly, the picture photographed upon the mem- 
ory of the adjutant more than twenty-nine years before, and un- 
til then remaining so vivid, vanished as he saw standing before 
him, not the young soldier of '62, pallid and bleeding, but a mid- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. ~A.—Sykes. 583 

die-aged, ruddy, and vigorous man with full beard, and without 
a feature to remind him of the former young and bleeding soldier 
boy. As he appeared on this latter occasion before the former 
adjutant, he was like him, a grandfather. Truly, there are resur- 
rection days before, as well as after death; and that occasion 
proved its possibility. 

Another incident, but of an altogether different character, is 
worthy of being perpetuated for its quaint humor, and surprising 
wit, viz. : 

At the intersection of Main and Market streets in the city of 
Columbus, Miss., there has been for more than fifty years, a noble 
artesian well, from which a perpetual stream of cool and pal- 
atable water possessing rare chemical properties steadily flows, 
and which never fails to attract the eye of the passing stranger. 
At this well one morning about the close of the war, a town 
darkey, Charles Timberlake, familiarly called "Cub," then as now 
a "carrier'' or, and general utility man of one of our city papers, 
and universally respected for his uniform politeness and innate 
kindness of heart, was standing with cup in hand, when a pomp- 
ous and self-assertive United States colored soldier in full uni- 
form, just arrived with his regiment to garrison this city, stopped 
in passing, and "shying his castor" with overbearing truculence, 
and intoxicated with verbosity of his own importance, demanded 
of "Cub" the use of his cup for a drink of water. After the col- 
ored soldier in uniform had sufficiently quaffed of the satiating 
stream, he smacked his lips and With elaborate fullness, and in a 
satisfied and self-assuming tone of voice, and whilst "Cub" was 
mentally sizing him up, said : 

"I golly, darkey, that water's good, show's you bo'n." 

"Cub," realizing that his interlocutor, though having on the fed- 
eral uniform, was just out of his master's cotton field where he 
belonged, and entertaining a supreme contempt for him and his 
kind, threw himself back on his dignity and with an air of great 
importance, replied : 

"In course hit's good ; hit's boun'ter be good, for hit come 4,000 
foot from der intrils of der yearth, and hit's been scanderlized by 

584: Mississippi Historical Society. 

der bes' gymnas from der State Onaversary, and w'atever think 
he say got in it ?" 

"I dunno," the bumptuous, but by this time nonplussed and some- 
what subdued soldier darkey, after swallowing another cupful of 
water, and smacking his lips, replied . 

Realizing that his time had come to show t. his importance, 
"Cub," with assumed superior learning, gravely said: 

"Well, Nigger, I'll tell you. Dere is ten grains oxhide gas, ten 
grains cowbonic gas, ten grains foxforus acid and seventy grains 
hydrophobia in dat water, and you know hit boun'ter be good; 
dat' a tease yer well, you bet," and "Cub" walked away leaving 
the soldier darkey shaking his head and meditating. Finally, the 
latter remarked, "Hit do taste powful ob der raw-hide." 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A. — Sykes. 585 


Roster of Field and Staff of 34th Mississippi Regiment. — Major 
Mason. — Captain Falconer. — Correspondence of the Adju- 
tant and Inspector General's office as to their rank. 

It was the original purpose of the author to give in the ap- 
pendix hereto, a roster of the field, staff and company officers 
of each regiment of the brigade, and noting the dates of the re- 
spective promotions. To this end, I had prepared from the 
brigade books a reasonably accurate roster, but being informed 
that in the "record and pension, division" of the war depart- 
ment at Washington under the immediate charge of General 
F. C. Ainsworth, United States army, the original rosters cap- 
tured at the fall of Richmond are on file, and will ultimately 
be published, as provided by act of congress, approved Feb- 
ruary 25, 1903,* I forego the otherwise pleasant duty as first 
designed and purposed by me, and will accordingly give only a 
roster of the field and staff of the 34th Mississippi regiment. 
This is given for the reason only, that upon a contest for the 
majority of said regiment made whilst the brigade was at Shel- 
byville, Tenn., in the spring of 1863, the war department made 
an all important, controlling and decisive ruling, affecting and 
vacating hundreds, if not thousands of official positions that 
had, from time to time, been filled by appointment of military 
commanders in the field, without warrant or authority of law. 

♦The Act of Congress referred to, enacted as follows: "That un- 
der the direction of the secretary of war the chief of the record and 
pension office shall compile, from such official records as are in the 
possession of the United States and from such other authentic records 
as may be obtained by loan from the various states and other offi- 
cial sources, a complete roster of the officers and enlisted men of the 
Union and Confederate armies." 

586 Mississippi Historical Society. 


Organized at Holly Springs, Miss., April 19, 1862, and Num- 
bering 779 Officers and Enlisted Men. 

Samuel Benton of Marshall county, colonel. By original elec- 
tion, was promoted brigadier-general, July 26, 1864, and 
died of wounds received in battle in front of Atlanta, July 
28, 1864, whilst in command of the brigade and before re- 
ceiving commission as brigadier. His death occurred in 
hospital at Griffin, Ga. 

Daniel B. Wright, of Tippah county, lieutenant colonel. By 
original election. Wounded at Perryville. Resigned in 
May, 1863. 

A. T. Mason, major. Appointed by General Bragg and filled 
the office until March, 1863, when the war department 
vacated the office and ordered an election to fill it. He 
was wounded at Perryville and was permitted to retire 
from the service. (See note to this roster.) 

W. G. Pegram, of Tippah county, major. By promotion to fill 
vacancy, vice A. T. Mason, retired. Wounded at Chicka- 
mauga. Resigned in 1861. 

Thomas A. Falconer of Marshall county, major captain of 
Company F, would have succeeded to the majority on the 
retirement of A. T. Mason, had it not been that the cap- 
tain just before said retirement, had resigned his commis- 
sion as captain. He, however, made application for rein- 
statement, and promotion to the majority. The applica- 
tion was disapproved; whereupon Captain W. G. Pegram 
of Company A, was promoted major. (See note to this 

Thomas W. Miller of Tippah county, adjutant. Was captured 
in battle of Lookout Mountain, and made his escape whilst 
en route to Rock Island prison, by leaping from the car 
window whilst the train was under full speed in northern 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 587 

Ohio. He was killed near Atlanta, Ga., August 3, 1864, 
in a brush with the enemy. His body was found inside 
the enemy's works. 

A. T. Scruggs, of Marshall county, surgeon. Was soon de- 
tailed for hospital duty. 

John Y. Murry, of Tippah county, surgeon. Was captain ot 
company A. At his request was assigned to duty as sur- 
geon, vice Scruggs, detailed. He soon (in 1862) resigned. 

W. M. Compton, of Marshall county, assistant surgeon. Com- 
missioned in 1862, at Tupelo, Miss., and soon after trans- 
ferred to the 2d Texas cavalry as surgeon thereof. 

Groves, of Alabama. Assigned to regiment, vice Murry, 

resigned. . . 

Frank Ferrell, of Tippah county. Was of Company K, and 
passing the examining board, was assigned as assistant 
surgeon, vice Compton, resigned. 

John A. Hooper, of Marshall county, A. C. S. Promoted in 
1863, to brigade A. C. S. 

L. Rogan, lieutenant and A. C. S. 

H. A. Stubbs, of Tippah county, A. Q. M. Remained such to 
the close of the war. 

Clifton Dancy, of Marshall county, sergeant major. He was 
promoted by regular gradations through the commis- 
sioned ofnces of company H, of which he was a member. 
Only a few days preceding the surrender, and when the 
regiments of Brantley's brigade were consolidated -into one 
regiment, numbered 24, he was appointed lieutenant col- 
onel of it. 

This regiment was in the various skirmishes and fights 
around Corinth just subsequent to the battle of Shiloh and prior 
to its evacuation by General Beauregard. It was at that time 
in the brigade of General Patton Anderson. Together with 
the 24th, 2?th and 30th Mississippi regiments it was conspicu- 
ous for its gallantry in the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 
8, 1862. It went into that battle as a part of Anderson's di- 
vision, and in a brigade temporarily commended by Col. T. M. 

588 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Jones of the 27th Mississippi regiment with 310 rank and file. 
It came out with 170, its losses being 140 officers and men. 
Every field officer was wounded. 

Though this regiment was not organized until the spring of 
1862, many of its officers had previously served a twelve 
months term with the old 9th Mississippi regiment, and had 
been discharged at the end of their said term of service. Its 
colonel, Samuel Benton, was captain of Company D in the old 
9th Mississippi regiment. 

Captain Thomas A. Falconer, father of Major Kinlock Fal- 
coner, Assistant Adjutant General Army of Tennessee, was a 
private, as were also his sons, Kinlock and Howard, in com- 
pany B of said regiment. The father had been discharged at 
Pensacola, Fla., in the fall of 1861, on account of old age, and 
was complimented in general orders from army headquarters 
for his patriotism and self sacrifice. 

Clifton Dancy, respectively sergeant major 34th, lieutenant 
and captain of Company H of said regiment, and lieutenant 
colonel of the consolidated 24th Mississippi regiment, had 
been a private in Company D of the old 9th Mississippi regi- 
ment. And Captains Rogers and Wilkins, and many others 
of this, the 34th Mississippi regiment, had belonged to the old 
9th during its first twelve months term of enlistment. 

Referring to the office of major of this regiment when sup- 
posed to be filled by A. T. Mason, and after his retirement, 
claimed by Captain Falconer, the adjutant and inspector g«n- 
eral's department, Richmond, Va., refused to commission either, 
or in any manner recognize their, or either of their, claims to 
the office, for the reason given that the first named claimant 
was merely an appointee of General Bragg; whilst the other 
had, previous to his claim of right to the majority, resigned his 
captaincy. As shown by the following communications from 
the adjutant and inspector general's department addressed to 
Colonel Samuel Benton, commanding 34th Mississippi regi- 
ment, and to General Walthall, neither of said applicants was 
ever major by any rightful authority. 

•History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 589 

"Confederate States of America, 
War Department, 
Adj't and Inspector GenTs Office, 
Richmond, Va., May 12th, 1863. 

Paragraph 111 general orders No. 38 and I. G. office, current 
series, is simply declaratory. There has never been, any law or 
custom, which vested the power of appointment in military com- 
manders. The offices to which you allude are therefore vacant, 
the department itself being without authority to confirm appoint- 
ments, where elections should have been held. The vacancy in 
the majority of your regiment is an original one, to be filled in the 
same manner as the colonel and lieutenant colonel. The order 
did not make the law, which has existed alike in the old and new 

The incumbents cannot properly receive pay therefore for serv- 
ices which were not legally rendered by them. 
By command of the Secretary of War. 

Very respectfully, colonel, 

-Your obedient servant, 

(Sg) Sam'l W. Melton, 
To Major and A. A. General. 

Col. Sam '1 Benton, 

Comd'g 31th Miss. Reg't, 

Wither's Division, A. of Tenn. 

So depleted from casualties in battle and other causes inci- 
dent to the service had this regiment become before the 
close of the war, that at the date of its surrender with the army 
of Tennessee at Greensboro, N. C, it was commanded by a cap- 
tain : that captain being the gallant and efficient Thomas 
Spight, the present able representative in congress from the 
2d congressional district of Mississippi. 

590 " Mississippi Historical Society. 


Mrs. Gen. E. C. Walthall— Mrs. Gen. J. Patton' Anderson.— 
Brigadier General W. H. Lytle. 

But this incomplete sketch would be more imperfect, were 
it to close without introducing another important member of 
the brigade. It would be like the artist leaving his unfinished 
picture in his studio for other hands to complete, and who per- 
haps were not aware of his particular conception of genius 
that was to crown it a masterpiece. Hence, I know in ad- 
vance, that I will be pardoned for introducing Mrs. Walthall 
to the readers of this sketch. 

From the day she made her first visit to the General ("My 
Edward," as she familiarly called him), at Camp Autry, near 
Shelbyville, Tenn., in February, 1863, she was a constant and 
indispensable integral part of her husband's brigade, and shared 
with him his honors. 

Having no children to claim her attention or time at home, 
she was left free to, and did reign in her husband's camp with 
the cheerful vivacity which threw a charm over the surround- 
ings of the soldier, and gave tone, character, and an atmos- 
phere of orderly refinement, not only to her husband's imme- 
diate military family, but also, by her native graces and kind- 
ness of heart, so endeared herself to the officers and men of the 
brigade, as to cause them to vie in meriting the approving 
smiles of their second in command. Indeed, the gentle, 
queenly graces of her intercourse with, and womanly bearing 
towards all, impressed her personality upon them, whilst her 
affable disposition and captivating manners, won for her uni- 
versal respect and esteem. 

No one did, or could have taken greater interest in the welfare 
of soldiers, or exulted more in their fame and chivalric deeds, 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C S. A.—Sykes. 591 

than did Mrs. Walthall. Indeed, she considered their camp her 
home, and each member of the brigade as a part of her house- 

It was only when an engagement was imminent, that she would 
yield reluctant consent to be separated from the brigade. At 
such times she would retire to the quiet home of her quondam 
friend of girlhood days, Mrs. Dudley M. DnBose, a married 
daughter of General Robert Toombs, at Washington, Ga., 34 but 
to remain there only until word reached her that it was safe for 
her to return to the army. 

On the retreat of our army to Chattanooga in the latter part of 
June, 1863, Mrs. Walthall came near being cut off from the com- 
mand and captured. Two of her companions, Mrs. General J. 
Patton Anderson and her mother, were intercepted and fell into 
the hands of the federals, and were detained at Bridgeport, Ala. ; 
but, during their short detention it was ascertained who they were, 
and why detained, and as it resulted, were most courteously 
treated by the officer in command at that place, and as soon as 
practicable were sent into our lines under an escort furnished by 
that gentlemanly, courtly and gallant Federal soldier, Brigadier 
General William H. Lytle ( author of the beautiful verses on the 
dead Egyptian queen, captioned in the words of Shakespeare, "I 
am dying, Eeypt, dying"), and who, unfortunately for American 
literature, and exemplar of refined and chivalric bearing, was pre- 
maturely killed in the battle of Chickamauga. 

Remembering the kindness and the many and chivalric courte- 
sies extended by General Lytle to General Anderson's wife and 
mother when detained by the Federals at Bridgeport, the latter, in 
front of whose division lines General Lytle was killed on Septem- 
ber 19th, 1863, learning that his body had been rifled by some of 
our men, took it upon himself to make personal investigation of 
the rumored facts. Finding them to be true, he apprehended the 
guilty parties, and securing most of the valuables taken from the 
body, sent them with the body of the dead general, under a flag 
of truce, to General Rosecrans at Chattanooga. 

With the exception named above, Mrs. Walthall, by the pru- 
dent foresight of her husband, was spared the inconveniences in- 

592 Mississippi Historical Society. 

cident to being in the least danger of falling into the hands of the 
enemy. Yet, her experiences with the brigade — both in camp and 
on the march — might be expanded by the romancer into a-volume 
full of picturesque and interesting incidents. 

Mrs. Walthall, nee Mary L. Jones, was born and reared in 
Mecklinburg county, Va. As a young lady, she spent much of 
her time in the fashionable society of Washington City, and at 
the then famous summer resorts of that state ; and whenever and 
wherever she made her appearance, she was recognized as a belle 
of the place and occasion. 

In 1860 she was married to General Walthall, then a rising 
young lawyer at the Mississippi bar, and a most successful district 
attorney for the tenth judicial district in said state. She died at 
the home of her niece and adopted daughter, Mrs. John B. Ross, 
in Memphis, Tenn., December 11th, 1898, and was buried by the 
side of her illustrious husband, in the graveyard at Holly Springs, 

I cannot gain my consent to close this imperfect "sketch" with- 
out making special, but brief mention of a few of my comrades. 
And while conscious of freedom from even seeming invidious- 
ness, yet I feel embarrassed in singling out any of my comrades, 
when every man of the brigade, from the highest line officer to 
the youngest private, inspired by the presence of their brigade 
chief, discharged their every duty on all occasions. 

There was Charles B. Howry, 1st lieutenant of company "A," 
29th Mississippi regiment, Walthall's old regiment, now and con- 
tinuously since the commencement of the second term of Cleve- 
land's administration, an associate justice United States court of 
claims, Washington, D. C, as knightly a soldier as ever drew 
blade. In the bloody battle of Franklin, Tenn., he was danger- 
ously wounded and had to be taken from the field. I refrain 
from giving free expression to my admiration for this gallant old 
comrade. He is my personal friend, and I rarely meet him that 
my heart does not go out to him in memory of our army com- 
radeship. Lest I appear tedious in characterizing him, I will 
only add, that never a duty involving courage and bold enterprise 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 593 

confronted him that Charles B. Howry did not nobly undertake 
and gallantly surmount it. 

His company ("A," 29th Mississippi) associate and lifelong 
friend, now the Rev. E. A. Smith, chaplain of Walthall's (U. C 
V.) post bellum brigade, is a noble, self-sacrificing comrade and 
devoted to every interest of the brigade. Indeed, his soldierly, 
yea, Christian fellowship with each and every member of the "old 
command," induced him lately to place in pamphlet form a sub- 
stantial, though necessarily imperfect "record of Walthall's bri- 
gade." He was, though quite young, a gallant soldier of "the 
lost cause," as was attested by the dangerous wound he received 
on the ensanguined field of Chickamauga. The ball w r hich 
wounded him tore through his right lung, passed through his 
body, and injured him for life. God bless and preserve him to a 
ripe old age of usefulness. 

Captain Thomas Spight, company "B," 34th Mississippi regi- 
ment, was another of those brave, chivalric comrades of the "old 
brigade," who lives to be honored by all who know him. He is 
now, and has been since his election for the unexpired term in the 
fifty-fifth congress, a member of that body in the "lower house," 
representing the 2d congressional district of Mississippi. He 
was the youngest' captain in the brigade. He participated in 
nearly all the battles fought by the Army of Tennessee following 
that of Shiloh. He was severely wounded on the 22d of July, 
1864, near Atlanta, Ga., but recovering, reported for duty with 
his company at -the earliest practicable day, and was in command 
of the remnant of his regiment, when on April 26th, 1865, the 
Army of the Tennessee, under command of Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston, surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina. God spare 
this gallant soldier for a prolonged term of usefulness in the 
body he is now so ably representing. 

And what can I, without feeling, say of my dear departed 
friend, comrade and associate on the brigade staff — first lieu- 
tenant George M. Govan? Indeed, nothing that I could write 
would appear extravagant to those who knew him. Not only 
have our families been intimately associated since the war of the 
60's, but our mothers — both long since dead — were not only 

594 Mississippi Historical Society. 

schoolmates, but class-mates, yea, closer — they were roommates 
at the then noted female college in Warrenton, North Carolina, 
presided over by Mordecai, the Jewish scholar and instruc- 
tor, and who later moved to and died in Mobile, Ala. In the days 
of the war, when George's mother with her family were refugees 
from their home in Holly Springs, and she a welcomed guest at 
the home of my mother, it was refreshing to hear the two old 
ladies talk of their schoolmate days — when as recognized by all 
they were maiden beauties, and admired for their intelligence. 
Yea! it was beautiful, indeed charming, to hear them address 
each other in their familiar way of old, as "Mary" and "Martha." 

Reared in the same town — Holly Springs, Walthall and George 
were — as were their families — bosom friends from early boy- 
hood. Not to be too explicit (but I know whereof I speak), 
they came near being brothers-in-law ; and had they, the name 
of Miss Bettie Govan would have become only a cherished mem- 

George was a military man from taste as shown by his fond- 
ness for commanding and drilling men even in the piping times 
of peace. During the Spanish-American war, he was appointed 
by Governor McLaurin, colonel of the 1st Mississippi regiment 
enlisted for that service, and his regiment was ordered to ren- 
dezvous at Chickamauga, near Chattanooga — the field where 
thirty-five years previous he had distinguished himself as an 
officer on the staff of the brilliant Walthall. It is painful to re- 
cord that during his said duties he contracted a deep-seated cold, 
which soon after the declaration of peace — to-wit, on the 14th 
day of April, 1899, and whilst under treatment in New Orleans, 
terminated in death. 

In 1876 he was elected and served as clerk of the Mississippi 
house of representatives ; was a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives from Amite county during the legislative session of 
1884, and from January 14th, 1886, to January 20th, 1896, was 
secretary of state of Mississippi. 

Peace to your ashes, my gallant comrade and friend. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 595 


And now having, in an imperfect manner, recorded the bril- 
liant achievements of the "old brigade," let me, in concluding, 
record a reflection as to the present and future duties of that 
gallant body of men and their associate soldiery of the Confed- 
eracy. Its true sentiment is embodied in the language of the pa- 
triotic and eloquent Bishop Charles B. Galloway of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church South, who has aptly said: "In some 
things, I believe in the 'policy of the sponge'. The highest 
spirituality has a genius for forgetting, as well as forgiving. 
We may cherish the love of principles, but the memories of pas- 
sion and conflict ought to die forever. If the late honored Pres- 
ident (McKinley), of this great nation, himself a gallant Fed- 
eral soldier, who had braved the storm of war, and felt the wild 
shock of battle, could so magnanimously suggest that the gov- 
ernment should tenderly care for the graves of the Confederate 
dead, surely we * * * as 'gallant Confederate soldiers,' 
ought not stir afresh the divine embers of strife. * * * " To 
which I will add that, really and in truth, when reduced to its 
final analysis it will be found that this needless crimination and 
recrimination among opposing soldiers of the civil war, is con- 
fined to a few military anachronisms, post-bellum and blatant 
heroes, whose "courage manifests itself in crowing after all dan- 
ger has passed and the smoke of battle has cleared away." 

596 Mississippi Historical Society. 


Appendix A. 

Notes to the Foregoing Sketch. 

Note 1, p. 486 : See Memoir of S. S. Prentiss, edited by his 
brother, vol. 2, pp. 71-113, where the speech 
in defense of Judge Wilkinson appears. 

Note 2, p. 487: See lb., vol. 1, pp. 265-316, where the speech 
in the "contested election case," appears. 

Note 3, p. 498: See the report of Brigadier-General J. Patton 
Anderson, in Serial No. 29, p. 762, "War of 
the Rebellion." 

Note 4, p. 502: See Brigadier-General H. R. Anderson's re- 
port, in Serial No. 6, p. 460, lb. 

Note 5, p. 522 : See report of General J. Patton Anderson, re- 
ferred to in Note 3 ; wherein the following 
mention of Colonel T. M. Jones appears on 
p. 764 in brackets thus : "(The evening before 
— referring to the battle of Murfreesboro — 
the colonel of the regiment, Colonel Thomas 
M. Jones, had gone to the rear complaining 
of being unwell, and had not returned during 
the action)." At the opening of the battle 
of Perryville, Ky. (October 8th, 1862), Col- 
onel Jones as senior colonel, was in com- 
mand of a brigade composed of his (27th 
Mississippi), and other Mississippi regi- 
ments. His conduct on that field is said to 
have been absolutely shameful. In fact, it 
was the common talk among the officers and 
men of his brigade, that when the firing be- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A — Sykes. 597 

came severe, he sought protection in a ditch, 
and left his brigade to take care of itself as 
best it could. And that when all danger had 
passed, he rejoined and resumed command of 
the brigade. This was the first and only in- 
t stance of a Mississippi brigade being de- 

serted by its commander under fire during 
the entire four years of war. But, be it said 
to the credit of Mississippi, Colonel Jones 
was not a Mississippian, nor was he elected 
by Mississippians to command them. Qol- 
onel Jones was a ''West Pointer," and as 
such was presumed, until "his mettle was 
* tried," that he would act the Mississippian 

in time of trial ; but he did not, and hence his 
removal from command of Mississippians. 

Note 6, p. 526 : Though graduated from West Point, Liddell 
was an officer illy- fitted, by reason of undue 
excitability, to personally command troops 
in time of action. He resided in Arkansas, 
and at his own request made whilst the 
army was at Dalton, Ga., he was transferred 
to the Trans-Mississippi department. After 
which, Colonel Daniel C. Govan, senior col- 
onel of Liddell's brigade, on February 5, 
1864, to rank from December 29, 1863, was 
promoted Brigadier-General to command it. 
The latter was, in every respect, capable, 
and competent, indeed, proved himself one 
of the most superb brigade commanders in 
Hardee's corps ; which is equivalent to say- 
ing, one of the best in the army. He is yet 
living in Memphis, Tenn. Liddell died in 
New Orleans, La., several years subsequent 
to the close of the war. 

Note 7, p. 526: General Walker treated his star! officers with 
the utmost consideration and deferential cour- 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

tesy. Lookmg upon himself as superior to 
the ordinary commander, his vanity was 
such as to prompt him to treat his staff be- 
cause of their personal association with him 
as hkewise superior to the ordinary subal- 
tern. Though an irritable dyspeptic, he was 
brave as Julius Caesar. He was killed atthe 
head of his division whilst bravely leading 
it into battle near Atlanta, Ga., on July 23d, 
x«o4, and a fine monumental shaft, incjosed 
with an iron rail fence, marks the spot where 

At the breaking out of the war, he was 
heutenant-colonel in the United States 
Army, an d resigned his commission to ac- 
cept service in the army of his native (Ga ) 

™\x ? C and Lieuten ant-Colonel Hardee 
IW. H.), were appointed by Governor Joe 
Brown, colonels respectively, of the first two 
regiments raised in Georgia for the Civil 
war. He was frequently mentioned with 
favorable comment by General Winfield 

ITXJ 1 ! reP ° rtS ° f his cam P a; g"s in Mex- 
ico, 184,-8, and once characterized by him, 
as the bravest of the brave." 
^te 8, p. 529: S Qf Brigadier . General ^ 

Semi No. 51j pp , m _ m> « War of th Re _ 

Note 9, p. 530: See Ibid, p. 275 N 

Note 10, p. 531: Ibid, pp. 277-287 
Note n, p. 532 : See charges and Specifications set out in Serial 

Note 12 p 530 . .J " **' P " 3 }°> " War of the Rebellion/' 
«otel2,p.o3.. See correspondence covering charges and spe- 

Notel3 D 533- JTT™* ""f^ *■ Ib, ' d< PP ' 292 ~ 313 - 
«otel3,p.533. See charges and specifications with explana- 

toryorrespondence appearing in Ibid, pp. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— Sykes. 599 

Note 14, p. 533 : See General Bragg's letter— Appendix "C" 
hereto — to the author of this "sketch," under 
date of February 8th, 1873, written with lead 
pencil on legal cap paper, — the original of 
which is on file in the archives of the "South- 
ern Historical Society" at Richmond, Va. It 
was filed there with other letters of General 
Bragg to the author, and along with other 
valuable war papers, solicited by Rev. J. 
Wm. Jones, the then secretary of said so- 
ciety. A copy of said letter is filed as an ap- 
pendix to this "sketch." Dr. Polk, of New 
York, a son and staff officer of the lamented 
general, a short while after the appearance 
in the "Southern Historical Society Papers" 
of the "Cursory Sketch of General Bragg's 
Campaign," contributed by the author, 
wrote for a copy of said letter. He was in- 
formed where the letter was, and given per- 
mission to write for, and obtain a copy there- 
of. Said letter appears in extenso on pp. 308 
to 313, both inclusive, with comments of Doc- 
tor Polk on pp. 306-7, of his work on "Leon- 
idas Polk" — Bishop and General, Vol. 2. 

Note 15, p. 536 : See General Bragg's letter, Appendix D. 

Note 16, p. 537 : General J. K. Jackson was an accomplished 
and highly educated gentleman, and of com- 
manding personal appearance. He was a 
splendid officer in camps, but was deficient 
in the necessary element of a good com- 
mander in time of action. He died February 
22, 1866. 

Note 17, p. 537 : And for which Boker received the doubtful 
honor of United States Minister to Turkey, 
during the administration of President 

600 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Note 18, p. 538: Major-General Stevenson was on top of Look 

dtpo r nt s t b th sk (6) briies " 

55 oL Z gg$ rep ° rt in Serial No. 
55 p. 664, "War of the Rebellion." Though 
a West Pointer, and an officer (Major, I £ 

£2 th the ": !d service " * the b -i 

Z sessinl 6 War ' He neV6r impressed me -^ 
possessing any superior military qualifica- 
tions. p hysJcal , y he was sman "J*** 

prepossessing m appearance, and as f ar a mv 
observa^on extended, was correspond^ 

Note 19 D ,„■. „ "•. He dled Au ^t 15- 1888. 

S:^ (n ° W United Sta ^ Sena- 
da edSef^r, 33 * W - Pe " US < in a Ie «er 
dated Selma, Ala., January 3d 1888 

S r e e na S t e o d r t0 W Ge h neral WaItha °' United *** 
mTZ' T?u T° n City ' and attach ed to 
Page 59, of the book containing the corres- 
pondence between Genera. Wa.tha U nd 

St T 1 ?\ Hund1 ^. «« Alabama 
Infantry, and winch book has been placed 
by me m the department of archives and hTs- 
tory, at Jackson, Mississippi. In the letter 

r e r; e K to r' ? nerai pettus >^ * s. 

era J. K. Jackson, the name, or sobriquet- 
so t a m, in th amy _ of ^^J 

the Rebe hon," Serial No . M , p . 693 . ^ 

belnon ' T-1 v ePOrt ' S6e " War of the R- 
belon, Sen a , No. 55, , 704. For General 

SeSV P , ' S lV' War ° f the Rebdli °"." 
xt oenai j\o. 5o, n. 731 - 

Note21,p.539: Sale wa « ft, e * . 

27^ Capta ' n of Com P a '^ "K," 

27th,ppi regiment; later, he was de- 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A. — Sykes. 


tailed to serve as assistant judge advocate- 
general on the staff of General Bragg, com- 
manding the Army of Tennessee; and still 
later at the time referred to, was a member 
of the "military court" for Hardee's corps; 
and yet later, and until the close of the war, 
was "military secretary" on the personal 
staff of General Bragg with headquarters at 
Richmond, whilst that general was acting in 
the capacity of "military advisor" to the 
president. Sale was a distinguished lawyer 
at the Aberdeen (Mississippi) bar, before 
and after the war — being the senior member 
of the firm of "Sale & Phelan." Colonel 
Sale died at his home in Aberdeen, Miss., 
January 24, 1876, whilst in the full vigor of 
a noble manhood. < 

General Bragg, referring to Colonel Sale 
in his letter to me of February 8th, 1873, 
writes : "He was the most reliable and valu- 
able staff officer I had, and is remembered 
with affection and gratitude." 

Note 22, p. 539 : See letter of General Pettus referred to in the 
next two preceding notes. 

Note 23, p. 540 : A portion of Hardee's corps, at that time com- 
manded by Major- General Cleburne, was 
far in advance on our extreme right, and 
steadily driving the enemy's left flank under 
the command of Sherman. 

Note 24, p. 540 : See "War of the Rebellion/' Serial No. 55, 
p. 665. Though General Bragg was first im- 
pressed that the break in our lines occurred 
on the right of Anderson's division, he later 
became satisfied that it was General Alex- 
ander W. Reynolds brigade, just arrived 
from service in East Tennessee, which first 
gave way and could not be rallied. See Gen- 

602 Mississippi Historical Society. 

eral Bragg's letter to me; also, the corres- 
pondence between ex-Governor James D. 
Porter, of Tennessee, and myself (November, 
. 1883) filed as appendix "B", to this sketch. 

Note 25, p. 541 : See, ''War of the Rebellion," Serial No. 55, 
p. 697. 

Note 26, p. 542 : Same reference as next preceding. 

Note 27, p. 543 : Said letter is with my file of army papers 
Though the adjutant-general, the writer was 
not present xor duty during the battles of' 
Lookout Mt. and Missionary Ridge. At the 
time he was on "leave of absence," enjoying 
his "honeymoon" with his young, beautiful 
and accomplished bride, to whom, on the 
16th day of the month (November), 1863, he 
was at Columbus, Miss., united in wedlock. 
During the author's absence on said leave, 
Lieutenant John C. Harrison was acting as- 
sistant adjutant-general of the brigade, and 
on duty as such. 

Note 28, p. 545 : Hon. B. H. Hill's address before the Georgia 
branch of the Southern Historical Society, 
at its meeting at Atlanta, February 18, 1874. 

Note 29, p. 545 : First, by resignation of General Bragg, and the 
temporary assignment of General Hardee, 
December 2d, 1863. Second, by the assign- 
ment of General Joseph E. Johnston to the 
command on December 27th, 1863. See, 
"War of the Rebellion," Serial No. 56, p. 873. 

Note, 30, p. 561 : See letter of Hon. B. H. Hill, of Georgia, writ- 
ten at Atlanta, October 12, 187S, and appear- 
ing in vol. 2, "Rise and Fall of Confederate 
States," pp. 557-561. 

Note 31, p. 564: See "Advance and Retreat," by General" John- 
B. Hood, pp. S9-95. 

Note 32, p. 572 : The application of General W. H. Jackson, 
commanding cavalry division, for my trans- 

History of Walthall's Brigade ; C. S. K.—Sykes. 


fer to his staff as adjutant-general, hung fire 
for some days, and until I could secure for 
General Walthall the services of an officer 
that would be acceptable to him as his assist- 
tant adjutant-general. This I finally did in 
the person of Captain Wm. R. Barksdale, 
then adjutant-general of Featherstone's 
Note 33, p. 578, 579 : At the time and place of the official an- 
nouncement of said consolidations, there were 
present Lieutenant-General S. D. Lee, com- 
manding the corps, Major-General D. H. Hill, 
commanding the division, and the command- 
ers of the several brigades concerned, viz.: 
... Sharp's, Brantley's, Manigault's and John- 
ston's (Geo. D.). In making announcement 
of the consolidated regiments, brigades and 
brigade commanders as then arranged, Gen- 
eral Lee stated that the consolidated regi- 
ments of Sharp's and Brantley's would con- 
stitute one brigade to be commanded by 
Brigadier-General Sharp. 

At this announcement, Sharp exclaimed, 
"I have the finest brigade in the Confederate 

Proceeding, General Lee announced that 
Manigault's and Johnston's brigades would 
constitute one brigade to be commanded by 
Brigadier-General Brantley. During this 
time Brantley remained as dumb as an oys- 
ter, and appearing deeply mortified, General 
Lee said to him: ''General Brantley! Gen- 
eral Sharp has expressed himself, what say 
you?" I am not satisfied," replied General. 
Brantley; and then proceeded to remind 
General Lee of his promise made him at 
Franklin. At which, Lee rejoined, "Do you 

• im 

604 Mississippi Historical Society. 

hold me to that promise?" ''I do," replied 
Brantley. Thereupon, General Lee said: "I 
will stand to my promise," and then pro- 
ceeded to make and announce the necessary 
changes in the reorganization to that end. 
In doing so, the brigades of Sharp and Mani- 
gault were placed together under the com- 
mand of Brigadier-General Sharp; and the 
brigades of Brantley and Johnston, placed 
together, under the command of Brigadier- 
General Brantley. 

The consolidated regiments of Sharp's 
, old brigade retained the number, 9th Missis- 
sippi, and was officered as follows: W. C. 
Richards, colonel ; S. S. Calhoon, lieutenant- 
colonel ; J. M. Hicks, major. 
Note 34, p. 591 : Mrs. DuBose resided in Washington, Ga., the 
home town of her distinguished father — 
General Robert Toombs — during the war. 
Her husband — Mr. Dudley M. DuBose — was 
then living and did not die until after the 
close of the war. Mrs. DuBose and Mrs. 
Walthall were intimates, and each a reigning 
belle in Washington City (D. C.) prior to 
their respective marriages. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 605 

Appendix B. 

Correspondence Between Ex-Governor James D. Porter and 
Major E. T. Sykes. 

See "Southern Historical Papers," Vol. 12, pages 45-48. 

A Vindication of Tennessee Troops. 

Major Sykes, of Columbus, has been furnishing a series of in- 
teresting articles on Bragg's campaign in Kentucky, Tennessee 
and Georgia to the Southern Historical papers. In the last of 
these he quoted a statement from General Bragg which was to 
the effect that he, Bragg, always believed the disaster at Mis- 
sion Ridge was due to the giving way of a brigade of troops 
from East Tennessee. The statement attracted much attention 
and led to the correspondence which we publish below, and 
which we copy from the Nashville American of last week: 

The following interesting correspondence has been handed the 
American for publication: 

Nashville, Nov. 12, 18S3.— Maj. E. T. Sykes— Dear Sir: 
In your sketch of General Bragg s campaigns, published in the 
November number of the Southern Historical papers, it is stated 
in note on page 49G, in regard to the battle of Mission Ridge, 
that "Brig. Gen. Alexander W. Reynolds' brigade of East Ten- 
nesseeans were .the first to give way and could not be rallied." 

I claim some familiarity with the distribution of the troops 
from this State, and I am positive that there was not a Tennes- 
sean in Reynolds' brigade. Will you please furnish me with 
your authority for the statement referred to ? 
Very respectfully, 

Tas. D. Porter. 

Columbus, Miss.. Nov. 14, 1S33. — Gov. James D. Porter, 
Nashville, Tenn. — Dear Sir: Yours of the 12th inst. reached 
me today, and I hasten to reply, saying that my authority for -the 
statement in the note on page 49G, of the November number. 
18S3, of the Southern Historical Society Papers, that Brig. Gen. 
Alexander \V. Reynolds* brigade of East Tennesseeans were the 

606 Mississippi Historical Society. 

first to give way at Mission Ridge and could not be rallied, is the 
late General Bragg. In the preparation of the sketch, General 
Bragg furnished me many of his private papers, "preserved from 
the general wreck," and wrote me several letters in answer to 
certain questions at different times asked of him. The state- 
ment to which you called my attention was furnished in answer 
to one of these questions, but did not reach me .until the sketch 
had been published in our city paper, the Columbus Index, then 
edited by our mutual friend General J. H. Sharp. I appended 
the statement and other information furnished me by General 
Bragg in the form of notes, intending at some future time to 
elaborate more at length, but on the visit here last winter of Gen- 
eral George D. Johnston, agent of the Southern Historical Pa- 
pers, he heard of the papers in my possession and asked to read 
them, and then made the request that I furnish them to the so- 
ciety at Richmond. In the following (last) February I received 
from Rev. J. William Jones, secretary of the society, a very urg- 
ent letter requesting copies of my papers. Not having the time 
to make copies, I sent him the original papers by express on the 
13th of February, last, and heard no more from them until I saw 
the first installment of the '■sketch" published in the "Papers." 

The original autograph letter of General Bragg, dated Febru- 
ary 8, 187;^, containing the statement of which you complain, is 
quite lengthy and written entirely with pencil, and, along with 
the other letters, is in the possession of the Southern Historical 
Society, where you can, I presume, by writing to the Secretary, 
obtain a copy. It was in a good state of preservation when for- 
warded by me. 

In his report of the battle of Mission Ridge you will observe 
that General Bragg charges Anderson's division with first giv- 
ing way and permitting the enemy to pierce our center ; but you 
can see by reading the letter of February 8, 1873, a copy of 
which is now before me, he makes the following unqualified dec- 
laration : 

"I have always believed our disasters at Mission Ridge were 
due immediately to misconduct of a brigade of Buckner's troops 
from East Tennessee, commanded by Brig. Gen. Alex. W. Reyn- 
olds, which first gave way and could not be rallied." 

You will find in =aid letter many startling revelations which I 
would not, for obvious reasons, allude to in the "sketch." 

So far as I personally know, this brigade may or may not have 
been composed of Tennesseeans. It may not have had a single 
Tennessee regiment, or company, in it. I only state what was 
given to me as a fact by one who was presumed to know. I trust 
that you will consider me as desiring only to chronicle the truths 

History of Walthall's Brigade-, C. S. A.—Sykes. 607 

of history as furnished by what I considered the most reliable 
source of information, and certainly the general of the army 
should be presumed to be the best repository of all important in- 
formation touching the army under his command. At least I 
feel that you will relieve me of any motive or disposition to mis- 
state important facts, when it is seen that the statements I make 
are backed by the authority of the general commanding. I wished 
only to speak of the facts as they were represented to me, "noth- 
ing extenuate, or set down aught in malice." 
Very respectfully, 

E. T. Sykes. 

Nashville, Nov. 20, 1883.— Maj. E. T. Sykes— Dear Sir: I 
enclose a communication from General M. J. Wright, of the war 
records office, Washington, D. C., in which he eives the organi- 
zation of Reynolds' brigade from the records of the Confederate 
States war department. You will see from this that there were 
no Tennessee troops in Reynolds' brigade. I also enclose a let- 
ter from General Frank Cheatham to the same effect, and to-day 
I was informed by ex-Governor John C. Brown that he had per- 
sonal knowledge of the fact that Reynolds' brigade was formed 
of regiments from North Carolina, and Virginia. My own opin- 
ion is that Reynolds' brigade was in no wise responsible for the 
disaster at Mission Ridge ; but yon will understand that my ob- 
ject just now is to ask you to examine the evidence I furnish and 
to make the correction due to Tennessee. 
Very respectfully, 

J as. D. Porter. 

Columbus, Miss.. Nov. 22. 1883. — Governor James D. Por- 
ter, Nashville, Tenn.— Dear Sir: Your letter of the 20th inst.. 
with inclosures, reached me to-day, and as requested therein, I 
hasten to reply. From your statement, fully indorsed and sup- 
ported by the statements of Generals Cheatham and Wright and 
ex-Governor John C. Brown, all of whom commanded Tennes- 
see troops under General Bragg, I am convinced that there was 
no Tennessee organization in the brigade of General Alexan- 
der W. Reynolds during the Mission Ridge fight, or at any time. 
The evidence furnished by you and them make it certain that 
Reynolds' brigade was composed of the fifty-fourth and sixty- 
third Virginia, fifty-eighth and sixtieth North Carolina infantry 
regiments ; hence, the statement in the note on page 496, of the 
November number, 1883, of the Southern Historical Society Pa- 
pers, that "Brig. Gen. Alexander \V. Reynolds' brigade of East 

608 Mississippi Historical Society. 

Tennesseeans were the first to give way and could not be rallied," 
does injustice to the gallant troops, from your State. 

The authority for the statement in the note referred to is given 
in my letter to you of the 14th inst, which in justice to us both 
should be published along with this. It may be that General 
Bragg intended to convey the idea that Reynolds' brigade had 
just been serving in East Tennessee under Buckner, and had re- 
cently- joined him ; but I submit that his language, quoted in 
mine of the 14th instant, conveys the impression that was made 
use of by me. 

Not wishing to do injustice, or be guilty of a seeming wrong 
to any one, I take pleasure in authorizing you to make such use 
of our correspondence as will put the question in its true light. 

Yours truly, 

E. T. Sykes. 

Copies of communications referred to in foregoing letter of 
Governor Porter, of November 20th, 1883. 

War Department, 
Publication Office, War Records, 1861-65. 

Washington, Nov. 14, 1883. 
Gov. Jas. D. Porter, 

Dear Governor: Your letter received. I send memo' of 
composition of Reynolds' brigade. He never had a Tennessee 
organization in his command. 

The one marked ** is his last command at Missionary Ridge, 
I think. I am sure, however, he never had any Tennessee troops. 
If you want anything more, let me know. 

Your friend, 

(Sg) Marcus J. Wright. 

Memo: A. W. Reynolds' Brigade composed of, 
54 & 63d Virginia Regts Infantry, 

58th & 60th North Carolina Regt's Infantry, Stevenson's bri- 
gade (division.) 

Afterwards composed of, 
M58th North Carolina. 

60th North Carolina. 

54th Virginia. 

63d Virginia. 

Darden's Battery; JefTres' Battery; Kolb's Battery, Buck- 
ner's Division. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 609 

Buck Grove, Nov. 16th, (1883.) 
I suppose you mean Missionary Ridge. There were no Ten- 
nessee troops in Reynolds' Brigade. You are right, it was Dea's 
Brigade that broke first. Vaughn's Brigade was in General Pat- 
ton Anderson's Division and was on his right, and joined my 
left. I will possibly be down Sunday or Monday, and will call 
and see you. 

(Sg) B. F. C. 

Appendix C. 

Letter from Major E. T. Sykes to General Bragg. 

Columbus. Miss., January 25th, 1873. 
General Braxton Bragg. 

Mobile. Ala. 

Dear Sir: At the solicitation^ of some of your numerous 
friends and admirers here. I am preparing a cursory sketch of 
yourself and campaigns, for publication in our tri-weekly city 
paper, "The Columbus Index." I have hastily followed you 
from the beginning of your service — commencine at Pensacola, 
sketched your participation in the battle of Shiloh, the Ken- 
tucky campaign, the battle of Murfreesboro, etc., and have now 
reached the point where T wish to describe the battles of Chicka- 
maug;a, and Mission Ridge, before concluding the sketch. To 
do this satisfactorily, it is necessary that I be enlightened on two 
or three points, and as I wish accuracy to characterize mv narra- 
tive, I will presume to ask of you the wished for information at 
the disagreeable hazard of being considered impertinent. 

1st. Did not General Polk delay moving on the morning of 
the second day at Chickamauga an hour or more after the ap- 
pointed time, although the order for his movement was issued 
the night previous, therebv jeopardizing your plans, and for 
that reason was subsequently placed in arrest? 

2nd. What Federal command was it that General Hindman 
was ordered to cut off in McLemore's Cove near Lafayette, Ga., 
a few days preceding the battle of Chickamauga? And did 
Hindman have more than his own division? And was he not 
suspended from command for his failure? Would not his. suc- 
cess on that occasion have given you great advantage over the 
remainder of the enemy? 


610 Mississippi Historical Society. 

3rd. Was not General D. H. Hill's critical, captious and dic- 
tatorial manner one of the prime causes of the failure of the 
army to defeat General Grant at Mission Ridge? Or, was it as 
reported by you to the department at Richmond, in substance ; 
attributable to the unaccountable and inexplicable conduct of a 
portion of our troops? And if attributable to the latter, what 
troops ? 

I would be g"lad, dear General, to have an early response to 
these inquiries — if deemed prudent by you to furnish them — 
in order that I may complete the pleasant task before me. 

The narrative is being published by installments — the weekly 
which I will send you, to contain a consolidation of the tri-weekly 
installments. I will continue to send you the papers until the 
"sketch," for which I claim some merit for a fair recital of facts, 
etc., although necessarily imperfect, is completed. I am whom 
you once knew, but have now most probably forgotten, the as- 
sistant adjutant general on the staff of the gallant Walthall. 

With sentiments of the highest esteem, I am one of your old 
officers and admirers, 

. . (Sg) E. T. Sykes. 

P. S. — I occasionally see our mutual friend, and my relative, 
Col. John B. Sale, and frequently hear from him by letter or 
through friends. He is in perfect health and doing, as always, 
a large and lucrative practice. The last time^I was in Aberdeen, 
I took tea at his home and saw his little pet, "Braxton Bragg." 
He is in every sense worthy of the name, and I know that you 
would, could you see him, feel proud of your namesake. 

Appendix D. 

Letter from General Bragg to Major E. T. Sykcs. 

Mobile, 8th February, '73. 
Major E. T. Sykes, 

Columbus, Miss. 
My dear Sir : I received yours of the 25th. ult. and not only 
comply with your request cheerfully but thank you for the oppor- 

It is due to the gallant army of which you were a. member, 
that its history should not be left entirely to the ignorant and the 
prejudiced; and I rejoice to see so worthy a soldier — a represen- 

History of Walthall's Brigade ; C. S. A.—Sykes. 611 

tative young man, who cannot be suspected of partiality, coming 
to the task. It will afford me pleasure to aid you, not only with 
facts within my knowledge, but with documentary evidence, of 
which I have a large quantity, preserved from the general wreck. 

I reply to your questions. 

1st. "Did not General Polk delay moving on the morning 
of the second day at Chickamauga an hour or more after the ap- 
pointed time, although the order for his movement was issued 
the night previous, thereby jopardizing your plans, and for that 
reason was subsequently place in arrest?" 

This question is best answered by my official report — and I 
send you by this day's mail a written copy, which I must beg you 
to preserve and return, as it is invaluable to me. In addition to 
what is there said, I can now add — that the staff officer sent to 
General Polk, Major Lee, assistant adjutant general, to urge his 
compliance with orders of the previous night, reported to me 
that he found him at a farm house three miles from the line of 
his troops, about one hour after sunrise, sitting on the gallery, 
reading a newspaper, and waiting as he (the general) said, for 
his breakfast. It was nine o'clock before I got him into position, 
and about ten before the attack was made. Five precious hours 
— in which our independence might have been Won. 

As soon as time would allow. General Polk was called on for 
an explanation. The order given him the night before in the 
presence of several generals was plain and emphatic, and before 
he left me he was asked if he fully understood the order and re- 
plied in the affirmative. His explanation in writing, was entirely 
unsatisfactory, as it placed the responsibility on a' subordinate — 
Lieutenant General Hill — when he (General Polk) was himself 
absent from the field, and had not even attempted to execute his 
'orders, nor informed me of their having been disobeyed. Breck- 
enridge and Cheatham say in their reports, Polk told them dur- 
ing the night he had orders to attack at day light. I have the 
correspondence, but cannot now lay my hands on it. 

2nd question. As to Hindman and McLemore's Cove. My 
report gives a full answer to this question, but not a complete 
history of the whole affair, as it was too bad to put before the 
country. General Hill having failed, in a querrulous, insubor- 
dinate spirit, to send Cleburn's division to join Hindman. on the 
pretext that Cleburn was sick, I ordered Buckner with his divi- 
sion to the duty, and went myself to Hill's headquarters, riding 
half the night. There I found Cleburn, who expressed surprise 
that Hill should have reported him sick, and he moved with his 
division next morning. _ 

W»»l l »« 

612 Mississippi Historical Society. 

After Buckner joined Hindman, it will be seen, the latter be- 
came doubtful and dilatory, and finally asked a change of orders. 
This produced loss of valuable time — and common sense teaches 
the importance in every moment of striking - at a divided enemy. 
I was so greatly vexed that my deportment towards General Hill 
and Major Nocquet during the conference was observed by my 
staff and intimation given me of some harshness. 

Every effort failed, however, and the correspondence and late 
letters from Patton Anderson, as noble and true a soldier and 
gentleman as any age can boast, and General W. T. Martin, will 
show the cause. 

3rd question. As to General D. H. Hill's critical, captious 
and dictatorial manner, etc., etc. 

This manner of Hill, and his general deportment united to the 
fact, which came to mv knowledge after Polk 's suspension from 
command, that Polk did order two of his division commanders, 
in writing, soon after sun-rise to attack, and that Hill, being 
present in person countermanded the order, without notifying 
either Polk or myself, induced me to ask his suspension from 
command. And he was removed by the President before the 
battle of Missionary Ridge. Pie had, however, greatly demor- 
alized the troops he commanded, and sacrificed thousands at 

See Report of Major General W. H. T. Walker. 

I have always believed our disasters at Missionary Ridge were 
due immediately to misconduct of a brigade of Buckner's troops 
from East Tennessee, commanded by Brigadier General Alex. 
W. Reynolds which first gave way and could not be rallied. But 
the other troops would have saved the day and repaired the 
small disaster, but for the effect which had been produced by 
the treasonable act of Longstreet, Hill and Buckner in sacrific- 
ing the army in their effort to degrade and remove me for per- 
sonal ends. Had I known at the time Polk and Hindman were 
suspended, of the conduct of Hill, especially of his suspending 
Polk's orders to attack at Chickamauga ; and of Buckner's influ- 
encing Plindman to disobey me in McLemore's Cove, and of his 
mutinous conduct in getting up meetings in the army to ask my 
removal, I certainly should have arrested both of them. Still, 
I am satisfied no good could have resulted. Our country was 
not prepared to sustain a military commander who acted on mili- 
tary principles, and no man could do his duty and sustain him- 
self against the combined power of imbeciles, traitors, rogues 
and intriguing politicians. 

Longstreet's disobedience of orders enabled the enemv under 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.— Sykes. 613 

Hooker from Virginia, to pass Lookout Mountain, and join 
Grant in Chattanooga. That was the first step in our disaster, 
after the army had been practically purged. Thus I yielded my 
convictions to the President's policy and sent Longstreet instead 
of Breckinridge (my choice) to capture Bumside at Knoxville. 
This could 'have been long before Sherman reached Grant with 
his twenty-five thousand (25,000) men, by due diligence, and my 
information was perfect and daily. Had it been done, and 
those fifteen thousand (15,000) troops been returned and in 
place at Missionary Ridge, Grant would not have attacked us, 
and if he had, would certainly have been defeated unless aided 
by treason. Indeed, he must have recrossed the mountains, 
for his troops could not be fed, and the animals were already 
starved. He could not move twenty (20) pieces of artillery. 
No man* was ever under greater obligations to a traitor ;f no trai- 
tor has ever been more faithfully rewarded. 

In our retreat from Missionary Ridge the enemy could make 
but feeble pursuit for want of artillery horses. (Grant's report.) 

At the Mountain gorge, near Ringgold, I believed he could 
be successfully repulsed; and the army quietly withdrawn. Gen- 
eral Cleburn, one of the best and truest officers in our cause, was 
placed at that point in command of the rear guard. Late at 
night, hours after all the army was at rest, my information be- 
ing all in, I called for a reliable, confidential staff officer, and 
gave him verbal directions to ride immediately to Cleburn, about 
three (3) miles in my rear, at this mountain gorge, and give 
him my positive orders to hold his position up to a named hour 
the next day, and, if attacked, to defend the pass at every haz- 
ard. The message was delivered at Cleburn's camp fire. He 
heard it with surprise and expressed his apprehension that it 
would result in the loss of his command, as his information dif- 
fered from mine, and he believed the enemy would turn his po- 
sition and cut him off. ''But," said he, true soldier as he was, "I 
always obey orders, and only ask as protection in case of disaster, 
that you put the order in writing." This was done as soon as 
material could be found, and the staff officer returned and re- 
ported the result of his mission. He had not reached me, how- 
ever, before the attack in front, as I expected, was made. Cle- 
burn gallantly met it, defeated the enemy under Hooker, drove 
him back, and then quietly followed the army without further 


r uiaut. 

t Longstreet. Note by E. T. S.: This must refer to General Long- 
street's post helium political views and rewards. 

614 Mississippi Historical Society. 

molestation. Mark the difference — in conduct and results. A 
good soldier, by obedience, without substituting his own crude 
notions, defeats the enemy and saves an army from disaster. 
And mark the credit he gets for it. The Confederate congress 
passed a vote of thanks to the gallant Cleburn and his command 
for saving Bragg's army. Not to this day has it ever been 
known that he did it in obedience to orders and against his judg- 
ment, which does not detract from, but adds to his fame. 

Captain Samuel A. Harris, assistant adjutant general, of Mont- 
gomery, Ala., was the officer who delivered the order. He is 
now an Episcopal clergyman with the largest congregation in 
New Orleans, and has recently repeated the whole matter to me 
as distinctly as if it had occurred yesterday. 

I would add much more, but should exhaust your patience. 
Whiskey was a great element in our disasters. In the battle of 

Murfreesboro, was so drunk on the field all the first 

day, that a staff officer had to hold him on his horse. After the 
army reached Tullahoma, I directed General Polk, his corps 
commander, to notify him that I knew of his conduct, and only 
overlooked it in consideration of other meritorious services. 
Polk reported to me that he had done so ; that acknowl- 
edged the charge, expressed deep contrition and pledged him- 
self never to repeat the offence. 

Imagine my surprise at reading General Polk's report of that 
battle some weeks after, to find that he commended con- 
duct on that field above all others in his corps. 

At Missionary Ridge, — , as gallant and true a man as 

ever lived, was overcome in the same way whilst in the active 
command of a corps, and was really unfit for duty, one of the 
many causes of our disaster. At night he came into my office, 
a little depot hut at Chickamauga station, where I sat up all 
night giving orders, soon sank down on the floor, dead drunk, 
and was so in the morning. I sent for the commander of the 
rear guard, Brigadier General Guist of South Carolina, and told 

him not to leave General and, if necessary, to put him 

in a wagon and haul him off, but, under no circumstances to al- 
low him to give an order. At Dalton, I relieved General 

■ of his command and he acknowledged the justice of 

it, but said it was the deepest mortification of his life. In 
France or Germany either of the men I have named, would have 
been shot in six hours. With us they pass for great heroes. 

I enclose you some papers for reference, and regret that you 
are not with me, as a mine of worth would be opened to you, 
which I cannot light up, though I often explore it in the dark 
recess of my closet. 

History of Walthall's Brigade; C. S. A.—Sykes. 615 

Could some young man, like yourself, spare the time, a valu- 
able book could be made up in a few months, and I should de- 
light to aid in the labor. 

I am delighted to hear my friend Sale is doing well. He was 
the most reliable and valuable staff officer I had, and is remem- 
bered with affection and gratitude, and I hope my young sol- 
diers in Mississippi will cherish his boy, whose fate it is — it may 
be his misfortune — to bear my name. 

I shall ever be pleased to hear from you, and hope you will not 
fail to recall me to Colonel and Mrs. Sale, and the bright boy 
when you see them. And if you ever meet your noble chief, 
Walthall, give him my love. 

In the midst of other business, rather than keep you waiting 
longer I conclude to send this without waiting to copy. Please 
continue to send me the paper, as your numbers appear. 
Very truly your friend, 

(Sg) Braxton Bragg. 

Note McLemore's Cove. 

The enemy consisted of one division and one brigade of 
Thomas' corps about eight thousand (8,000) men. Hindman's 
force was composed of his own and Buckner's division, ten 
thousand nine hundred twenty-two (10,922) men, and Martin's 
cavalry about five hundred (500), besides a force of two divi- 
sions, Cleburn's and Walker's— at least eight thousand (8,000) 
more immediately in the enemy's front with orders to attack as 
soon as Hindman's guns were heard in the flank and rear. 

Appendix E. 

Letter from Major E. T. Sykes to General Bragg, Acknowledging 

War Papers. 

Columbus, Miss., February 19, 1873. 
General Braxton Bragg, 

Mobile, Ala. 

Dear Sir: Your very kind and most valuable letter of the 

8th inst, with accompanying official documents, came duly to 

hand by this morning's mail, for which I sincerely thank you. 

You do indeed furnish me with more than I had expected, or 

616 Mississippi Historical Society. 

"even dreamed of." I am astonished at some of the develop- 
ments, although from what I had unofficially heard in the army, 
and had seen with my own eyes, I was prepared to hear a great 

I now regret that I had finished my '"sketch" before the receipt 
of the valuable information furnished by you, and which dissi- 
pates the cloud, and makes clear much that has to me and others, 
been heretofore strange and mysterious. But I am determined 
to rectify the inaccuracies appearing in my former writings, and 
either as a supplement thereto, or by rewriting the whole, fur- 
nish it for publication in some of our prominent Southern Maga- 
zines — most probably the one published in Baltimore, Md., in 
which General Dabney H. Maury, not long since had published 
his report of the battle of Corinth. Would you make a sugges- 
tion as to the periodical? I cannot, however, on account of 
pressing legal business, do this for a month or so; in the mean- 
time I have to visit Mobile on business, and will make it my bus- 
iness, as well as pleasure, to call on you and obtain such addi- 
tional data as we may mutually deem advisable for publication 
in furtherance and elucidation of my general design. 

I am daily receiving letters from one or another of my old 
army friends and acquaintances, thanking me for my contribu- 
tions to the history of that portion of the army with which we 
were connected, and you commanded. 

I will endeavor tonight or tomorrow, at least soon, to abstract 
the documents you sent me, and will immediately thereafter, re- 
turn the originals to you by express. In the meantime, I will 
converse freely with my friends, who like myself feel an inter- 
est in you — always observing, however, your injunction, to use 
your "facts, but not your comments." 

Very truly your friend and admirer, 

E. T. Sykes. 

616 Mississippi Historical Society. 

"even dreamed of." I am astonished at some of the develop- 
ments, although from what I had unofficially heard in the army, 
and had seen with my own eyes, I was prepared to hear a great 

I now regret that I had finished my "sketch" before the receipt 
of the valuable information furnished by you, and which dissi- 
pates the cloud, and makes clear much that has to me and others, 
been heretofore strange and mysterious. But I am determined 
to rectify the inaccuracies appearing in my former writings, and 
either as a supplement thereto, or by rewriting the whole, fur- 
nish it for publication in some of our prominent Southern Maga- 
zines — most probably the one published in Baltimore, Md., in 
which General Dabney H. Maury, not long since had published 
his report of the battle of Corinth. Would you make a sugges- 
tion as to the periodical? I cannot, however, on account of 
pressing legal business, do this for a month or so ; in the mean- 
time I have to visit Mobile on business, and will make it my bus- 
iness, as well as pleasure, to call on you and obtain such addi- 
tional data as we may mutually deem advisable for publication 
in furtherance and elucidation of my general design. 

I am daily receiving letters from one or another of my old 
army friends and acquaintances, thanking me for my contribu- 
tions to the history of that portion of the army with which we 
were connected, and you commanded. 

I will endeavor tonight or tomorrow, at least soon, to abstract 
the documents you sent me, and will immediately thereafter, re- 
turn the originals to you by express. In the meantime, I will 
converse freely with my friends, who like myself feel an inter- 
est in you — always observing, however, your injunction, to use 
your "facts, but not your comments." 

Very truly your friend and admirer, 

E. T. Sykes. 


Adams, Brig.-Gen. John, in battle of 
Franklin, Tenn., 578 ; killed in bat- 
tle of, 578. 

Alexander's bridge, Walthall confront- 
ing Wilder's Lightning brigade at, 

Alpine Valley, Thomas' corps in, 526. 

Anderson, Gen. J. Patton, commanding 
Walthall's brigade, 497 ; sketch of 
his life, 500 ; member of Confederate 
Provisional Congress from . Florida, 
500 ; appointed colonel 1st Florida 
regiment, 501 ; service at Pensacola, 
Fla., 501 ; appointed brigadier-gen- 
eral, C. S. A., 501 ; composition of 
hia brigade, 501 ; ordered to Army 
of Tennessee, 501 ; commanding 
brigade at Shiloh, 502; commanding 
division at Perry ville, Ky., 502 ; his 
personal appearance, 502; Bragg's 
estimate of him, 502 ; died at Mem- 
phis, Tenn., 502 ; territorial governor 
of Washington, 502 ; anecdotes as to, 
502, 503 ; ordered to move brigade to 
the support of Breckinridge on even- 
ing of second day's fight at Murfrees- 
boro, 503, 506 ; letter to General Polk 
criticising Cieburn's plan for en- 
listing colored troops, 552 ; men- 
tioned. 609, 612. 

Anderson, Mrs. (Gen.) J. Patton, her 
experience at Bridgeport, Ala., as a 
military prisoner, 591. 

Anderson, Brig.-Gen. Richard H., at 
Pensacola, Fla., 501; wounded in 
attack on Santa Rosa Island, 502. 

Atlanta, Ga., Walthall's brigade at, 
524, 525 ; impressment of horses at, 
525 ; Brantley's brigade in battle of, 

Autry, Lieut-Col. James L, sketch of, 

Barksdale, Capt. William R., on Wal- 
thall's staff, 603. 

Barrett's (Capt. O. W.) battery, Wal- 
thall's brigade, 496. 

Beanland, Capt. W. G., A Q. M. Wal- 
thall's temporary brigade, 495, 508. 

Benton. Col. Samuel, commanding 34th 
Mississippi regiment assigned to 
Walthall's brigade, 496 ; commis- 
sioned brigadier-general, 574 ; per- 
sonal sketch of, 574-576; wounded, 
and death, 574 ; burial of, 576. 

Bishop, Col. W. H., commanding 7th 
Mississippi at Munfordville, Ky., 517. 

Boker, Geo. H., poet, "Battle Above the 
Clouds", 537-538. 

Bowen, Capt. H. J., commanding 34th 
Mississippi in battle of Chickamauga, 
531. ' 

Bragg, Gen. Braxton, in pursuit of 
Rosecrans after battle of Chicka- 
mauga, 534 ; taking position on Look- 
out Mountain and Mission Ridge 
with line extended to Bridgeport, 
534; battles of Lookout and Mission 
Ridge, 534-544; requests the Presi- 
dent to relieve him of command of 
the army of Tennessee, 545 ; his re- 
tirement deplored by Gen. R. E. Lee. 
545 ; personal sketch of, 545 ; death 
of, 547 ; the author's admiration for, 
549 ; letters to, 609-610, and 615- 
616 ; letter from, to author, 610-615. 

Bragg, Mrs. (General), survives hus- 
band, and resides in New Orleans, 

Brantley, W. F., colonel, 29th Missis- 
sippi, mentioned. 498 ; commissioned 
brigadier-general, 574 ; personal 
sketch of, 576-577 ; death and burial 
of, 577 ; his brigade staff, 577 ; con- 
solidation of regiments with John- 



Mississippi Historical Society. 

ston's (Geo. DJ brigade, 577; in 
command of the consolidated brigade, 
577, 603, 604; staff officers of said 
brigade, 577 ; esprit de corps of 
brigade, 578. 

Breckinridge, Maj.-Gen. John C, driv- 
ing Sheridan (Philip H.) at Mur- 
freesboro, on evening of January 2, 
1863, 503 ; mentioned, 611, 613. 

Broomtown, valley of, 526. 

Brown, Gov. Joe (Ga.), complaining 
to Gen. Bragg, as to impressment 
of horses by Gen. Walthall at At- 
lanta, 525. 

Buchanan, Capt Joe, of the 24th 
Mississippi and the "Kentucky belle", 

Buford, Gen. Abe, protests to Forrest 
that if he made a certain movement 
the "enemy would be upon his flank". 
Forrest's reply, 567. 

Byram's Ford, crossed by Walthall 
during evening before the battle of 
Chickamauga, 528. 

Calhoon, S. S., lieutenant-colonel 
Sharp's consolidated brigade (9th 
Mississippi regiment), 604. 

Campbell, CoL J. A., 27 th Mississippi 
regiment, 530 ; captured in battle of 
Lookout Mountain, and died in 
prison, 539-540. 

Carter, Lieut J. P., ordnance officer, 
Walthall's brigade, 509. 

Carter, Capt. T. C, aid-de-camp, 491; 

Cassville, Ga., army arrived at ; battle 
order read to troops ; disposition of 
army at, 568 ; Capt. Joe Buchanan 
and the "Kentucky belle", 569; rea- 
son given by General Johnston for 
retreat from, 570. 

Chalmers, Col. Jas. R., on Santa Rosa 
Island, 501 ; Brig.-Gen., unauthor- 
ized and ill-advised attack on forti- 
fications at Munfordville, Ky., 517- 

Chattanooga, retreat of army out of 
middle Tennessee to, 524. 

Cheatham, Gen. B. F., at battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge, 541; letter of, 607; men- 
tioned, 611. 

Chickamauga, strategetic movements 
preliminary to battle of, 526 ; open- 
ing of battle, 528 : prisoners taken 
by Walthall's brigade, 529 ; fight at, 
530 ; loss of brigade in battle of, 531. 

I Cleburn, Gen. Pat R., in McLemore'a 
Cove, 527 ; at Ringold Gap, 550 ; 
Bragg's admiration for, 550 ; recom- 
mendation as to enlistment of col- 
ored troops, 551 ; correspondence and 
comments as to, 552-559 ; mentioned, 
601, 611, 613, 614, 615. 

Clinton, J. K., volunteer aid-de-camp 
on Walthall's stiff. 509. 

Compton, Surg. Wm. M., 34th Missis- 
sippi regiment, mentioned, 587. 

Conclusion, 595. 

Cowan, Tenn., army retreating through, 

Craft, Capt Addison, A. Q. M. of Wal- 
thall's brigade, 494 ; ordered to post 
duty at Chattanooga, 495 ; on staff 
of Gen. Brantley, 577 ; burial of CoL 
Benton, 576. 

"Cub", the colored newspaper carrier 
and general utility man of the "Co- 
lumbus Index", 583, 584. 

Currie, Lieut D. M., A. A. Inspector 
Walthall's temporary brigade, 495, 

Dalton, Ga., army falls back to, 545 ; 
in winter quarters at, 560 ; military 
executions at, 560 ; feints of Sherman 
in front of, 560. 

Dancy, Clifton, lieutenant-colonel, con- 
solidated 24th Mississippi regiment 
577 ; sergeant-major 34th Mississippi, 
mentioned, 587, 588. 

Dechard, Tenn., Bragg's retreat 
through, 524. 

Devine, Dr. K.- C, surgeon Walthall's 
temporary brigade, 494, 508. 

Dowd, Col. W. F., 24th Mississippi, 
mentioned, 493, 539. 

DuBose, Mrs. Dudley, daughter of Gen. 
Robert Toombs, and friend of Mrs. 
Walthall, 591, 604. 

Falconer, Capt. Thos. A, 34th Missis- 
sippi regiment, mentioned, 586 ; con- 
test for majority of 34th Mississippi, 
586, 588; Major Kinloch. 588; Major 
Howard, 588. 

Featherston, Gen. W. S., mentioned, 
491 ; brigade in battle of Franklin, 

Ferrell, Frank, assistant surgeon 34th 
Mississippi, mentioned, 587. 

Field and staff 34th Mississippi, men- 
tioned, 586-587. 



Fishing Creek, or "Mills Springs", bat- 
tle of: Walthall at. 517. 
Fowler's (Capt. W. H.) battery, men- 
tioned, 496. 
Franklin, battle of: Brantley's brigade 

in, 578. 
Garrity's (Capt Jas.) battery, at Mun- 

fordville, 519. 
Gilchrist, Col. Jas. G., 45th Alabama, 
in Walthall's temporary brigade, 
Govan, Lieut. Geo. M., A. A. Inspector- 
General on Walthall's brigade staff, 
508 ; Major Geo. M., reorganized 
24th Mississippi regiment, 577 ; men- 
tioned, 593. 
Govan's and Walthall's brigades, divi- 
sioncd together in battle of Chicka- 
mauga, 526. 
Grant, General, reinforces Rosecrans at 
Chattanooga, 535 ; supersedes Rose- 
crans, 535 ; victor at Mission Ridge, 
Groves, — , of Alabama, surgeon 34th, 

mentioned, 587. 
Hairston. Marshall* temporary acting 

aid on Walthall's staff, 511. 
Hardee, Gen. W. H., in battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge, 540, 541; report of, and 
injustice done Walthall. 540, 541. 
Harris, Gov. Isham G., remark as to 
Hindman's failure to attack Thomas 
in McLemore's Cove, 532. 
Harris, Capt. Saml., A. A. A. General, 
bearer of orders to Cleburn at Rin- 
gold Gap, 550. 
Harrison, Capt. Jno. C, on Brantley's 

staff, 577. 
Hicks, J. M., major consolidated regi- 
ment Sharp's brigade, 604. 
Hill, Hon. B. H., reflections as to Gen. 
Johnston's Georgia campaign, etc., 
561, 562, 602 ; eulogy on Lee and 
Davis, 565, 602. 
Hill, D. H.. mentioned, 610. 
Hindman, General, failure to attack 
Thomas in McLemore's Cove, 527, 
532; charges against, preferred by 
Bragg, 532; charges withdrawn, and 
why, 532 ; transferred to trans-Mis- 
sissippi Department, 53 2; mentioned, 
611, 612. 
Hoar, Senator Geo. F. (Massachusetts), 
eulogy on Walthall, 488 ; Senators 

Walthall and George contrasted by 
Hoar, 490. 
Hooker's. General, corps reinforcing 
Grant at Chattanooga, 536 ; attacks 
and captures Lookout Mountain, 
Hooper, Capt. J. A., A. C. S. on Wal- 
thall's temporary brigade staff, 494 ; 
nominated A. C. S. on Walthall's 
permanent staff with rank of major, 
508: commissioned as such. 508; 
staff of General Brantley, 577 ; A. C. 
S. 34th Mississippi mentioned, 587. 
Hoovers Gap, occupied by Rosecrans, 

Howry, Charles B., 592. 
Jackson, Col. J. H., on Santa Rosa Is- 
land. 501. 
Jackson, Brig.-Gen. J. K., commanding 
division on side of Lookout Moun- 
tain, 537 ; hostile correspondence 
with Brig.-Gen. Walthall, 539. 
Johnson. Maj. J. M., promoted lieuten- 
ant-colonel, 531. 
Johnston's (Geo. D.) brigade consoli- 
dated, 603. 
Johnston, Gen. Jos. E., discouraging 
campaign, 561; his reticence in not 
keeping the government duly ad- 
vised, 561 ; Senator B. H. Hill's in- 
terview with him at Marietta, and 
later interview with President: Sena- 
tor Hill's speech on February 13, 
187 4. before Southern Historical So- 
ciety at Atlanta, 561 ; capabilities 
of, and his limited success, 563-564; 
why estranged from the President, 
564-565 ; President Davis' unsent 
letter to congress, 563 ; from Resaca 
to Atlanta, 566; Snake-Creek Gap: 
McPherson, 566 ; reasons given for 
falling back from Cassville, 570. 
Jones. Lt. Col. A. J., 27th Mississippi 

regiment, killed at Resaca, 568. 
Jones, Col. T. M., 27th Mississippi regi- 
ment. 493 ; temporarily commanding 
brigade, 497 ; resignation of, 522, 
596-597 ; mentioned, 588. 
Jonesboro, Brantley's brigade in bat- 
tle of, 578. 
Lee, S. D., admiration expressed for 
Brantley's brigade at Franklin, 
Tenn., 578; promise as to, 578; ful- 
fillment of, 579, 603. 604; military 
and civic sketch of, 579-580 ; born; 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

graduated ; lieutenant U. S. army ; 
brigadier-general ; major-general ; 
captain ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; 
colonel ; lieutenant-general, C. S. A. ; 
bearer of order for surrender of Ft. 
Sumter, 579 ; defeats Sherman at 
Chickasaw Bayou ; battles partici- 
pated in ; conspicuous part in battle 
2d Manassas and Sharpsburg ; ap- 
pointed brigadier-general and as- 
signed to duty at Vicksburg ; ap- 
pointed major-general ; commanding 
Department of Mississippi, Alabama, 
and East Louisiana ; in command 
of cavalry ; commissioned lieutenant- 
general ; commanded in battle of 
Harrisburg, Miss. ; assumes com- 
mand of Hood's corps, Army of 
Tennessee ; married ; cotton planter ; 
state senator ; president Mississippi 
Agricultural and Mechanical college ; 
member of Mississippi constitutional 
convention ; commissioner of Vicks- 
burg Military Park ; commander U. 
C. V. Federation; LL. D. Tulane 
(La.) University, 579-580. 

Lee, Maj. (A. A. Gen.), bearer of or- 
ders to Gen. Polk on morning of 
second day's fight at Chickamauga, 

Lee & Gordon's Mills, crossing at, 526. 

Lewisburg, Tenn., Walthall's brigade 
at, 515. 

Liberty Gap, occupied by Rosecrans, 

Liddell's (Gen, St John R.), division 
at Chickamauga, 526. 

Locust Grove, captured by Sharp's 
brigade, 578. 

Longstreet's troops twitting, prelim- 
inary to battle of Chickamauga, 528. 

Longstreet, Gen. James, mentioned, 
612, 613. 

Lookout and Pigeon Mountains, 526. I 

Lookout Mountain, battle of, 536-537;] 
regimental commanders of Walthall's j 
brigade in, 539-540. 

Lumsden's (Capt. C. L.) battery, 496. j 

Lytle, Brig.-Gen. W. H., in command I 
at Bridgeport, Ala.; Mrs. (Gen.) j 
Patton Anderson a temporary pris- j 
oner of; killed at Chickamauga;) 
body sent by General Patton Ander- 
son under flag of truce, into federal' 
lines, 591. i 

McKelvaine, Col. R. P., 24th Missis- 
sippi, mentioned, 540 ; wounded in 
battle of Chickamauga, 529 ; com- 
manding regiment in, 530. 
McLemore's Cove, Thomas' corps in, 

Magruder, Capt. L. W., mentioned, 
491 ; on staff of Major-General W. 
H. T. Walker, 491; ordnance officer 
Brantley's brigade, 577. 
Malone, private John, rewarded, 521. 
Manchester, Tenn., Rosecrans' advance 

to, 524. 
Manigault's brigade, in battle of Mur- 
freesboro, 498 ; consolidated with 
Sharp's brigade, 603; 604. 
Martin, Maj. -Gen. (W. T.), command- 
ing cavalry in McLemore's Cove, 
Mason. Maj. A. T., 34th Mississippi, 

mentioned, 586, 588. 
May, Capt. Lambert, in battle of Mur- 
freesboro, 499 ; gallantry of 500 ; 
capture of artillery, 500 ; wounded 
in battle of Chickamauga, 500 ; died, 
Miller, Thos. W., mentioned, 586. 
"Mills Springs," or Fishing Creek, bat- 
tle of, 517. 
Missionary Ridge, Walthall's brigade 
in battle of, 537, 600, 602 ; capture 
of Ridge, 543 ; Grant's triumph, 543. 
Moore, Lt.-Col. James, 44th Mississippi, 
killed in battle of Munfordville, Ky., 
Moore's brigade in battle of Lookout 
Mountain, 537 ; report of General 
Moore, 539, 600. 
Mordecai, — , Jewish scholar, 594. 
Morgan, Col. J. B., 29th Mississippi, 
wounded in battle of Chickamauga, 
Morgan, Senator John T. (Alabama), 
estimate of Walthall as a public man, 
and an intellectual force, 489. 
Munfordville. Ky., unauthorized at- 
tack of Gen. Chalmers on, 519 ; gal- 
lantry of Walthall at. 517, 518. 
Murfreesboro, losses of Walthall's bri- 
gade in battle of, 498 ; brigade tak- 
ing position in, 498; skirmishing 
during day preceding battle, 499 ; 
opening of battle (31st December), 
49$ ; capture of artillery by Wal- 
thall's brigade, 500 ; subsequent 



presentation of artillery to brigade, 
500, 511 ; retreat of army from, 499, 
506 ; further description of battle, 
Murry. Surg. Jno. G, 34th Mississippi, 

mentioned, 587. 
Nashville, Walthall commanding in- 
fantry rear-guard of Hood's army 
on retreat from, 573. 
Neill, Col. G. F., 30th Mississippi. 493 ; 
in temporary command of brigade, 
Pegram, Major W. G.. commanding 
34th Mississippi in battle of Chick- 
amauga, 531 ; wounded in, 531 ; men- 
tioned, 586. 
Pettus, Gen. E. W., in fight on Look- 
out Mountain, 537 ; report of. 539 ; 
dubs Gen. J. K. Jackson, "Mudwall," 
Polk, Gen. Leonidas, failure at Chicka- 
mauga, 532, 533 ; charges preferred 
against for, 532; reinstated and as- J 
signed to the command of army o,f J 
Mississippi, 533 ; army of, ordered 
to support of Gen. Johnston, in North 
Georgia, 533; killed, 533; mentioned,! 
611. 612, 614. 
Porter, Governor Jas. D. (Tennessee), 
correspondence with E. T. Sykes, as 
to what troops first broke in Con- 
federate lines on Mission Ridge. 605 ; 
furnishes letter of General Marcus J. ! 
Wright giving the regiments of Rey- i 
nolds* (A. W.) brigade, where said 
break occurred. 607. 
Prentiss, S. S., speeches of, referred 

to, 486. 
Rayburn, Capt. W. A., nominated. A. 
Q. M. of Walthall's brigade with! 
rank of major, 507; commissioned,! 
Resaca, Ga.. battle of, 567-56S. 
Reynolds' (Gen. A. W.) bri Grade breaks 

the line on Missionary Ridge, 606. 
Reynolds. Maj. Geo. W., 29th Missis-: 
sippi, deputized to purchase horse. | 
etc., for presentation to Gen. Wal- 1 
thall from his brigade. 523: covered 
withdrawal of brigade from Mission 
Ridge, 542. 
Reynolds. Lt-Col. 34th Mississippi bri- 
gade, field officer of the day during 
first day fighting at Chickamauga, 
529; removing captured guns. 529; 

assigned to command 30th Missis- 
sippi. 531 ; killed, 531. 
Richards. Maj. W. C in battle of Mun- 
fordville, 518 ; wounded in, 519 ; 
colonel of reorganized 24th Missis- 
sippi regiment, 604. 
Ringold Gap, Gen. Cleburn in defense 

of. and victory at, 550, 613. 
Roberson, Capt. Robert, -29th Missis- 
sippi regiment covers Walthall's re- 
tirement from assault on Ft Craig, 
Munfordville, Ky., 518. 
Robertson, Major (afterwards Brig.- 
Gen. ), Bragg's chief of artillery, in 
battle of Murfreesboro, 503. 
Sale, Col. Jno. B., conducts hostile cor- 
respondence for Gen. Walthall with 
Gen. J. K. Jackson, 539 ; mentioned, 
488. 600. 610, 615. 
Scales, Col. J. J., 30th Mississippi, in 
battle of Murfreesboro, 497 ; captured 
in battle of Chickamauga, 530, 531. 
Scruggs. Surg. A. F., 34th Mississippi, 

mentioned, 587. 
Sear's brigade, in battle of Franklin, 

Sewanee, Bragg's army crossing moun- 
tain near, 524. 
Sharp. Gen. J. H.. mentioned. 567 ; his 
brigade in battle of Franklin, 578 ; 
consolidation of brigade with Mani- 
gault's. 604; Sharp, commander of 
consolidated brigade, 604. 
Smith. Capt. J. D., 24th Mississippi, 
mentioned, 530 : wounded in battle of 
Chickamauga, 530. 
Smith. Col. Robt. A.. 10th Mississippi 
regiment, in battle of Munfordville, 
51$ ; killed in, 519 ; Bragg's estimate 
of. 519. 
Smith, Rev. E. A., 593. 
Spight. Capt. Thos.. at surrender, 589 ; 

mentioned, 593. 
Staples. W. C. major 24th Mississippi, 
mentioned, 530 ; wounded in battle 
of Chickamauga, 530. 
Stevenson. Major-General, occupying 

top of Lookout Mountain. 536. 600. 
Stubbs. H. A., A. Q. M. 34th Missis- 
sippi, mentioned, 587. 
Sweatman. Capt. D. C, of Brantley's 

staff. 577. 
Sykes. Capt. E. T.. A. A. Gen. Grand 
Camp Confederate Veterans, 491 ; 
A. A. A. General on staff of Gen. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

"Walthall, 494, 503; summoned to; 
army headquarters in Murfreesboro, ! 
504; nominated and commissioned! 
A. A. General Walthall's brigade { 
staff, 507, 508, 510; incident at Res- 1 
aca, 568; transferred to staff of j 
General W. H. Jackson, commanding- 
cavalry division* 572; correspondence! 
with Gov. Jas. D. Porter, as to the 
troops first breaking on Missionary 
Ridge, 60 5; letter to General Bragg 
asking information on four points, 
viz.: (a) Polk's delay in moving 
on morning of 2d day at Chicka- 
mauga ; (b) Hindman's faux pas in 
McLemore's Cove; (c) as to con- 
duct of Gen. D. H. Hill at Chick- 
amauga ; (d) troops breaking on 
Missionary Ridge, 609-610 ; Gen. 
Bragg's letter of February 8th, 1873, 
in reply, 610-615 ; second letter to 
'General Bragg under date of Febru- 
ary 19th, 1873, 615. 

Thomas' Corps, in Broomtown Valley, 
526 ; in McLemore's Cove, 526. 

Toomer, Capt. B. F., 24th Mississippi, 
in battle of Chickamauga, 530. 

Tucker, Col. W. F., 41st Mississippi, 
mentioned, 493. 

Tucker's brigade in battle of Resaca, 
Ga. f 567. 

Tullahoma, Tenn., General Bragg at, j 

Van Dorn. Gen. Earl, commanding cav- j 
airy, with headquarters at Columbia, 
Tenn., 515 ; assassinated by Dr. j 
Peters, 515. 

Vineyard road, Walthall's brigade) 
bivouacking on, 528. 

"Walker (Gen. W. H. T.), his reserved) 
corps in battle of Chickamauga, 526, ! 
527; the name, a misnomer, 526 ;j 
service in the "Old" (U. S. A.) Army, | 
598; bravery, and death of, 598 ; 
mentioned, 612. 

Walthall, B. A, aid-de-camp. 508. 

Walthall, Gen. E. C, sketch of his 
military and civic life, 486-492;! 
birth, 486 ; parentage, 486 ; removal | 
to Mississippi, 486; early life, law- 1 
yer, district attorney, enters service j 
of Confederate Army as lieutenant in! 
15th Mississippi Infantry Regiment;) 
elected lieutenant-colonel thereof ; I 
colonel 29th Mississippi ; appointed' 

brigadier-general ; appointed major- 
general ; resided, after the war, in 
Coffeeville, and Grenada, Miss. ; dele- 
gate and chairman of state delega- 
tions to the national democratic con- 
ventions, and vice president of con- 
ventions ; U. S. senator ; death and 
burial. 486-188; eulogy of, by U. S. 
Senator Hoar (Massachusetts) ; es- 
timate of, as a soldier by Senator 
Lamar, Generals Johnston, Hood, 
and Colonel Sale, 488 ; U. S. Sen. 
John T. Morgan's (Alabama), esti- 
mate of Walthall as a senator, 488- 
489 ; Walthall and George contrasted 
by Senator Hoai', ' 490 ; his interest 
in Confederate veterans ; address at 
Jackson. Miss., on June 3d, 1891; 
Grand Commander of Mississippi 
Confederate Veterans, 490-491 ; reso- 
lutions of the Mississippi Division 
U. D. C. on death of, 492; assign- 
ment to command of brigade, 493, 
507 ; assumes command of, 507, 508 ; 
nominates his brigade staff, 507 ; 
permanent brigade staff, 508-509 ; his 
discipline, 516 ; gallantry in covering 
retreat of Crittenden, 517 ; commis- 
sioned to raise new regiment, 517 ; 
at Munfordville, Ky., 517 ; his re- 
wards and punishments, 520 ; mutual 
confidence and esteem, 522 ; horse 
and equipments presented to, 522; 
campaign and battle of Chickamauga, 
526-532 ; on Mission Ridge, 53 5 ; con- 
solidation of regiments, 535 ; ordered 
to west side of Lookout Mountain, 
536 ; in fight at, 537 ; report of, 538 ; 
hostile correspondence with Brig.- 
Gen. J. K. Jackson, 539 ; in battle 
of Missionary Ridge, 540, 541 ; or- 
dered by General Cheatham to with- 
draw to Chickamauga Station, 542; 
wounded in battle of, 542 ; letter 
from General Cheatham as to, 543 ; 
brigade at Dalton, Ga., 561 ; retreat 
from, 561 ; reflections, 561 ; at Res- 
aca, Ga.. 567 ; horse shot at, 568 ; 
promoted major-general, 572 ; com- 
position of his division, 572 ; booked 
for lieutenant-general, 573 ; sum- 
moned to reorganize infantry rear 
guard to Hood's army. 573 ; reports 
to General Forrest, 573 ; brigades 
composing rear guard, 573. 




Walthall, Mrs. (General), sketch of, 

Whiskey, a cause of our disaster, 614. 

Wilds, Oliver, the wounded young sol- 
dier from Natchez, 581, 582. 

Wilkinson, Judge Edward C, men- 
tioned, 486. 

Williamson, R. W., mentioned, 494, 

"Wilson's Zouaves, Billy," mentioned, 

I Witherspoon, Hon. S. Jj^ mentioned, 

Woods, Lieut. J. H., ordnance officer 
I on Walthall's temporary staff, 495. 
j Wright, Brig. -Gen. Marcus J., gives 

composition of Gen. A. W. Reynolds' 

brigade at Missionary Ridge fight, 
j 608. 
Zollicoffer, Brig.-Gen. Felix D., killed 

in battle of Fishing Creek. 517. 



Abranns, Roberto, 423. 

Acker, Hon. Joel M., 29, 233. 

Acker, George W., 434. 

Adaams, Ricardo, 426. 

Adams, Carlos, 427. 

Adams, General, 136, 505. 

Adams, Guillermo, 425. 

Adams, Hon. Charles Francis, 348. 

Adams, Jacobo, 422. 

Adams, John, 578. 

Adams, Tomas, 425. 

Affleck, Phillip, 417. 

Agassiz, Louis, 350. 351. 

Ainsworth, P. C, 585. 

Alcheson, Guillermo, 420. 

Alcorn, Gen. James L., 18, 235. 

Alcorn, Governor, 372. 

Alcorn, Senator, 94. 

Alderson, Abel, 355, 372. 

Aldrige, Jorge, 420. 

Alexander, 524, 527, 528. 

Alexander, Isac, 422. 

Allen, Hon. Henry W., 557, 558. 

Allen, Samuel M., 436. 

Alston, Guillermo, 419. 

Alston, John,. 415. 

Alston, Juan, 419. 

Alston. Phelipe Luis, 419. 

Alva, Estavan de, 425. 

Ambrose, Estavan, 421. 

Ames, Gen. Adelbert, 251, 385, 386, 

387, 388, 389. 402. 
Amoss, James, 411. 
Andelton, Juan, 423. 
Anderson, 505, 512, 513, 540, 587, 

601, 606. 
Anderson, Captain, 499. 
Anderson, Darius, 421. 
Anderson, Francisco. 426. 
Anderson, General, 49S, 500, 501, 

504, 506, 511. 


Anderson, Gen. J. Patton, 459, 483, 
493, 497, 503, 522, 536, 552, 554, 
556, 587, 591, 596, 609, 612. 
Anderson, H. R., 596. 
Anderson, Juan, 424. 
Anderson, Major Robert, 579. 
Anderson, Mrs. (Gen.) J. Patton, 

485, 590. 
Anderson, Richard H., 502. 
Andrew, General, 101. 
Andrew, Gov. John A , 10, 11. 
Andrews, Ishamer. 427. 
Archer, John P., 436. 
Arden, Juan, 423. 
Armsreit, Juan, 422. 
Armstrong, Moises, 419. 
Arnott, John, 416. 
Auchinleck, Jahn, 418. 
Autry, James Lockhart, 457. 

Anderson, Gen. Patton, 459. 

Autry, James Lockhart, 457, 459. 

Autry, Lieut. Col. James L., 460, 

Autry, Micajah and Martha 
Wyche, 457. 

Benton, Samuel. 459. 

Bradford, Gen. Alexander, 458. 

•Chalmers, James R., 458, 459. 

Clayton, A. M., 458. 

Craft, Henry, 458. ' 

Craft, J. W., 458. 

Farragut, Admiral, 459. 

Feathers'- one, Gen. W. S., 458. 

Finley, William, 459. 

Greer, James M., 457. 

Greer, Mrs. Mary Autry, 472. 

Harris, Thomas W., 458. 

Jackson, Andrew, 457. 

Lamar, L. Q. C, 458. 

Mott, C. H, 458. 

Scruggs, J. M.. 459. 

Strickland, William M.. 458. 

Valiant, Miss Jeanie, 459. 



Mississippi Historical Society. 

Walthall, E. C, 458. 
Walter, Col. H. W., 458, 461. 
Watson, J. W. C., 458. 
Watson, R. L., 458. 
Whitehorn, Mr., 457. 
Autry, James Lockhart, (Lieut. 

Col.), 457, 459, 460, 461, 483, 

497, 500, 507, 512, 513, 514, 522, 

Autry, Micajah and Martha Wyche, 


Bache, Lieutenant, 389. 

Badeau, Adam, 217. 

Bailey, Hon. James S., 196. 

Bainder, Jorge, 424. 

Baird, General, 197. 

Baker, 203. 

Baker, Guillermo, 425. 

Baker, Jehu, 401. 

Bal, Jose Slater, 422. 

Banks, 246. 

Banks, General, 292. 

Banks, Sutton, 426. 

Baptests, Juan, 426. 

Barber, Lieut. Merritt, 363, 364. 

Barbutt, James, 412, 413. 

Barbour, Philip, 413, 414. 

Barbour, Phillip, 412. 

Barket, Anna, 420. 

Barksdale, Brigadier General, 12. 

Barksdale, Capt. Wm. R., 603. 

Barksdale, Ex-Congressman Ethel, 

Barksdale, Hen. EL, 558. 

Barland, Guillermo, 426. 

Barnes, Major, 57. 

Baronet, Sir George Bridges Rod- 
ney, 414. 

Barrett, 498. 

Barrett, O. W., 496. 

Barrey, Richard, 411. 

Barrows, Ebenezer, 422. 

Barrows, Mayor, 56. 

Barshears, Edwardo, 419. 

Bartley, Juan, 419. 

Bass, Lawrence H., 436. 

Bass, Mr., 63. 

Basset, Guillermo, 420. 

Bate, 556. 

Bate, Brigadier General, 553. 

Bates. Ephain, 422. 

Bay, Elihu Hall, 411, 412. 

Bayly, Jorge, 422. 

Bayly, Tarpley, 425. 

Beach, Lieutenant, 44. 

Beakley, Adam, 425. 

Beams, Tomas, 420. 

Beanden, Jesus, 427. 

Beardman, Guillermo, 424. 

Beauregard, 564. 

Beauregard, General, 288, 517, 534, 
547, 579, 587. 

Beauregard, G. T., 565. 

Beanland, Capt. W. G., 495, 508. 

Bedon, Richard D., 435. 

Beecher, 216. 

Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 215. 

Beeson, Peter, 416. 

Behymer, Ivan, 436. 

Belk, Benjamin, 425. 

Bell, Andres, 426. 

Bell, Archie Y., 436. 

Bell, Hugh, 425. 

Bell, Ricardo, 427. 

Benjamin, Judah P., 548. 

Benning, Howell C, 436. 

Benoit, Gabriel, 426. 

Bentley, John, 415. 

Benton, 575. 

Benton, Col. Samuel, 459, 484, 496, 
536, 540, 572, 574, 586, 588, 589.- 

Benton, General, 485, 576. 

Bergman, Maurice A., 436. 

Bernard, Jose, 426. 

Bestow, Marcus P., 139, 145, 223. 

Bethune, Farquhar, 410. 

Biddle, Colonel, 385. 

Biddle, James, 389. 

Binford, Capt. John A., 196. 

Bingamon, Christian, 416. 

Bingham, 84, 106, 176, 177, 193. 

Bingham, Cristian, 424. 

Bingham, John A.. 75. 

Bingman, Adam, 426. 

Bishop, Col. W. H., 517, 518. 

Bishop, Guillermo, 423. 

Bisland, Juan, 426. 

Black, Curtis, 58. 

Blackwell, Joseph, 413. 

Blaine, Jas. G., 13, 42, 46, 48, 55, 74, 
75, 76. 77, 80, 81, 84, 119, 180, 
181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 
189, 193, 194, 204, 206, 207, 208, 
217, 253, 257, 25S, 259, 261, 262, 
277, 279, 284, 285, 309, 310, 311, 
372, 378, 381, 400, 

Blair, 220. 



Blake, Walter G., 436. 

Blanding, Lieutenant, 150. 

Blommart, John, 415. 

Blommart, Mrs. Alice, 413. 

Blount, Governor, 444, 448, 449, 450 

Blow, Henry T., 75. 

Blythes, 526. 

Boardman, Carlos, 426. 

Bobb, John, 51. 

Bobbs, 52. 

Bodln, Juan, 421. 

Boker, George H., 537, 599. 

Bols, Juan, 425. 

Bolls, John, 415, 417. 

Bonill, Elias, 422. 

Bonner, Jaime, 426. 

Bonner, Jose, 426. 

Bonner el Viejo, Moises, 426. 

Bonner el joven, Moises, 426. 

Bonner, Will, 426. 

Boone, Daniel, 455. 

Boone, Thomas W., 512. 

Borglum, Solon Hamilton, 456. 

Botto, Joseph, 262. 

Boutwell, 159, 164, 207. 

Boutwell, George S., 75, 246. 

Boutwell, Senator, 17C. 

Boveard, Guillermo. 423. 

Bowen, Captain, 531. 

Bowmar, Dr. J. H. D., 266. 

Boyden, 149. 

Boyd, Alexander, 410. 

Bradford, General Alexander, 458. 

Bradley, Henry, 417. 

Bradley, John, 411. 

Bragg, Gen. Braxton, 4S4, 485, 488, 
493, 497, 500. 501, 502. 503, 504, 
509, 511, 515, 516, 518, 519, 520, 
522, 524, 525, 526, 527, 532, 533, 
534, 535, 536, 538, 540, 542, 543, 
545, 546, 547, 549, 550, 560. 564, 
569, 575, 581, 586, 588, 599, 600, 
601, 602, 605, 606, 608, 609, 610. 
614, 615. 

Bragg, Judge John. 547. 

Bragg, Mrs. Eliza B., 548. 

Bragg, Thomas, 548. 
Brantley, 485, 577, 578, 579, 603, 604, 
Brantley, Col. W. F., 484, 494, 498, 
513, 528, 530, 536, 540, 572, 574. 
Brantley, General. 491, 509, 576. 
Brashears, Benjamin. 419. 
Brashears, Tobias, 418. 

Breckenridge, 506, 611, 613. 
Breckenridge, General, 503, 504, 505, 

Bridges, Miss Sophy, 492. 
Broccas, Guillermo, 419. 
Brooke, Ex-Senator Walker, 264. 
Brooks, 149. 
Brooks, James, 312. 
Brown, A. G., 396. - 
Brown, Captain, 44. 
Brown, Col. W. D., 49, 50. 
Brown, Ebenezer, 416. 
Brown, Ex-Senator, 394. 
Brown, Governor, 288. 384, 525, 598. 
Brown, Guillermo, 419. 
Brown, Hon. James, 29. 
Brown, James, 186. 
Brown, Jim, 448. 
Brown, John, 51, 375. 
Brown, John C. 607. 
Brown, Nataniel, 424. 
Brown, Obediah, 421. 
Brown, Pres. Milton, 128. 
Browne, William. 415. 
Brownlow, 185, 186, 187, 206. 
Brownlow, Governor, 61, 205. 
Brownlow, William G., 184. 
Bruce, James, 413. 
Bruin, Pedro, 419. 
Bryan, La Muger de Jeremias, 427. 

Buchanan, J. W., 4S2, 569. 

Buchanan, President, 565. , 

Buckner, 527. 

Buckner, 608, 611. 612, 615. 

Buell, 547. 

Buford, Gen. Abe, 567. 

Bullard, 581. 

Bullard, Lieut. Col. James, 519. 

Bulling, Juan, 427. 

Bullock, Benjamin, 422. 

Bullock, Capt. E. A., 455. 

Burch, Guillermo, 424. 

Burke, 490. 

Burnet, Daniel, 420. 

Burnet, Juan, 420. 

Burns, Charlie Y., 436. 

Burnslde, 526, 535, 613. 

Burr, Aaron, 444, 464. 

Burrows, William, 410. 

Butler, Gen. B. F., 205, 216, 217, 240, 
246, 356, 399, 401. 

Butler, Nataniel, 422. 

Buxton, Judge, 160. 

Byram, 527, 528. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Cable, Jacobo, 424. 

Cadwallader, John, 413. 

Calhoon, S. S., 604. 

Calhoun, John C, 195. 

Callender, Alexandro, 423. 

Calver, Jose, 425. 

Calvet, Guillermo, 422. 

Calvet, Juan, 422. 

Calvet, La Vuida, 425. 

Calvet, Tomas, 423. 

Camell, Roberto, 418. 

Cameron, Evan, 414. 

Campbell, Alexander, 417. 

Campbell, Charles, 418. 

Campbell, Col. J. A., 530, 535, 539 

Campbell, J. A. P., 134. 
Campbell, Judge, 135. 
Camus, Pedro, 425. 
Canby, General, 62, 327. 
Canty, 572. 
Carmack, 68. 
Carnine, Otos A., 436. 
Carothers, William, 410. 
Carpenter, La Vuida, 4?5. 
Carperton, Allen T., 551. 
Carr, Andrew, 418. 
Carr, Doctor, 63. 
Carr, Richard, 410. 
Carradine, Parker, 415, 421. 
Carrel, Juan, 420, 426. 
Carrell, Benjamin, 421. 
Carrlque, Eliz. Augusta, 414. 
Carter, Carlos, 427. 
Carter, Jese. 420. 
Carter, J. P., 509. 
Carter, Nehemiah, 421. 
Carter, Roberto, 428. 
Carter, T. C, 482. 491. 
Carter, Thomas, 417. 
Case, William, 416. 
Cassedy, Hirem Jr., 434. 
Caswell, Samuel C, 436. 
Catchings, Dr. T. W., 394. 
Catlin, Major, 44. 
Cato, Marcus, 490. 
Caudel, Lieutenant, 57. 
Cauld, George, 414. 
Cembrely, Estavan, 420. 
Chalmers, General. 493, 498, 499, 517, 

518, 519, 520, 581. 
Chalmers, James R., 458, 459, 501, 
675. I 

I Chamberlain, Ex-Governor, 402. 
: Chambers, Daniel, 419. 

Chambers, Guillermo, 421. 

Chambers, James, 410. 

Chambers, Joseph, 443. 

Chambers, Juan, 421. 

Chandler, Senator, 205, 256. 

Charleville, Joseph, 417. 

Chase, 48, 86. 

Chase, Chief Justice, 377. 

Cheatham, 489, 540, 541, 553, 556, 

Cheatham, Gen. B. F„ 485, 529, 531, 
542, 543, &07. 

Cheney, Guillermo, 418. 

Chester, Peter, 414. 

Chestnut, Colonel, 579. 

Christie, James, 418. 

Chrystie, John, 417. 

Claiborne, 450. • 

Clancy, James, 436. 

Clapp, J. W., 458. 

Clark, 12. 

Clark, Daniel, 410, 418. 

Clark, Governor, 13, 24. 

Clark, Guillermo, 423. 

Clark, Jaime, 423. 
Clark, Juan, 423. 

Clark, Lucia, 423. 

Clark, Mr. Joe, 49. 
Clark, Mr. John M., 49. 
Clark, William, 411. 
Clarke, Gibson, 419. 
Clay, Henry, 454. 
Clayton, A. M., 458. 
Clayton, Col. W. L., 472. 
Clayton, Judge, 131, 137. 
Clayton, Mr. Stewart, 472. 
Cleare, Jorge, 425. 

Cleburn, General, 484, 527, 540, 545, 
550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 
557, 558, 601, 611, 613, 614, 615. 
Cleveland, President, 487, 592. 
Clinton, J. K., 509. 
Cloud, 530. 
Cloud, Adam, 424. 
Clover, John, 411. 
Coan, Thomas, 411. 
Cobb. Arturo, 421. 
Cobberston, La Vuida, 427. 
Cobbun, Jacaba, 420. 
Cobbun, Samuel, 420. 
Cochran, Roberto, 424. 
Coffee, General, 450. 



Cogan, Patricio, 420. 
Coil, Marcos, 423. 
Colbert, George, 448. 
Colbert, Levi, 474. 
Cole el joven, Jaimie, 425. 
Cole el viejo, Jaime, 425. 
Cole, Estavan, 425. 
Cole, Guillercno, 425. 
Cole, James, 416. 
Cole, Juan, 425. 
Cole, Solomon, 425. 
Coles, A. C, 443, 451, 452, 454, 455. 
Coleman, Col. D., 573. 
Coleman, Ephraim, 423. 
Coleman, Israel, 425. 
Coleman, Jeremais, 425. 
Colfax, Speaker, 74, 75. 
Colins, Carlos, 424. 
Colleman, Guillermo, 419. 
Collins, Denis, 423. 
Collins, Guillermo, 419. 
Collins, John, 416 ; 
Collins, Josua, 424. 
Collins, Sr. Luke, 415. 
Collins, Theophilus, 415. 
Collins, Thomas, 415. 
Collins, William, 410, 411, 416. 
Collis, Captain, 141, 142. 
Colmery, John R., 436. 
Colonel George Strother Gaines and 
Other Pioneers in Mississippi 
Territory, 442. 

Blount, Governor, 444, 448, 449, 

Boone, Daniel, 455. 

Borglum, Solon Hamilton, 456. 

Brown, Jim, 448. 

Bullock, Capt. E. A., 455. 

Burr, Aaron, 444. 

Chambers, Joseph, 443. 

Claiborne, 450. 

Clay, Henry, 454. 

Colbert, George, 448. 

Coles, A. C, 443, 451, 452, 454, 455. 

Crockett, Davy, 455. 

Dale, Sam, 447, 450. 

Daniel, Sen. John W., 442. 

Edmondson, 448. 

Edmondson, Samuel A., 450. 

Flournoy, General, 448. 

Folsam family, 446. 

Gaines, Col. George Strother, 442, 
443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 449, 450, 
452, 453, 455, 456. 

Gaines, Dr. Vivian P., 455. 

Gaines family, 443. 

Gaines, Gen. Edmund Pendleton, 
442, 443, 444, 445. 

Gaines, Henry, 442, 443. 

Gaines, James, 443. 

Gaines, Mrs., 448. 

Gaines, Myra Clarke, 444. 

Gaines, Young, 451. 

Halbert, Professor H. S., 449. 

Hamilton, Judge Peter J., 456. 

Hill, James J., 454. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 456. 

Jackson, General, 447, 448, 449, 
450, 451, 454. 

James, George, 448. 

Jefferson, President, 442. 

Juzon, Charles, 448. 

Leflore, Chief Greenwood, 452. 

Leftwich, George J., 442,. 

Lincecum Gideon, 450. 

Lodge, Sen. Henry Cabot, 442. 

Love, Dr. William A., 446, 450. 

(Marshall, Judge, 444. 

McKee, Colonel, 449. 

McRae, Governor, 454. 

Owen, Dr. James M., 442, 446, 455. 

Patton, Rev. Dr., 453. 

Pendleton, Isabella, 442, 443. 

Pendleton, Judge Edmund, 442. 

Pitchlyn, 452. 

Pitchlyn, Major John, 445, 446, 
447, 448. 

Punch, Mrs. M. E., 455. 

Pushmataha, Chief, 447, 448, 449, 

Revere, Paul, 450. 

Starnes, William, 448. 

Strother, William, 442. 

Taylor, Gen. Zachary, 443. 

Tecumseh, 447. 

Toulmin, Judge Harry, 444. 

Washington, General, 449. 

Washington, President, 442, 443. 

Wilkinson, General, 448. 
Combash, 372. 
Compton, Doctor, 354. 
Compton, W. M., 587.. 
Comstock, Thomas, 417. 
Conely, Redman, 423. 
Conkling, Roscoe, 75, 346, 401. 
Connor, Juan, 427. 
Cook, Capt. J. B., 53. 
Cook, Major J. R.. 52, 53* 
Cook, Mr. S. B., 52. 
Cook, Mrs., 53. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Cooper, Enrique, 422. 

Cooper, General, 508. 

Cooper, Gen. Joseph A., 186. 

Cooper, Guillermo, 422. 

Cooper, Jaime, 422. 

Cooper, Richard, 12. 

Cooper, S., 508. 

Cooper, Samuel, 421, 422, 565. 

Corry, Jeremia3, 421. 

Corry, Job, 421. 

Corry, Ricardo, 421. 

Cortney, Juan, 423. 

Cothran, Judge, 134. 

Cotton, Roberto, 426. 

Cowel, Juan, 423. 

Cox, Congressman S. S., 42, 82, 83, 

120, 193, 253. 
Coyle, Hugh, 426. 
Coyleman, Jacabo, 420. 
Craft, Addison, 494, 495, 508, 576, 

Craft, Henry, 458. 
Crafton, Daniel, 426. 
Crane, Charles S., 436. 
Crane, Watterman, 419. 
Craven, 538. 
Craven, Juan, 422. 
Crawford, Hugh, 411. 
Crayton, Roberto, 425. 
Credy, Juan, 423. 
Crittenden, 527. 
Crittenden, George B., 517. 
Crittenden, Richard J., 436. 
Crockett, Davy, 455. 
Cromwell, 347. 
Crozier, Calvin S., 59, 60. 
Crumholf, Jacobo, 425. 
Crutheirs, Juan, 424. 
Cummins, Tomas, 421. 
Cunningham, Cataline, 421. 
Currie, D. M., 495, 509, 510. 
Curtes, Benjamin, 424. 
Curtes, Ricardo, 423. 
Curtis, Guillermo, 424. 
Custer, 167. 
Cutler, 199. 
Cypress, Andrew, 416. 

Dale, Sam, 447, 450. 
Dalling, John, 412. 
Dalziel, Archibald, 417. 
Dana, Major General, 53, 62. 
Dancy, Clifton, 577, 587, 588. 

Daniel, Sen. John W., 442. 

Daniels, Guillermo, 425. 

Daniels, Tomas, 425. 

Darden, 608. 

Darrah, Tomas, 427. 

Daugherty, Antonio, 419. 

Davis, 104, 212, 303, 375, 562, 563, 

Davi3, Henry Winter, 82. 
Davis, Jefferson, 12, 28, 106, 152, 159, 

162, 163, 204, 274, 304, 309, 490, 

517, 542, 547, 556, 561, 564, 565, 

574, 575, 580. 
Davis, Justice David, 380, 381. 
Davis, Landon, 421. 
Davis, Samuel, 423. 
Davis, Senator, 257. 
Dayton, Ebenezer, 427. 
Dea, 609. 

Deavenport, Jaime, 420. 
De Bready, Juan, 427. 
Denegre, Joseph, 229. 
Dennison, 108. 
Dennison, General, 196. 
Dervin, Elizabeth, 420. 
Dewange, Jorge, 424. 
Dickson, David, 412. 
Dillingham, Harry, 436. 
Divine, Dr. K. C, 494, 508, 510. 
Dix, Ex-Governor, 200. 
Dix, Juan, 425. 
Dixon, 119. 
Dixon, Rogers, 425. 
Dobson, Geo., 57. 
Dockery, Dr. Henry, 196. 
Donald, James, 410. 
Donald, Robert, 410. 
Donaldson, Juan, 424. 
Doolittle, Hon. J. R„ 220. 
Doolittle, Senator, 200, 279, 284. 
Doren, Miguel, 426. 
Dorwart, Walter B., 436. 
Dosier, Captain, 470. 
Douglas, 237. 

Douglas, Rev. Wm. K., 236. 
Douglass, Archibald, 423. 
Douglass, Daniel, 423. 
Douglass, Estavan, 423. 
Douglass, Favid, 423. 
Douglass, Fred, 123, 124. 
Dow, Jose, 421. 
Dowd, A. S., 368. 
Dowd, Col. W. F., 493, 539. 
Du Bose, Dudley M„ 604. 
Du Bose, Mrs., 604. 



DuBose, Mrs. Dudley M., 591, 604. 

Dudley, Gen. N. A., 44, 264. 

Dudley, L. Edwin, 217. 

Duesbery, Juan, 420. 

Dun, Ricardo, 425. 

Dunbar, Guillermo, 423. 

Dunbar, Roberto, 425. 

Duncan, Jose, 427. 

Dunham, C. L., 520. 

Dunman, Reuben, 419. 

Durch, Guillermo, 424. 

Durel, Judge, 197. 

Dwet, Ezekiel, 427. 

Dwet, Jese, 420. 

Dwyer, Mary, 415. 

Dyson, Clemente, 425. 

Dyson, Jose, 423. 

Dyson, Juan, 425. 

Dyson, Tomas, 423. 


Earheart, Jacobo, 420. 

Early, General, 159. 

Easmin, Abel, 423. 

Eason, William, 411. 

Eberhard, George, 416, 417. 

Ectors, 528. 

Eckstone, Sidney S., 436. 

Edmondson, 448. 

Edmondson, Samuel A., 450. 

Edward, Jaime, 421. 

Edwards, Thomas, 141. 

Eggleston, 383. 

Eggleston, Hon. B. B., 360, 365, 371. 

Ellet, Col. J. A., 264. 

Elliott, Guillermo, 427. 

Ellis, Abraham, 421. 

Ellis el jovn, Juan, 420. 

Ellis, Juan, 423. 

Ellis, Major W. C., 548. 

Ellis, Miss Eliza B., 546. 

Ellis, Ricardo, 420, 425. 

Ellis, Richard, 418. 

Ellis, Townson, 504. 

Ellis, William, 414. 

Elmore, Juan, 428. 

Enos, Roger, 413. 

Ervin, Guillermo, 425. 

Ervin, Jaime, 422. 

Ervin, Juan, 422. 

Ewell, General, 159. 

F.wlng, Rev. Quincy, 431. 

Fairchild, Henry, 409. 

Fake, Juan, 425. 

Fake, Miguel, 425. 

Falconer, 585. 

Falconer, Captain, 485. 

Falconer, Capt. Thomas A., 586, 588. 

Falconer, Guillermo, 422. 

Falconer, Major Kinlock, 511, 512, 

Farbanks, Guillermo, 423. 
Farinton, Tomas, 419. 
Farmer, Major Robert, 413. 
Farragut, Admiral, 203, 459. 
Farrow, Alexandro, 422. 
Featherston, William, 411, 578. 
Featherstone, 603. 
Featherstone, Gen. W. S., 458, 491, 

Featherstone, William, 412. / 
Felts, Clarence A., 436. 
Ferguson, Guillermo, 424. 
Ferguson, John, 418. 
Ferguson, Juan, 427. 
Ferrell, Frank, 587. 
Ferry, Jaime, 426. 
Ferry, Juan, 424. 
Fessenden, 275. 

Fessenden, Senator, 111, 159, 160. 
Fessenden, Wm. J., 74. 
Field, David Dudley, 220. 
Field, Col. H. R., 573. 
Field, Justice, 380. 
Finley, William, 459. 
Finn, Jaime, 419. 
Firby, John, 418. 
Fisher, 11. 
Fisher, Francis, 417. 
Fisk, Gen. C. B., 169. 
Fitz, Reverend, 149. 
Fitzgerald, Jaime, 426. 
Fitzgerald, Jorge, .426. 
Five, Isaac, 420. 
Fletcher, Benjamin, 422. 
Fletcher, Guillermo, 422. 
Flournoy, General, 448. 
Flowers, Elias, 419. 
Flowers, Samuel, 427. 
Floyd, Elias W., 436. 
Foard, Juan, 422. 
Foard, Thomas, 422. 
Foley, Patricio, 421. 
Folsam family, 446. 
Foote, Judge, 134, 138. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Fooy, Benjamin, 420. 
Fooy, Isaac, 420. 
Fore, Charles J., 49. 
Forman, Ezekiel, 427. 
Forman, Ismy, 425. 
Forman, Jorge, 425. 
Forrest, 567, 573, 574. 
Forrest, General, 141, 142, 534. 
Forzith, Jaime, 427. 
Foster,' Guillermo, 427. 
Foster, Jaime, 425. 
Foster, Juan, 427. 
Foster, Major General, 50. 
Foster, Marta, 425. 
Foster, Samuel, 424. 
Foster, To mas, 427. 
Fowler, Capt. W. H., 536. 
Fowler, Jose, 423. 
Fowler, W. H., 496. 
Fox, E., 262. 
Frasher, Juan, 420. 
Free, Major, 38. 
Freeman, William T., 436. 
Freman, Tomas, 427. 
Frey, Thomas, 411. 
x Fricker, William, 416. 

Frockmorton, Mordica, 424. 
Frockmorton, Roberto, 424. 
From Organization to Overthrow of 
Mississippi's Provisional Gov- 
ernment, 1865-1868, 9. 

Acker, Hon. Joel M., 29, 233. 

Adams, Hon. Charles Francis, 348. 

Adams, General, 136. 

Agassiz, Louis, 350, 351. 

Alcorn, Gen. Jas. L., 18, 235. 

Alcorn, Governor, 372. 

Alcorn, Senator, 94. 

Alderson, A., 355, 372. 

Ames, Gen. Adelbert, 251, 385, 
386, 387, 388, 389, 402. 

Andrew, General, 101. 

Andrew, Gov. John A., 10, 11. 

Bache, Lieutenant, 389. 

Badeau, Adam, 217. 

Bailey, Hon. Jas. S., 196. 

Baird, General, 197. 

Baker, 203. 

Baker, Jehu, 401. 

Banks, 246. 

Banks, General, 292. 

Barber, Lieut. M„ 363, 364. 

Barksdale, Brigadier General, 12. 

Barksdale, Ex-Congressman Ethel 

Barnes, Major, 57. 

Barrows, Mayor, 56. 

Bass, (Mr., 63. 

Beach, Lieutenant, 44. 

Beauregard, General, 288. 

Beecher, 216. 

Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 215. 

Bestow, Marcus P., 139, 145, 223. 

Biddle, Colonel, 385. 

Biddle, James, 389. 

Binford, Capt. John A, 196. 

Bingham, 84, 106, 176, 177, 193. 

Bingham, John A., 75. 

Black, Curtis, 58. 

Blaine, Jas. G., 13, 42, 46, 48, 55, 
74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 94, 119, 180, 
181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 
189, 193, 194, 204, 206, 208, 217, 
253, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262, 277, 
279, 284, 285, 309, 310, 311, 372, 
378, 381, 400. 

Blair, 220. | 

Blanding, Lieutenant, 150. ' 

Blow, Henry, 75. 

Bobb, John, 51. 

Bobbs, 52. 

Botto, Joseph, 262. 

Boutwell, 159, 164, 207. 

Boutwell, Geo. S., 75, 246. 

Boutwell, Senator, 170. 

Bowmar, Dr. J. H. D., 266. 

Boyden, 149. 

Brooke, Ex-Senator W r alker,264. 

Brooks, 149. 

Brooks, James, 312. 

Brown, A. G., 396. 

Brown, Captain, 44. 

Brown, Col. W. D., 49, 50. 

Brown, Ex-Senator, 374. 

Brown, Governor, 288. 

Brown, Hon. James, 29. 

Brown, James, 186. 

Brown, John, 51, 375. 

Brown, Joe, 384. 

Brown, Pres. Milton, 128. 

Brownlow, 185, 186, 187, 206. 

Brownlow, Governor, 60, 205. 

Brownlow, William G., 184. 

Butler, 217. 

Butler, Gen. B. R, 205, 216, 217, 
240, 246, 356, 399, 401. 

Buxton, Judge, 160. 

Calhoun, John C. t 195. 

Campbell, J. A. P., 134. 

Campbell, Judge, 135. 



Canby, General, 62, 327. 

Carmack, 68. 

Carr, Doctor, 63. 

Catchings, Dr. T. W., 394. 

Catlin, Major, 44. 

Caudel, Lieutenant, 57. 

Chamberlain, Ex-Governor, 402. 

Chandler, Senator, 205, 256. 

Chase, 48, 86. 

Chase, Chief Justice, 377. 

Clark, 12. 

Clark, Gov. Charles, 13, 24. 

Clark, Mr. Joe, 49. 

Clark, Mr. John M., 49. 

Clayton, Judge, 131, 137. 

Colfax, Speaker, 74, 75. 

Collis, Captain, 141, 142. 

Combash, 372. 

Compton, Doctor, 354. 

Conkling, Senator Roscoe, 75, 346, 

Cook, Capt. J. B., 53. 
Cook, Major J. R., 52, 53. 
Cook, Mr. S. B., 52. 
Cook, Mrs., 53. 
Cooper, Gen. Joseph A., 186. 
Cothern, Judge, 134. 
Cox, 120. 
Cox, Congressman S. S., 42, 82, 

83, 193, 253. 
Cromwell, 347. 
Crozier, Calvin S., 59, 60. 
Custer, 167. 
Cutler, 199. 

Dana, Major General, 53, 62. 
Davis, 104, 212, 303, 375. 
Davis, Henry Winter, 82. 
Davis, Jefferson, 12, 28, 106, 152,1 

159, 162, 163, 204, 257, 274, 304, j 

Davis, Justice David, 380, 381. 
Denegre, Joseph, 229. 
Dennison, 108. 
Dennison, General, 196. 
Dix, Ex-Governor, 200. 
Dixon, 119. 
Dobson, George, 57. 
Dockery, Dr. Henry, 196. 
Doolittle, Hon. J. R., 220. 
Doollttle, Senator, 200, 279, 284. | 
Douglas, 237. 

Douglas, Rev. Wm. K., 236. 
Douglass, Fred, 123, 124. 
Dowd, A. S., 368. 
Dudley, Gen. N. A., 44, 264. 


Dudley, L. Edwin, 217. 

Durel, Judge, 197. 

Early, General, 159. 

Edwards, Thomas, 141. 

Eggleston, 383. 

Eggleston, Hon. B.B . 360,365,371. 

Ellet, Col. J. A., 264. 

Ewell, General, 159. 

Farragut, Admiral, 203. 

Fessenden, 275. 

Fessenden, Senator, 111, 159, 

Fessenden, Wm. J., 74. 

Field, David Dudley, 220. 

Field, Justice, 380. 

Fisher, 11. 

Fisk, Gen. C. B., 169. 

Fitz, Reverend, 149. 

Foote, Judge, 134, 138. 

Fore, Charles J., 49. 

Forrest, General, 141, 142. 

Foster, Major General, 50. 

Fox, E., 262. 

Free, Major, 38. 

Fullerton, 147, 150, 152, 153. 

Fullerton, General, 224. 

Garfield, Congressman, 398. 

Garner, 47, 153, 394, 395. 

Garnet, Mary, 372. 

Garrett, Capt. B. G., 143. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 10, 11. 

Garrity, Mr., 52, 58. 

Gessler, 300. 

Gholson, Gen. S. J., 14. 

Gibbs, 394. 

Gibbs, Delegate, 359. 

Gibbs, W. H., 368, 394. 

Gilbert, Colonel, 326. 

Gillem, Gen. A. C, 264, 267, 
298, 323, 336, 341, 345, 357, 
360, 365, 367, 368, 371, 383, 
389, 392, 393, 394, 395, 398, 

Girder, Henry, 75. 

Glavis, G. C, 149. 

Gomillon, J. H., 325. 

Goode, 18. 

Graham, Senator, 160. 

Granger, Gen. Gordon, 210. 

Grant, General, 48, 49, 50, 51 
55, 62, 64, 84. 91, 93, 101, 
126, 139, 140, 156, 163, 173, 
186. 198, 199, 202, 203, 214, 
217, 263, 292, 294, 295, 301, 


309, 311, 318, 

328, 329, 

357, 373, 377, 3S1, 391, 392, 

, 54, 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Gray, Lieutenant, 44. 
Greeley, Horace, 235, 303, 309. 
Green, Bishop William Mercer, 72 
Greene, Assistant Adjutant Gen 

eral, 308. 
Greene, Major, 0. D., 298. 
Greenleaf, Assistant Surceon, 44. 
Grler, Justice, 305, 379, 381. 
Grlerson, General, 167. 
Grimes, Jas. W., 74. , 

Grinell, 259. 
Gulley, Sheriff, 56. 
Hahn, 199. 
Hamilton, 206. 
Hammett, Henry, 262. 
Hampton. Gen. Wade, 11, 101, 

159, 288. 
Hancock, General, 327. 
Hall, N. J., 262. 
Hailer, 347. 

Halleck, General, 54, 55, 64. 
Hailer, Lieutenant. 44, 323. 
Hardee, General, 128. 
Hardy, W. W., 57. 
Harlan, 109, 196. 
Harper, Munday, 58. 
Harriman, D. S., 395. 
Harris, Gen. Nat. K., 196. 
Harris, J. G, 262. 
Harris, Judge W. P., 289, 290, 291, 

Harris, S. S., 325. 
Harrison, Jas. T., 12. 
Hartsuff, General, 64. 
Hawley, General, 60. 
Hayes, 381. 
Hazard, Wm., 262. 
Hedberg, Lieutenant, 44. 
Hemingway, 18. 
Henderson, John B., 177. 
Henderson, Senator, 111. 
Hill, C. H., 262. 
Hill, H. R. W., 49. 
Hill, Judge, 156, 161, 169, 250, 251. 
HilJyer, Col. Giles M., 196. 
Holbrook, Lieutenant, 44. 
Hood, General, 288. 
Hooker, Col. C. E., 12, 132, 134. 
Hooker, C. E„ 385. 
Howard, General O. O., 28, 148, 

149, 167, 209, 212, 224. 
Howard, Jacob M., 74. 
Howard, Senator, 161, 162, 170. 
Howe, Judge, 83, 193. 
Howell, R. K., 197. 

Hudson, 18. 

Humphreys, Gov. B. G., 12, 14, 15, 
17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 
30, 44, 45, 47, 65, 66, 68, 70, 132, 
* 189, 230, 231, 233, 234, 269, 274, 
288, 294, 295, 336, 337, 355, 383, 
385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 402. 
Hunter, Catherine, '58. 
| Hunter, James, 58. 

Jackson, 219. 
I James, Rev. Horace, 149. 
I Jamison, 372. 
i Jaynes, 103. 
I Jefferson, 219, 240. 
Jenkins, Governor, 385. 
Johnson, 82, 84, 112, 171, 182, 185, 

187, 253, 254, 329, 375. 
Johnson, Delegate, 358. 
Johnson, Governor, 161, 
Johnson, Harrison, 138, 139. 
Johnson, President, 9, 10, 12, 21, 
22, 23, 30, 42, 47, 49, 60, 61, 62, 

69, 70, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 85, 86, 
87, 88, 91, 110, 113, 114, 116, 
119, 120, 122, 124, 129, 140, 161, 
190, 196, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 
210, 235, 243, 249, 269, 271, 275, 
357, 365, 373, 374, 375, 378, 398. 

Johnston, 173. 

Johnston, Senator Reverdy, 74, 

Jordon, Gen. John B., 384. 
Kane, 170. 
Keizer, Fred C, 262. 
Kelly, W. D. 300. 
Kennard, Jas. M., 126, 127. 
Kershaw, 101. 
King, 199. 
King, Captain, 153. 
Knox, Major J. J., 150, 153. 
Lane, N. V., 262. 
Lane, Stockton, 119. 
Lanier, N. B., 262. 
Lawrence, Major Henry C, 160. 
Lee, Robert E., 12. 
Lee, 166, 173, 206, 207. 
Lee, General, 162, 163. 
Lee, Gen. G. W. C, 159. 
Lee, Gen. Robert E., 159, 161, 288. 
Lee, Gen. W. H. F., 159. 
Lincoln, President, 45, 51, 60, 69, 

70, 80, 81, 82, 86, 114, 119, 129, 
159, 171, 177, 182, 195, 197, 271, 
303, 304. 

Livermore, Chaplain, 151. 



Livermore, Parson, 153. 

Longstreet, General, 159, 288. 

Lowry, 3S3. 

Luberbier, Miss, 63. 

Lynch, John R., 395. 

Mahone, General, 159. 

iMallon, 143. 

Mallory, 159. 

Maltby, Gen. J. A., 53. 

Manlove, Capt. C. A., 263. 

Mann, Major J. C, 149. 

Marshall, Dr. C. K„ 237. 

Marshall, Major C, 50. 

Marshall, Rev. C. K., 240, 263, 

Matthews, Capt. J. H., 170. 
Mattingly, J. W., 262. 
Mattingly, Mr., 51. 
Mayers, A. G., 394. 
Mayers, Col. A. G., 196. 
McCardle, 326, 380, 389. 
McCardle, Col. W. H., 325, 376, 

McCardle, Gen. W. H., 264. 
McCulloch, 108. 
McDowell, General, 384, 385, 386, 

390, 391. 
McGee, Jno. H., 170. 
McGehee, Judge Edward, 53. 
McNeily, J. S., 9. 
McPherson, General, 54, 55. 
Meade, General, 60, 327, 385. 
Meade, Governor, 382. 
Meredith, General, 202. 
Monroe, Mayor, 197. 
Montgomery, Augustus S„ 50. 
Moody, Col. Geo. V., 196. 
Moore, Col. John, 44. 
Moore, J. Aaron, 359. 
Morrill, Justin V., 75. 
Morton, 402. 
Mower, General, 301. 
Murdock, Hon. Abraham, 196. 
Murphey, M., 262. 
Myers, Jasper, 385. 
Mygatt, Olson, 353. 
Nelson, Associate Justice, 250. 
Norton, Major, 44. 
O'Connor, Charles, 305. 
Ohl, Dr. J. F., 39. 
0»NeIl, 143. 
Ord, General E. O. C, 64, 292, 

293, 294, 295, 297, 298, 301, 302,! 

303, 307, 30S, 310, 313, 323, 329,1 

326, 334, 336, 337, 338, 341, 347, 

355, 376, 384. 
Orr, 368. 

Orr, Governor, 189. 
Osband, Col. E. D., 53. 
Osbond, General, 101. 
Osterhaus, General, 44. 
Parker, P. A., 136. 
Patridge, J. M., 264. 
Patton, 11. 

Patton, Governor, 189. 
Pegues, Col. T. E. B., 196. 
Perry, Governor, 35, 36, 58, 60. 
Peyton, E.G., 12. 
Phillips, Wendell, 246. 
Plnson, R. A., 12. 
Pope, 310, 327. 
Pope, General, 303. 
Potter, 149. 
Potter, Captain, 44. 
Potter, Hon. George L., 196. 
Prentice, George D., 44, 183. 
Preston, A. W., 237. 
Preuss, 362. 

Railsback, Rev. Jeheil, 335. 
Raum, Capt. W. C, 153. 
Raymond, Henry, J., 194. 
Rennolds, John S., 189. 
Reynolds, 250. 
Reynolds, A. E., 12. 
Reynolds, Geo. D., 113. , 

Reynolds, Jno. S., 59. 
Richard, Col. C. E., 12. 
Ritter, Major, 44. 
Rhodes, 63, 80, 112, 121, 122, 154, 

184, 185, 187, 192, 193, 204, 205, 

206, 207, 208 313, 351, 393, 394, 

Rodgers, A. J., 75. 
Rogers, 159. 
Rogillio, Mrs., 57. 
Rosekranz, Captain, 150. 
Rosekranz, Capt. Isaac, 149. 
Royal, 381. 

Royal, William L., 380. 
Ruger, Major General, 149. 
Rush, Dr., 149. 
Sanderson, Lieutenant, 44. 
Saulsbury, 120. 
Schell, Augustus, 303. 
Schofield, General, 382. 
Schofield, Major General J. M., 

292, 301, 310. 
Schurz, 87, S8, 91. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Schurz, Major General Carl, 84,; 

85, 86, 88, 93. - x 

Scott, Dred, 251. 
Scully, J. W., 363. 
Seal, Roderic, 385. 
fiSeddon, Secretary of War, 50, j 

159. , 

Seeley, Capt. T. A., 149. 
Segar, Senator, 70. 
Seward, W. H., Secretary of State, ! 

10, 17, 24, 35, 36, 48, 60, 69, 70, 

71, 73, 81, 108, 183, 203, 205, 216, 

219, 232, 260. j 

Sharkey, 12, 270, 288. 
Sharkey, Governor, 10, 14, 15, 17,: 

18, 23, 24, 29, 30, 42, 46, 69, 70, 

168, 169, 190, 235, 291, 394, 396. 
Sharkey, Judge, 94, 161, 189, 196,1 

290, 305. 
Sharkey, Wm. L., 9, 269. 
iShellabarger, 84, 182, 193. 
Sheridan, 48, 301, 310, 327, 329. 
Sheridan, General, 166, 167, 198, i 

199, 200, 207, 208, 293, 302, 308, | 

309, 328. 
Sherman, 48, 62, 108, 173, 217, j 

Sherman, General, 49, 54, 55, 142. j 
Sherman, Senator John, 185, 279.; 
Short, Mr. George F., 49. 
Sickles, 310, 311, 327, 328. 
Sickles, Gen. Daniel E., 250, 251,1 

299, 300, 329. 
Simonton, Col. John M., 14. 
Simrall, 272. 
Slmrall, Hon. ,H. F., 20, 32, 196, 

Sims, Mr., 49. 
Slattery, 143. 

Slocum, General, 51, 52, 53. 
Smiley, Judge, 138. 
Smith, 250. 

Smith, Brevet Col. Joseph R., 298. 
Smith, Colonel, 57, 58, 126. 
Smith, George, 262. 
Smith, Governor, 159. 
Smith, Major, 151. 
Smith, Marion, 386. 
Spalding, 259, 261. 
Speed, 109. 

Speed, Attorney General, 129, 196. 
Spencer, Herbert, 349. 
Stanberry, 310, 

Stanberry, Attorney General, 302, 
305, 310. 

Stanton, Secretary of State, 48, 62, 
86, ,93, 109, 140, 159, 196, 224, 
225, 252, 326, 327, 372, 373, 377. 

Steedman, General, 147, 150, 152, 
153 224 

Stephens, 143, 172, 177. 

Stephens, A. H., 164. 

Stephens, Vice-President, 161. 

Stevens, 77, 81, 83, 106, 111, 112, 
174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 182, 192, 
193, 207, 240, 246, 261, 262, 278, 
279, 291, 292, 305, 313, 374, 402. 

Stevens, A. H., 115. 

Stevens, Thaddeus", 74, 82, 84, 157, 

171, 193, 218, 251, 253, 259, 312, 
376, 399, 401. 

Stites, Doctor, 373. 

Stockton, 119. 

Stoneman, 144. 

Stoneman, Major General, 61, 143. 

Strickland, Delegate, 356. 

Stricklin, 365. 

Sumner, 76, 77, 81, 83, 112, 160, 

172, 192, 193, 207, 256, 402. 
Sumner, Senator, 111, 115. 
Sykes, Dr. G. A., 196. 
Tappan, Winthrop, 149. 
Tarbell, Gen. John, 169. 
Taylor, 347. 

Terry, 167. 

Thomas, 144. 

Thomas, Colonel, 38, 58, 97, 99, 

113, 126, 134, 135, 140, 145, 147, 

150, 170. 
Thomas, General, 23, 24, 60, 61, 

62, 72, 73, 165, 169, 186, 207, 
. 208, 292, 310. 
Thorn, William H., 39. 
Tilden, 381. 
Tillson, General, 60. 
Tompkins, 219. 
Townsend, 366. 

Townsend, E. D., 130, 150, 156. 
Trumbull, 111. 
Trumbull, Senator, 256, 377. 
Tyler, John, 355, 362. 
Underwood, Judge, 129, 130, 163. 
Voorhees, 106, 120. 
Wade, 246, 371. 
Wade, Ben, 119, 374, 375. 
Wade, Senator, 82. 
Wadsworth, 219. 
Walker, Robert J., 305. 



Wallin, Mayor, E. W., 264. 
" Warmoth, 206. 

Warren, General, 53. 
■ Warren, Joseph, 102. 

Washburn, 84, 259. 

Washburn, Elihu B., 74. 

Washburne, Congressman. 398. 

Watson, Judge J. W. C, 366, 394, 

Webster, 195. 

Weed, 219. 

Wells, Governor, 58, 199, 308. 

Wells, J. Madison, 197. 

Welles, 345. 

Welles, Secretary, 108. 

Wesson, President, 394. 

West, A. M., 12. 

Wheeler, Captain, 149. 

Whipple, Brig. Gen. Win. D., 61. 

White, F. M., 129. 

Whittlesey, Col. E., il49. 

Wickersham, Major Charles J., 
148, 149. 

Wickoff, Charles A., 298. 

Williams, Geo. H., 74. > 

Williams, Lieutenant, 44. 

Williams, Maurice, 99. 

Williams, N. R., 363. 

Williams, Senator, 170. 

Wilmer, Bishop, 72. 

Wilson, 84, 193, 378. 

Wilson, Senator, 35, 204. 

Winters, Sheriff, 143. 

Wirz, 120. 

Wood, Gen. T. J., 24, 43, 44, 73, 
99, 126, 130, 139, 145, 146, 147, 
150, 152, 154, 156, 212, 214, 222, 
223, 236, 237, 241, 262, 263, 264, 
266, 267, 293. 

Woodward, 379. 

Woodward, Major, 44. 

Wright, 119, 219. 

Yerger, Hon. Win., 29, 196, 233. 

Yerger, Judge, 131, 304. 

Young, Col. Van E., 43, 44. 

Young, Upton, 264. 
Fullerton, 147, 150, 152, 153. 
Fullerton, General, 224. 

Galllard, Isac, 421. 
Gaines, Dr. Vivian P., 455. 
Gaines, Gen. Edmund Pendleton, 
442, 443, 444, 445, 467. 

Gaines (family, 443. 

Gaines, Col. George Strother, 442, 
443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 449, 450, 
451, 452, 454, 455, 456, 467. 

Gaines, Henry, 442, 443. 

Gaines, James, 443. 

Gaines, Mrs., 448. 

Gaines, Myra Clarke, 444. 

Gaines, Young, 451. 

Gallachan, Patrick, 410. 

Gallermore, David, 420. 

Galloway, Bishop Charles B., 595. 

Gamble, Thomas, 413. 

Garejt, Juan, 423. 

Garfield, Congressman, 398. 

Garkins, Juan, 424. 

Garner, 47, 153, 394, 395. 

Garnet, Mary, 372. 

Gamier, William, 418. 

Garrett, Capt. B. G., 143. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 10, 11» 

Garrity, 58. 

Garrity, Capt. James, 519. 

Garrity, Mr., 52. 

Gary, John A., 436. 

George, 594. 

George, Senator, 490. 

Germain, Jeremiah, 413. 

Gessler, 300.' 

Gholson, Gen. S. J., 14. 

Gibbs, 394. 

Gibbs, Delegate, 359. 

Gibbs, W. H., 368, 394. 

Gibson, Samuel, 415, 419. 

Gibson, Gibbs, 427. 

Gibson, Reuben, >427. 

Glesler, Ustace A., 436. 

Gilbert, Colonel, 326. 

Gilbert, Crestobal, 420. 

Gilbert, Guillermo, 427. 

Gilchrist, Jas. G., 493. 498. 

Gildart, Robert S., 436. 

Gildart, Capt. W. K., 433. 

Gilkson, Samuel, 427. 

Gillaspie, Guillermo, 426. 

Gillem, Gen. A. C, 264, 267, 293, 298, 
323, 336, 341, 345, 357, 358. 360, 
365, 367, 368, 371, 383, 384, 389, 
392, 393, 394, 395, 398, 399. 

Girder, Henry, 75. 

Gise, Christopher, 417. 

Gladden, General, 575. 

Glascok, Guillermo, 421. 

Glascok, Jaime, 427. 

Glason, Abraam, 425. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Glavis, G. C, 149. 

Gobbard, Tomas, 419. 

Golden, Michael, 415. 

Gomillon, J. H., 325. 

Goode, 18. 

Goodwin, Pheby, 420. 

Gordon, 526, 527, 528. 

Gordon, John, 411. 

Gordon, John B., 580. 

Gorman, William, 413. 

Govan, 509, 526, 528, 530. 

Govan, Col. Dan. C, 597. 

Govan, George M., 508, 510, 577, 593. 

Govan, Miss Bettie, 594. 

Gower, Benjamin, 415. 

Graham, Senator, 160. 

Granger, Gen. Gordon, 210, 484, 524. 

Grant, Alexandro, 424. 

Grant, General, 48, 49, 50, 51, 54, 55, 
62, 64, 84, 91, 93, 101, 112, 125, 
139, 140, 156, 163, 173, 183, 186, 
198, 199, 202, 203, 214, 215, 217, 
263, 292, 294, 295, 301, 302, 309, 
311, 318, 327, 328, 329, 347, 357, 
373, 377, 381, 391, 392, 393, 39&, 
535, 536, 537, 543, 550, 610, 613. 

Grant, George, 415. 

Grant, John, 417. 

Grant, President, 599. 

Grant, William, 414. 

Grass, Antonio, 426. 

Gray, Lieutenant, 44. 

Gray, Ruffin, 421. 

Graydon, Alexander, 411. 

Greary, 538. , 

Greeffin, Gabriel, 423. 

Greeffin, Juan, 423. 

Greeley, Horace, 235, 303, 309. 

Green, Abner, 420. 

Green, Abraam, 421. 

Green, Bishop William Mercer, 72. 

Green, Enrique, 425. 

Green, Jose, 424. 

Green, Juan, 419. 

Green, Nathan, 424. 

Green, Tomas Master, 422. 

Greene, Asst. Adj. Gen. O. D., 303. 

Greene, Major O. D„ 298. 

Greenfield, Jesse, 421. 

Greenleaf, Assistant Surgeon, 44. 

Greenlief, David, 423. 

Greer, James M., 457. 

Greer, Mrs. Mary Autry, 457. 

Grier, Justice, 305, 379, 381. 

Grierson, General, 167. 
Griffith, Dr. J. R., 509, 510. 
Grimes, J. W., 74. 
Grims, Ricardo, 420. 
Grinell, 259. 
Groves, 587. 
Guion, Captain, 467. 
Guise, Miguel, 424. 
Guist, General, 614. 
Gulley, Sheriff, 56. 
Gunnels, Frederico, 418. 


Hahn, 199. 

Haines, Estavan, 425. 

Haines, Juan, 425. 

Hairston, Marshall, 511. 

Halbert, Professor H. S., 449. 

Haldimand, Frederick, 412. 

Hall, Judge, 251. 

Hall, N. J., 262. 

Hall, Wilson P., 437. 

Hallack, General, 55. 

Halleck, General, 54, 64. 

Haller, Lieutenant, 44, 323, 347. 

Hambeeling, Juan, 425. 

Hamberling, Guillermo, 424. 

Hemelton, Jese, 423. 

Hamilton, 206, 472. 

Hamilton, Hugh, 410. 
Hamilton, Judge Peter J., 456. 

Hamilton, Madden W., 434. 

Hammer, Chas. W., 437. 

Hammett, Henry, 262. 

Hampton, Gen. Wade, 11, 101, 159. 

Hancock, General, 327. 
Hanson, 505. 

Harbison, Richard T., 436. 
Hardee, 494, 502, 524, 533, 556. 568, 

597, 601. 
Hardee, General, 128, 484, 540, 541, 

543, 545, 553, 569, 598, 602. 
Hardy, Thomas, 409. 
Hardy, W. W., 57, 488. 
Harkins, Guillermo, 420. 
Harlan, 109, 196. 
Harman, Cristian, 427. 
Harman, Ezekiel, 420. 
Harman, Jaime, 420. 
Harmon, Philip, 415. 
Harmon, Thomas, 414. 
Harper, Henry, 512. 
Harper, Munday, 58. 



Harrigal, Daniel, 422. 

Harriman, D. S., 395. 

Harris, Isham G., 532. 

Harris, J. C, 262. 

Harris, Judge W. P., 2S9, 290, 291 

Harris, Gen. Nat. H., 196. 
Harris, Samuel A., 550, 614. 
Harris, S. S., 325. 
Harris, Thomas W., 458. 
Harrison, George, 411. 
Harrison, Jas. T., 12, 580. 
Harrison, Jose, 427. 
Harrison, Joseph, 411. 
Harrison, Lieut. John C, 577, 602. 
Harrison, Regina L., 580. 
Harrison, Ricardo. 425. 
Hartley, Jacob, 420. 
Hartley, John, 417. 
Hartley, Juan, 420. 
Hartman, Chas. E., 437. 
Hartsuff, General, 64. 
Harwell Ethel, 437. 
Haughton, 464. 
Hawford, Richard, 417. 
Hawley, General, 60. 
Hay, William, 412. 
Hayes, 381. 
Hays, William, 414. 
Hayton, John, 411. 
Hayton, Joseph, 411. 
Hazard, Wm., 262. 
Head, Robert S., 437. 
Heady, Samuel, 422. 
Hebron, George B., 437. 
Hedberg, Lieutenant, 44. 
Hellbrand, David, 423. 
Hemell, Carlos, 420. 
Hemingway, 18. 
Henderson, Alexandro, 425. 
Henderson, Guillermo, 426. 
Henderson, John B., 177. 
Henderson, Senator, ill. 
Henry, Wm., 430, 431. 
Here, Andres, 419. 
Herin, John, 411. 
Hicks, J. M., 604. 
Hifler, Margarita, 422. 
Higdon, Jephta, 425. 
Higgins, Barney, 421. 
Higginson, Stewart, 424. 
Hill, C. II., 262. 
Hill, Gen. D. H. f 603, 610, 612. 
Hill, H. R. W., 49. 

Hill, Hon. B. H., 484, 548, 545, 561, 

563, 565, 602. 
Hill, James J., 454. 
Hill, Judge, 156, 161, 169, 250. 
Hill, Lieutenant General, 611. 
Hill, Major Charles S., 554. 
Hill, Pedro, 423. 
Hill, Senator, 562. 
Hillyer, Col. Giles M., 196. 
Hilonds, Jaime, 424. 
Hindman, 501, 524, 536, 552, 553, 556, 

566, 568, 611, 612, 615. 
Hindman, General, 527, 532, 609. 
Hindson, William, 413. 
History, Ephraim, 419. 
History of Co. C, Second Missis- 
sippi Regiment, Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, 429. 

Acker, George W., 434. 

Allen, Samuel M., 436. 

Archer, John P., 436. 

Bass, Lawrence H., 436. 

Bedon, Richard D., 435. 

Behymer, Ivan, 436. 

Bell, Archie Y., 436. 

Benning, Howell C, 436. 

Bergman, Maurice A„ 436. . 

Blake, Walter G., 436. 

Burns, Charlie Y., 436. 

Carnine, Otos A., 436. 

Cassedy, Hirem, Jr., 434. 

Caswell, Samuel C, 436. 

Clancey, James, 436. 

Colmery, John R., 436. 

Crane, Charles S., 436. 

Crittenden, Richard J., 436. 

Dillingham, Harry, 436. 

Dorwart, Walter B., 436. 

Eckstone, Sidney S., 436. 

Ewing, Rev. Quincy, 431. 

Felts, Clarence A., 436. 

Floyd, Elias W„ 436. 

Freeman, William T„ 436. 

Gary, John A., 436. 

Giesler, Ustace A., 436. 

Gildart, Capt. W. K., 433. 

Gildart, Robert S., 436. 

Hall, Wilson P., 437. 

Hamilton, Madden W„ 434. 

Hammer, Chas. W., 437. 
. Harbison, Richard T., 436. 

Hartman, Chas. E., 437. 

Harwell, Ethel, 437. 

Head, Robert S., 437. 

Hebron, George B., 437. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Henry, Wm., 430, 431. 

Hood, Dabney H., 435. 

Hood, T H., 433. 

Hoskins, George C, 434. 

Hovis, Walter J., 437. 

Hunt, George B., 435. 

Ingram, Wm. A., 437. 

Ireys, Capt. Henry T., 429, 433. 

435, 440, 441. 
Jame, Harry A., 437. 
Jayme, Joseph M., Jr., 434. 
Jones, James, 437. 
Keith, Glen N., 437. 
Kemp, Richard B., 437. 
Kent, Henry C, 434. 
Kirves, William L., 437. 
Lang, JoTm, 437. 
Lawson, Wm. J., 437. 
Laycock, James H., 436. 
Lee, Gen. Fitzhugh, 434. 
Legen, John, 438. 
Linsey, A. T., 437. 
Love, David G., 437. 
Love, Phillip C, 437. 
Luter, Pat F., 437. 
Macmurdo, C. W., 437. 
Martin, John E., 437. 
Mason, Mortimer W„ 437. 
Mayo, John P., 434. 
McGinnis, Thomas, 437. 
McHale, Charles W., 437. 
McKinley, President, 435. 
McLaurin. Gov. A. J., 431. 
Meisner, Wm. B., 436. 
Meyer, Chas. H., 437. 
Miller, Frank C., 437. 
■Mitchell, Charles L., 437. 
•Montgomery, Sam, 434. 
Montgomery, Wm. A., 434, 436. 
Morton, John O., 436. 
Moyse, Julius L., 437. 
Munger, Eugene D., 437. 
Munger, David R., 437. 
Musser, Harry J., 437. 
Nelson, James W., 434. 
O'Connor, Patrick J., 437. 
Osborn, Albert H., 437. 
Parker, Ellis, 437. " 
Pierce, Phillip B., 437. 
Pilgrim, Eugene E., 438. 
Pilgrim, John, 436. 
Reiter, Charles, 438. 
Richards, Eugene T., 438. 
Robertshaw, James Malcolm, 429. 
Robertshaw, Wm. D., 435, 440. 

Rogers, Isaac H., 438. 

Sarason, Jacob, 436. 

Schlief, August, 438. 

Seury, Mat C, 435. 

Sheehan, Fred A., 438. 

Shields, Devereaux, 434. 

Shields, Hon. Walton, 431. 

Shields, Walton, 436. 

Shorten, John S., 438. 

Shrader, Edward W., 438. 

Smith, A. C, 438. 

Smith, Albert W., 438. 

Smith, George K., Jr., 438. 

Smyth e, Emmet C 438. 

Solomon, E. D., 434. 

Sossman, Eugene H., 438. 

Starling, Henry W., 435. 

Starling, Lyne, Jr., 436. 

Starling, William, Jr., 438. 

Stephens, Emory, 438. 

Stokes, Phillip, 438. 

Sutherland, Percy P., 438. 

Sutter, William G., 438. 

Tott, Julius, 438. 

Travis, Edward D., 438. 

Trigg, Byrd C, 438. 

Trousdale, Arthur O., 438. 

Urquhart, William, 435. 

Vaughan, Thomas D., 438. 

Voss, Herman, 438. 

Wade, Charles W., 438. 

Warner, William S., 438. 

Webster, Stonewall J., 438. 

Wetherbee, Elliott C, 436. 

Wheatley, George, 433. 

White, James B„ 438. 

White, Joseph B., 438. 

Wilix, Oscar J., 439. 

Wood, Herbert A., 439. 

Wynn, Judge J. H., 431. 

Yerger, Abram C, 435. 

Yerger, Capt. W. G., 431. 

Yerger, Spencer B., 439. 
Hoar, Senator, 488, 490. 
Kocombe, John, 413. 
Holbrook, Lieutenant, 44. 
Holladay, Juan, 422. 
Holland, Jorge, 422. 
Holmes, Benjamin, 423. 
Holms, Sara, 421. 
Holt, David, 424. 
Holt, Dibdal, 424. 
Holt, Juan, 424. 
Holton, Abram, 419. 
Home, Luke, 413. 



Hood, 568, 569, 570, 573, 574, 580. 

Hood, Dabney H., 435. 

Hood, General, 288, 484, 488, 551, 572. 

Hood, Gen. John B„ 566, 602. 

Hood, T. H., 433. 

Hooker, 536, 537, 538, 545, 613. 

Hooker, Col. C. E., 12, 132, 134, 385. 

Hooper, J. A., 494, 508, 510, 587. 

Hooper, Major John, 577. 

Horton, Abram, 427. 

Horton, Enoch, 413. 

Hoskins, Ezekiel, 419. 

Hoskins, George C, 434. 

Hostler, John, 418. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 456. 

Hovis, Walter J., 437. 

Howard, 588. 

Howard, Carlos. 426. 

Howard, General, 38, 148, 149, 167, 

Howard, Gen. O. O., 38, 212, 224. 

Howard, Jacob M., 74. 

Howard, Josua, 422. 

Howard, Senator, 161, 162, 170. 

Howe, Judge, 83, 193. 

Howell, R. K., 197. 
J Howey, Guillermo, 420. 

Howry, Charles B., 592, 593. 

Hudson, 18. 

Hufman, Jacobo, 425. 

Huggs, Tomas, 427. 
—Hughes, James, 416, 418. 

Huilker, Daniel, 427. 

Humphrey, Ana, 420. 

Humphrey, Jorge, 420. 

Humphreys, 11, 12. 

Humphreys, Hon. Benjamin G., 12, 
14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 
26, 29, 31, 44, 45, 47, 65, Q6, 68, 
70, 132, 189, 230, 231, 233, 234, 
269, 274, 288, 294, 295, 336, 337, 
355, 383, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 
• 402. 

Humphreys, Justo, 425. 

Hundley, Col. Dan. R., 600. 

Hunt, George B., 435. 

Hunter, Catherine, 58. 

Hunter, Enrique, 423. 

Hunter, James, 58. 

Hunter, Narcisco, 423. 

Hunter, R. M. T., 551. 

Huntley, Col. Daniel R., 480. 

Hust, Littleberry, 424. 

Hutchins, Anthony, 412, 418. 

Hutchins, Autonio, 421. 

Hutchins, Thomas, 410, 412, 413. 
Hutchinson, James, 415. 

Igdon, Maria, 425. 

Ingram, Wm. A., 437. 

Ireys, Capt. Henry T., 433, 440, 441. 

Ireys, Henry T., Jr., 43j0, 435. 

Irvins, Tomas, 420. 

Isenhoot, Bernabe, 425. 

Ivers, Juan, 420. 

Iwey, Nataniel, 427. 

Jackson, 219, 572. 

Jackson, Andrew, 457. 

Jackson, General, 447, 448, 449, 450, 
451, 454, 467, 505. 

Jackson, Gen. Andrew, 466. 

Jackson, Gen. J. K., 484, 534, 537, 
539, 599, 600. 

Jackson, Gen. W. H., 510, 602. 

Jackson, Stonewall, 488, 549. 

Jackson, Tomas, 427. 

Jacobs, Susanna, 414. 

Jame, Harry A., 437. 

James, Benjamin, 417. 

James, George, 448. 

James, Rev. Horace, 149. 

James, Thomas, 415. 

Jamison, 372. 

Jayne, Joseph M., Jr., 434. 

Jaynes, 103. 

Jefferson, 219, 240. 

Jefferson, President, 442. 
; Jeffres, 608. 
| Jenkins, Governor, 385. 
I Jessup, General, 565. 
| Johns, Carlos, 427. 
J Johns, David, 419. 
I Johns, Jaime, 425. 
: Johnson, 82, 84, 112, 171, 182, 185, 
187, 253, 254, 329, 375. 

Johnson, Delegate, 358. 

Johnson, Edmundo, 425. 

Johnson, Governor, 161. 

Johnson, Harrison, 138, 139. 

Johnson, Isaac, 415, 421. 

Johnson, Major J. M., 521, 530, 540. 

Johnson, President, 9, 10, 12, 21, 22, 
23, 30, 42, 47, 49, 60, 61, 62, 69, 
70, 75, 76, 77, SO, 81, 85, 86, 87, 
88, 91, 110, 113, 114, 116, 119, 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

120, 122, 124, 129, 140, 161, 
196, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 
235, 243, 249, 269, 271, 275, 
365, 373, 374, 375, 378, 398. 
Johnston, 173, 484, 488, 533, 
551, 553, 556, 557, 560, 561, 
563, 564, 567, 568, 570, 572, 
580, 603, 604. 

Johnston, Gen. Albert Sidney, 
547, 565. 

Johnston, Gen. Joseph E., 555, 
577, 593, 602. 

Johnston, George D., 573, 606. 

Johnston, Senator Reverdy, 74, 

Johnstone, Angelique Brouaque, 

Johnstone, William, 413. 

Jones, A. J., 540. 

Jones, Col. T. M., 483, 493, 494, 
497, 498, 515, 521, 522, 575, 
596, 597. 

Jones, James, 437. 

Jones, Jorge, 424. 

Jones, Juan, 423. 

Jones, Lieut. Gen. A. J., 568. 

Jones, Mary L., 492, 592. 

Jones, Rev. J. Win., 606. 

Jones, Thomas, 414. 

Jordon, Gen. John B., 384. 

Jordon, Stephen, 417. 

Jordon, Tomas, 426. 

Judd, William, 413. 

Juzon, Charles, 448. 


Kane, 170. 
Karr, Samuel, 425. 
Kayson, Carlos, 427. 
Keith, Glen N., 437. 
Keith, Sir Easil, 414. 
Keizer Fred C, 262. 
Kelly, Jaime, 422. 
Kelly, Patrick, 418. 
Kelly, Tomas, 426. 
Kelly, W. D., 300. 
Kemp, Richard B., 437. 
Kenard, Cephas, 414. 
Kennard, James ML, 126", 127. 
Kennedy, David, 421. 
Kennedy, Peter, 416. 
Kennson, Xataniel, 424. 
Kenrick, Juan, 426. 
Kent, Henry C, 434. 
Kenty, Jaime, 423. 
Kershaw, 101. 

190,] Kilhan, Jorge, 427. 

210,! Kilpatrick, Mr. Soule, 474. 

357,; King, 199. 

King, Caleb, 421. 
545,1 King, Captain, 153. 
562, King, Carlos, 426. 
579, King, Juan, 424. 

King, Justo, 423. 
546, King, Prospero, 423. 

King, Ricardo, 423. 
566, Kirkland, Guillermo, 422. 

Kirkland, Samuel, 422. 
I Kirves, William L., 437. 
202. 1 Knox, Major J. J., 150, 153. 
415.1 Kolb, 608. 



Lally, John, 415. 

Lamar, Justice and Ex-Senator, 488. 

Lamar, L. Q. C, 458, 487. 

Lambert, David, 421. 

Landerfield, Guillermo, 419. 

Landphier, Tomas, 421. 

Lane, Senator, 119. 

Lane, N. V., 262. 

Laneer, Benjamin, 423. 

Lang, John, 437. 

Lanhart, Adam, 423. 

Lanier, N. B., 262. 

Lanter, Jacob, 412. 

La Vieuda, Oilor, 424. 

Lawrence, Major Henry C., 160. 

Lawson, William J., 437. 

Laycock, James H., 436. 

Layton, Jaime, 420. 

Lee, 166, 173, 206, 207, 488, 526, 527, 

528, 548, 562, 565, 566. 
Lee, Caroline (Allison), 579. 
Lee, General, 162, 163, 564, 579, G04. 
Lee, Gen. Fitzhugh, 434. 
Lee, Gen. G. W. C, 159. 
Lee, Gen. Robert E., 12, 159, 161, 

288, 544, 551, 558, 561, 565, 580. 
Lee, Gen. Stephen D., 485, 491, 572, 

578, 580, 603. 
Lee, Gen. W. H. F., 159. 
Lee, Guillermo, 422. 
Lee, Hon. Blewett H., 580. 
Lee, Major, 611. 
Lee, Dr. Thomas, 579. 
Leftwich, George J., 442, 463. 
Leflore, Chief Greenwood, 452. 
Legen, John, 438. 
Leonard, Israel, 426. 



Lewis, Azael, 426. 

Lewis, Samuel, 414. 

Lewis, Sarah, 414. 

Leyenne, David, 419. 

Leyenne, Solomon, 427. 

Liddell, 526, 531, 597. 

Liddell, General, 484, 524. 

Lincecum, Gideon, 450. 

Lincoln, President, 45, 51, 60, 69, 

70, 80, 81, 82, 86, 114, 119, 129, 

159, 171, 177, 182, 195, 197, 271, 

303, 304. 
Linsey, A. T., 437. 
Lintot, Bernardo, 426. 
Livermore, Chaplain, 151. 
Livermore, Parson, 153. 
Lobdal, Jaime, 419. 
Lobelias, Edwardo, 419. 
Lobelias, Juan, 419. 
Lobelias, Thomas, 419. 
Lodge, Senator 'Henry Cabot, 442.* 
Logan, General, 569. 
Longstreet, General, 159, 288, 484, 

524, 527, 528, 533, 535, 536, 612, 

Lord, Ricardo, 420.- 
Lorimer, John, 414. 
Loring, General, 549, 573. 
Love, David G., 437. 
Love, Dr. William A., 446, 450, 467. 
Love, Phillip C, 437. 
Lovell, James, 411. 
Lowry, 389. 

Lowry, Gov. Robert, 487. 
Luberbier, Miss, 63. 
Lum, Guillermo, 424. 
Lum, Hannah, 414. 
Lum, Jesse, 414. 
Lum, John, 410. 
Lum, Juan, 426. 
Lum, William, 414. 
Lumsdin, C. L., 496. 
Lusk, John, 416. 
Lusk, Juan, 421. 
Luter, Pat F., 437. 
Lynch, John R., 395. 
Lyons, Jereniias, 419. 
Lytle, Gen. W. H., *o5, 590, 591. 


MacCable, Eduardo, 427. 
MacCullock, Mateo, 421. 
MacDougle, Guillermo, 422. 
MacDuffe, Arche, 421. 

MacGill, Daniel, 422. 

MacHeath, Paterico, 420. 

Maclntoche, Eunice, 426. 

Maclntoche, Guillermo, 426. 

Macmurdo, C. W., 437. 

Madden, Emanuel, 416, 426. 

Magruder, L. W., 491, 577. 

Mahone, General, 159. 

Mallon, 143. 

Mallory, 159. 

Malone, John, 483, 515, 521. 

Maltby, Gen. J. A., 53. 

Man, Federico, 426. 

Manadue, Enrique, 426. 

Manadue, el joven, Enrique, 426. 

Manedo, Federieo, 422. 

Maney, 514, 573. 

Manigault, 49S, 499, 512, 514, 603, 

Manigault, Colonel, 505. 
Manlove, Capt. C. A., 263. 
Mann, Major J. C, 149. 
Marbel, Earl, 423. 
Marlborough, 564. 
Marr, Christopher, 415. 
Marr, John, 417. 
Marshall, Dr. C. JC, 237. 
Marshall, Judge John, 444. 
Marshall, Major C, 50. 
Marshall, Rev. C. K., 240, 263, 264. 
Marshall, William, 414. 
Martin, 527. 

Martin, Athannasius, 415. 
Martin, Gen. Will T., 491, 582, 612. 
Martin, John Allen, 413. 
Martin, John E., 437. 
Martin, Juan, 424. 
Martin, Tomas, 422. 
Marvill, Abner, 425. 
Mason, A. T., 586, 588. 
Mason, John, 411. 
Mason, Major, 485, 585. 
Mason, Mortimer W., 437. 
Masters, Jonathan, 420. 
Mather, Juan, 420. 
Mathews, Guillermo, 424. 
Matthews, Capt. J. H., 170. 
Mattlngly, J. W., 262. 
Mattingly, Mr., 51. 
Maury, Dabney H., 616. 
May, Capt. Lambert, 409, 483, 497. 

500, 506. 
Mayes, Sarah, 418. 
Mayers, Col. A. G., 196, 394. 
Mayo, John P., 434. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Mays, Abraam, 422. 

. Mays, Estavan, 426. 
McCabe, Jr., 558. 
•McCardle, Gen. W. H., 264, 325, 326 

376, 379, 380, 389, 479. 
McCarty, Jacob, 417. 
McCormick, Simon, 412. 
McCoy, Donaldo, 421. 
, McCulloch, 108. 
McCurtis, 425. 

McDermot, Patricio, 424. 

McDonald, 530. 

McDonald, Donald, 417. 
McDowell, General, 384, 385, 386 
390, 391. 

•McFarland, David, 420. 

McFee, Juan, 421. 

McGee, John H., 170. 

McGehee, Judge Edward, 53. 

McGillivray, Daniel, 418. 

McGinnis, Thomas, 437. 

McHale, Charles W., 437. 
- Mclntire, Jaime, 42G. 

Mcintosh, Alexander, 411, 412, 415. 

McKee, Colonel, 449. 

iMcKelvaine, R. P., 498, 529, 530, 540. 

McKinley, President, 435, 495. 

McLaurin, Gov. A. J., 431, 594. 

McNeily, J. S., 9. 

McPherson, 566, 567. 

McPherson, General, 54, 55. 

McPherson, Donald, 414. 

McPherson, William, 410. 

McRae, Governor, 454. 

Meade, 527. 

Meade, General, 60, 327, 385. 

Meade, Governor, 382. 

(Meisner, William B., 436. 

Melton, Lamil W., 589. 

Meredith, General, 202, 

Meyer, Charles H., 437. 

Milburn, Enrique, 423. 

Mill, William, 412. 

Miller, C. A., 468. 

Miller, Daniel, 420. 

Miller, Frank C, 437. 

Miller, Guiliermo, 420. 

Miller, Jacobo, 422. 

•Miller, John, 411. 

Miller, Jose, 421. 

Miller. Ricardo, 427. 

Miller, Roberto, 421. 

Miller, Thomas W., 586. 

•Milton, John, 501. 

Minor, Estavan, 421. 

Minorby, Miguel, 421. 
Mississippi (State Song), 404. 

Rowland, Mrs. Dunbar, 404. 
Mississippi's Colonial Population 
and Land Grants, 405. 

Abranns, Roberto, 423. 

Adaams, Ricardo, 426. 

Adams, Carlos, 427. 

Adams, Guiliermo, 425. 

Adams, Jacobo, 422. 

Adams, Tomas, 425. 

Affleck, Phillip, 417. 

Alcheson, Guiliermo, 420. 

Aldrige, Jorge, 420. 

Alexander, Isac, 422. 

Alston, Guiliermo, 419. 

Alston, John, 415. 

Alston, Juan, 419. 

Alston, Phelipe Luis, 419. 

Alva, Estavan de, 425. 

Ambrose, Estavan, 421. 

Amoss, James, 411. 

Andelton, Juan, 423. 

Anderson, Darius, 421. 

Anderson, Francisco, 426. 

Anderson, Juan, 424. 

Andrews, Ishamer, 427. 

Arden, Juan, 423. 

Armstrong, Moises, 419. 

Armsreit, Juan, 422.. 

Arnott, John, 416. 

Auchinlick, John, 418. 

Bainder, Jorge, 424. 

Baker, Guiliermo, 425. 

Bak Jose Slater, 422. 

Banks, Sutton, 426. 

Baptests, Juan, 426. 

Barbour, Phillip, 412, 413, 414. 

Barbutt, James, 413. 

Barket, Anna, 420. 

Barland, Guiliermo, 426. 

Baronet, Sir George Bridges Rod- 
ney, 414. 

Barrey, Richard, 411. 

Barrows, Ebenezer, 422. 

Bartley, Juan, 419. 

Basset, Guiliermo, 420. 

Bates, Ephain, 422. 

Bay, Elihu Hall, 411, 412. 

Bayly, Jorge, 422. 

Bayly, Tarpley, 425. 

Beakly, Adam, 425. 

Beams, Tomas, 420. 

Beanden, Jesus, 427. 

Beardman, Guiliermo, 424. 



Beeson, Peter, 416. 

Belk, Benjamin, 425. 

Bell, Andres, 426. 

Bell, Hugh, 425. 

Bell, Ricardo, 427. 

Benard, Jose, 426. 

Benoit, Gabriel, 426. 

Bentley, John, 415,. 

Bethune, Farquhar, 410. 

Bingamon, Christian, 416. 

Bingham, Cristian, 424. 

Bingman, Adam, 426. 

Bishop, Guillermo, 423. 

Bisland, Juan, 426. 

Blackwell, Joseph, 413. 

Blommart, Mrs. Alice, 413. 

Blommart, Johnson, 415. 

Boardman, Carlos, 426. 

Bodin, Juan, 421. 

Bolls, John, 415, 417. 

Bols, Juan, 425. 

Bonill, Elias, 422." 

Bonner el joven, Moises, 426. 

Bonner el Viego, Moises, 426. 

Bonner, Jaime, 426. 

Bonner, Jose, 426. 

Bonner, Will, 426. 

Boveard, Guillermo, 423. 

Boyd, Alexander, 410. 

Bradley, Henry, 417. 

Bradley, John, 411. 

Brashears, Benjamin, 419. 

Brashears, Edwardo, 419. 

Brashears, Tobias, 418. 

Broccas, Guillermo, 419. 

Brown, Ebenezer, 416. 

Brown, Guillermo, 419. 

Brown, Nataniel, 424. 

Brown, Obediah, 421. 

Browne, William, 415. 

Bruce, James, 413. 

Bruin, Pedro, 419. 

Bryan, La Mugcr de Jeremias, 

Bulling, Juan, 427. 
Bullock, Benjamin. 422. 
Burbutt, James, 412. 
Burch, Guillermo, 424. ' 
Burnet, Daniel, 420. 
Burnet, Juan, 420. 
Burrows. William, 410. 
Butler, Nataniel. 422. 
Cable, Jacobo, 424. 
Cadwallador. John, 413. 
Callender, Alexander, 423. 

Calver, Jose, 425. 
Calvet, Guillermo, 422.' 
Calvet, Juan, 422. 
Calvet, La Vuida, 425. 
Calvet, Tomas. 423. 
Camell, Roberto, 418. 
Campbell, Alexander, 417. 
Campbell, Charles, 418. 
Cameron, Evan, 414. 
Camus, Pedro, 425. 
Carothers, William, 410. 
Carpenter, La Vuida, 425. 
Carr, Andrew, 418. 
Carr, Richard, 410. 
Carradine, Parker, 415, 421. 
Carrel, Juafl, 420, 426. 
Carrell, Benjamin, 421. 
Carrique, Eliz. Augusta, 414. 
Carter, Carlos, 427. 
Carter, Jese, 420. 
Carter, Nehemiah, 421. 
Carter, Roberto, 428. 
Carter, Thomas. 417. 
Case, William, 416. 
Cauld, George, 414. 
Cembrely, Estavan. 420. 
Chambers, Daniel, 419. 
Chambers, Guillermo, 421. 
Chambers, James, 410. 
Chambers, Juan, 421. 
Charleville, Joseph, 417. 
Cheney, Guillermo, 418. 
Chester, Peter, 414. 
Christie, James, 418. 
Chrystie, John, 417. 
Clark, Daniel, 410, 418. 
Clark, Guillermo, 423. 
Clark, Jaime, 423. 
Clark, Juan, 423 
Clark, Lucia, 423. 
Clark, William, 411. 
Glarke, Gibson, 419. 
Cleare, Jorge, 425. 
Cloud, Adam, 424. 
Clover, John, 411. 
Coan, Thomas, 411. 
Cobb, Arturo, 421. 
Cobberston, La Vuida, 427. 
Cobbun, Samuel, 420. 
Cobbun, Jacaba, 420. 
Cochran, Roberto, 424. 
Cogan, Patricio, 420. 
Coil, Marcos, 423. 
Cole, el joven, Jaime, 425. 
Colo el viego, Jaime, 425. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Cole, Estavan, 425. 
Cole, Guillermo, 425. 
Cole, James, 416. 
Cole, Juan, 425. 
Cole, Solomon, 425. 
Coleman, Ephraim, 423. 
Coleman, Israel, 425, 
Coleman, Jeremias, 425. 
Colins, Carlos, 424. 
Colleman, Guillermo, 419. 
Collins, Denis, 423. 
Collins, Guillermo, 419. 
Collins, John, 416. 
Collins, Josua, 424. 
Collins, Luke, Jr., 415. 
Collins, Theophilus, 415. 
Collins, Thomas, 415. 
Collins, William, 410, 411, 416. 
Comstock, Thomas, 417. 
Conely, Redman, 423. 
Connor, Juan, 427. 
Cooper, Enrique, 422. 
Cooper, Guillermo, 422. 
Cooper, Jaime, 422. 
Cooper, Samuel, 421, 422. 
Carry, Jeremias, 421. 
Corry, Job, 421. 
Corry, Ricardo, 421. 
Cortney, Juan, 423. 
Cotton, Roberto, 426,, 
Cowel, Juan, 423. 
Coyle, Hugh, 426. 
Coyleman, Jacabo, 420. 
Crafton, Daniel, 426. 
Crane, Watterman, 419. 
Craven, Juan, 422. 
Crawford, Hugh, 411. 
Crayton, Roberto, 425. 
Credy, Juan, 423. 
Crumholf, Jacobo, 425. 
Crutheirs, Juan, 424. 
Cummins, Tomas, 421. 
Cunningham, Cataline, 421. 
Curtes, Benjamin, 424. 
Curtes, Ricardo, 423. 
Curtis, Guillermo, 424. 
Cypress, Andrew, 416. 
Dalling, John, 412. 
Dalziel, Archibald, 417. 
Daniels, Guillermo, 425. 
Daniels, Tomas, 425. 
Darrah, Tomas, 427. 
Daugherty, Antonio, 410. 
Davis, Landon, 421. 
Davis, Samuel, 423. 

Dayton, Ebenezer, 427. 
Deavenport, Jaime, 420. 
De Bready, Juan, 427. 
Dervin, Elizabeth, 420. 
Dewange, Jorge, 424. 
Dickson, David, 412. 
Bix, Juan, 425. 
Dixon, Rogers, 425. 
Donald, James, 410. 
Donald, Robert, 410, 
Donaldson, Juan, 424. 
Doren, Miguel, 426. 
Douglass, Archibald, 423. 
Douglass, Daniel, 423. 
Douglass, Estavan, 423. 
Douglass, Favid, 423. 
Dow, Jose, 421. 
Duesbery, Juan, 420. 
Dun, Ricardo, 425. 
Dunbar, Guillermo, 423. 
Dunbar, Roberto, 425. 
Duncan, Jose, 427. 
Dunman, Reuben, 419. 
Durch, Guillermo, 424. 
Dwet, Ezekiel, 427. 
Dwet, Jese, 420. 
Dwyer, Mary, 415. 
Dyson, Glemente, 425. 
Dyson, Jose, 423. 
Dyson, Juan, 425. 
Dyson, Tomas, 423. 
Earheart, Jacobo, 420. 
Easmin, Abel, 423. 
Eason, William, 411. 
Eberhard, George, 416, 417. 
Edward, Jaime, 421. 
Elliott, Guillermo, 427. 
Ellis, Abraham, 421. 
Ellis el jovn, Juan, 420. 
Ellis, Juan, 423. ! 
Ellis, Ricardo, 420, 425. 
Ellis, Richard, 418. 
Ellis, William, 414. 
Elmore, Juan, 428. 
Enos, Roger, 413. 
Ervin, Guillermo, 425. 
Ervin, Jaime, 422. 
Ervin, Juan, 422. 
Fairchild, Henry, 409. 
Fake, Juan, 425. 
Fake, Miguel, 425. 
Falconer, Guillermc, 422. 
Farbanks, Guillermo, 423. 
Farinton, Tomas, 419. 
Farmer, Major Robert, 413. 



Farrow, Alexandre), 422. 
Featherston, William, 411. 
Featherstone, William, 412. 
Ferguson, Guillermo, 424. 
Ferguson, John, 418. 
Ferguson, Juan, 427. 
Ferry, Jaime, 428. 
Ferry, Juan, 424. 
Finn, Jaime, 419. 
Firby, John, 418. 
Fisher, Francis, 417. 
Fitzgerald, Jaime, 426. 
Fitzgerald, Jorge, 426. 
Five, Isaac, 420. 
Fletcher, Benjamin, 422. 
Fletcher, Guillermo, 422. 
Flowers, Elias, 419. 
Flowers, Samuel, 427. 
Foard, Juan, 422. 
Foard, Thomas, 422. 
Foley, Patricio, 421. 
Fooy, Benjamin, 420. 
Fooy, Isaac, 420. 
Forman, Ezekiel, 427. 
Forman, Ismy, 425. 
Forman, Jorge, 425. 
Forzith, Jaime, 427. 
Foster, Guillermo, 427. 
Foster, Jaime, 425. 
Foster, Juan, 427. 
Foster, Marta, 425. 
Foster, Samuel, 424. 
Foster, Tomas, 427. 
Fowler, Jose, 423. 
Frasher, Juan, 420. 
Freman, Tomas. 427. * 
Frey, Thomas, 411. 
Fricker, William, 416. 
Frockmorton, Mordica, 424. 
Frockmorton, Roberto, 424. 
Gaillard, Isac. 421. 
Gallachan, Patrick, 410. 
Gallermore, David, 420. 
Gamble, Thomas. 413. 
Garet, Juan, 423. 
Garkins, Juan, 424. 
Gamier, William, 41S. 
Germain, Jeremiah, 413. 
Gibson, Gibbs, 427. 
Gibson, Reuben, 427. 
Gibson, Samuel, 415, 419. 
Gilbert, Crestobal. 420. 
Gilbert, Guillermo, 427. 
Gilkson, Samuel, 427. 
Gillaspie, Guillermo, 426. 

Glse, Christopher, 417. 
Glascok, Guillermo, 421. 
Glascok, Jaime, 427. 
Glason, Abraam, 425. 
Gobbard, Tomas, 419. 
Golden, Michael, 415. 
Goodwin, Pheby, 420. 
Gordon, John, 411. 
Gorman, William, 413. 
Gower, Benjamin, 415. * 
Grant, Alexandre 424. 
Grant, George, 415. 
Grant, John, 417. 
Grant, William, 414. 
Grass, Antonio, 426. 
Gray, Ruffin, 421. 
Graydon, Alexander, 411. 
Greeffin, Gabriel, 423. 
Greeffin, Juan, 423. 
Green, Abner, 420. 
Green, Abraam, 421. 
Green, Enrique, 425. 
Green, Jose, 424. 
Green, Juan, 419. 
Green, Nathan, 424. 
Green, Tomas Master, 422. 
Greenfield, Jesse, 421. 
Greenlief, David, 423. 
Grims, Ricardo, 420. 
Guise, Miguel, 424. 
Gunnels, Frederico, 418. 
Haines, Estavan, 425. 
Haines, Juan, 425. 
Haldimand, Frederick, 412. 
Hambeeling, Juan, 425. 
Hamberling, Guillermo, 424. 
Hamelton, Jese, 423. 
Hamilton, Hugh, 410. 
Hardy, Thomas, 409. 
Harkins, Guillermo, 420. 
Harman, Cristian, 427. 
Harman, Ezekiel, 420. 
Harman, Jaime, 420. 
Harmon, Philip, 415. 
Harmon, Thomas, 414. 
Harrigal, Daniel, 422. 
Harrison, George, 411. 
Harrison, Jose, 427. 
Harrison, Joseph, 411. 
Harrison, Ricardo, 425. 
Hartley, Jacob, 420. 
Hartley, John, 417. 
Hartley, Juan, 420. 
Hawford, Richard, 417. 
Hay, William, 412. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Hays, William, 414. 
Hayton, John, 411. 
Hayton, Joseph, 411. 
Heady, Samuel, 422. 
Hellbrand, David, 423. 
Hemell, Carlos, 420. 
Henderson, Alexander, 425. 
Henderson, Guillermo, 426. 
Here, Andres, 419. 
Herin, John, 411. 
Hifrer, Margarita, 422. 
Hlgdon, Jephta, 425. 
Higgina, Barney, 421. 
Higginson, Stewart, 424. 
Hill, Pedro, 423. 
Hilonds, Jaime, 424. 
Hindson, William, 413. 
History, Ephraim, 419. 
Hocombe, John, 413. 
Hohns, Sara, 421. 
Holladay, Juan, 422. 
Holland, Jorge, 422. 
Holmes, Benjamin, 423. 
Holt, David, 424. 
Holt, Dibdal, 424. 
Holt, Juan, 424. 
Home, Luke, 413. 
Horton, Abram, 427. 
Horton, Enoch, 413. 
Hoskins, Ezeldel, 419. 
Hostler, John, 418. 
Hotton, Abram, 419. 
Howard, Carlos, 426. 
Howard, Josua, 422. 
Howey, Guillermo. 420. 
Hufman, Jacobo, 425. 
Hughes, James, 416. 418. 
Huggs, Thomas, 427. 
Huilker, Daniel, 427. 
Humphrey, Jorge, 420. 
Humphreys, Ana, 420. 
Humphreys, Justo, 425. 
Hunter, Narciseo, 423. 
Hunter, Enrique, 423. 
Hust, Littleberry, 424. 
Hutchins, Anthony, 412, 418. 
Hutchins, Antonio, 421,. 
Hutchins, Thomas, 410, 412, 
Hutchinson, James, 415. 
Igdom, Maria, 425. 
Irvins, Tomas, 420. 
Isenhoot, Bernabe. 425. 
Ivers, Juan, 420. 
Iwey, Nataniel, 427. 
Jackson, Tomas, 427. 


Jacobs, Susanna, 414. 

James, Benjamin, 417. 

James, Thomas, 415. 

Johns, David, 419. 

Johns, Jaime, 425. 

Johnson, Carlos, 427. 

Johnson, Edmundo, 425. 

Johnson, Isaac, 415. 

Johnson, Isac, 421. 

Johnstone, Angelique- Brouaque, 

Johnstone, William, 413. 
Jones, Jorge, 424. 
Jones, Juan, 423. 
Jones, Thomas, 414. 
Jordon, Stephen, 417. 
Jordon, Tomas, 426. 
Judd, William, 413. 
Karr, Samuel, 425. 
Kayson, Carlos, 427. 
Keith, Sir Basil, 414. 
Kelly, Jaime, 422. 
Kelly, Patrick, 418. 
Kelly, Tomas, 426. 
Kenard, Cephas, 414. 
Kennedy, Peter. 416. 
Kennedy, David, 421. 
Kennson, Nataniel, 424. 
Kenrick, Juan, 426. 
Kenty, Jaime, 423. 
Killian, Jorge, 427. 
King, Caleb, 421. 
King, Carlos, 423. 
King, Juan, 424. 
King, Justo, 423. 
King, Prospero, 423. 
King, Ricardo, 423. 
Kirkland, Guillermo, 422. 
Kirkland, Samuel, 422. 
Lambert, David, 421. 
Landerfield, Guillermo, 419. 
Landphier, Tomas, 421. 
Laneer, Benjamin, 422. 
Lanhart, Adam, 423. 
Lantor, Jacob, 412. 
La Vieuda, Oiler, 424 
Layton, Jaime, 420. 
Lee, Guillermo, 422. 
Leonard, Israel, 423. 
Lewis, Azael, 426. 
Lewis, Samuel, 414. 
Lewis, Sarah, 414. 
Leyenne, David, 419. 
Leyenne, Solomon, 427. 
Lintot, Bernardo, 426. 



Lobdal, Jaime, 419.. 
Lobelias, Edwardo, 419. 
Lobelias, Juan, 419. 
Lobelias, Thomas, 419. 
Lord, Ricardo, 420. 
Lorimar, John, 414. 
Lovell, James, 411. 
Lum, Guillermo, 424. 
Lum, Hannah, 414. 
Lum, Jesse, 414. 
Lum, John, 410. 
Lum, Juan, 426. 
Lum, William, 414. 
Lusk, John, 416. 
Lyons, Jeremias, 419. v 
MacCable, Eduardo, 427. 
'MacCullock, Mateo, 421. 
MacDougie, Guillermo, 422. 
MacDuffe, Arche, 421. 
MacGill, Daniel, -4*2. 
MacHeath, Paterico, 420. 
Maclntoche, Eunice, 426. 
Maclntoche, Guillermo, 426. 
Madden, Emanuel, 416, 426. 
iMan, Federico, 426. 
Manadue el joven, Enrique, 426. 
Manadue, Enrique, 426. 
Manedo, Federico, 422. 
Marbel, Earl, 423. 
Marr, Christopher, 415. 
Marr, John, 417. 
Marshall, William, 414. 
Martin, Atliannasius, 415. 
Martin, John Allen, 413. 
Martin, Juan, 424. 
Martin, Tomas, 422, 
Marvill, Abner, 425. 
Mason, John, 411. 
Masters, Jonathan, 420. 
Mather, Juan, 420. 
tMathews, Guillermo, 424. 
Mayes, Sarah, 418. 
(Mays, Estavan, 42tJ. 
Mays, Abraam, 422. 
McCarty, Jacob, 417. 
McCormick, Simon. 412. 
McCoy, Donaldo, 421. 
McCurtis, 425. 
McDermot, Patricio, 424. 
McDonald, Donald, 417. 
McFarland, 420. 
McFee, Juan, 421. 
McGillivray, Daniel, 41S. 
Mclntire, Jaime, 426. 

Mcintosh, Alexander, 411, 412, 

iMcPherson, Donald, 414. 
McPherson, William, 410. 
Milburn, Enrique, 423. 
Mill, William, 412. 
Miller, Daniel, 420. 
Miller, Guillermo, 420. 
Miller, Jacobo, 422. 
Miller, John, 411. 
Miller, Jose, 421. 
Miller, Ricardo, 427. 
Miller, Roberto, 421. 
Minor, Estavan, 421. 
Minorby, Miguel, ,421. 
Mitchell, David, 420. 
Mitchell, John, Jr., 411. 
Momento, Benjamin, 42G. 
Monson, Jese, 423. 
Monson, Roberto, 423. 
Moore, Alexandro, 426. 
Moore, Tomas, 425. 
Moreau, Augustine, 417. 
Morgan, Guillermo, 422. 
Morgan, Tomas, 422. 
Morning, Guillermo, 427. 
Mulcaster, Fred. George, 417. 
Mulhollon, Le Veude, 424. 
Mulkey, David, 426. 
Munn, Joseph, 418. 
Murrah, Guillermo, 424. 
Murray, James, 417. 
Murray, Jorge, 423. 
Murray, Tomas, 421. 
Murrey, John, 412. 
Murris, Groves, 425. 
Myer, Federico, 418. 
Mygatt, Margarita, 427. 
Naylor, Francisco, 420. 
Naylor, Juan, 420. 
Newman, Ezekiel, 423. 
Newman, Isac, 423. 
Newton, Juan, 422. 
Nichols, Tomas, 422. 
Nicholson, Enrique, 421. 
Nicholson, Jaime, 421. 
Nilson, Pedro, 422. 
Novres, Jorge, 418. 
Odam, David, 416, 422. 
Odum, Juan, 425. 
Oconer, Juan, 419. s 

Ogden, Amos, 412. 
Ogden, Mary, 415. 
Ogdon, Daniel, 419. 
Oglerby, Jaime, 422. 


Mississippi Historical Society, 

Oja, Matee Jones, 422. 
Oliver, Mary, 411. 
Ophill, Eliza, 42G. 
Orange, 419. 
Osberry, Juan, 426. 
Osbourne, Samuel, 412. 
Owens, Guillermo, 426. 
Palmer, Archwaldo, 421. 
Pamer, Miguel, 426. 
Paterson, Juan, 422. 
Patterson, Guillermo, 424. 
Paul, Jacob, 418. 
Paul, Jacob, Jr., 414. 
Paul, Jacob, Sr., 414. 
Pausset, Francisco, 419. 
Payne, John, 414. 
Pearis, Richard, 410. 
Pearnes, Richard Freeman, 412. 
Percey, Carlos, 418. 
Percey, Jacobo, 427. 
Percy, Charles, 418. 
Perkins, Jonatha, 424. 
Perkins, Jose, 428. 
Perkins, Juan, 427. 
Perry, Daniel, 414, 424. 
Perry, James, 415. 
Perry, Maydelen, 423. 
Peterkin, James, 411. 
Petrie, George, 411. 
Phillippi, Jacob, 411. «, 

Phips, Enrique, 421. 
Pfcips, Samuel, 421. 
Pinhorn, Joseph, 418. 
Pips, Abner, 426. 
Pips, Windsor, 426. 
Pitt, Thomas, 417. 
Pittman, Buker, 420. 
Platner, Enrique, 425 w 
Potter, Ebenezer, 419. 
Pourcheous, Antonio, 426. 
Pourchous, Francisco, 426. 
Pratte, Jacabo, 420. 
Presley, Pedro, 420. 
Preston, Guillermo, 421. 
Prevost, Augustine, 414, 416. 
Price, Reuben, 419. 
Price, Leonardo, 420. 
Proctor, Reuben, 419. 
Pruet, Bearly, 422. 
Purling, Tomas, 423. 
Rabby, Kido^v, 427. 
Raincock, Clifton Ann, 413. 
Rainsford, Andrew, 412. 
Randell, Jesus, 419. 
Rapalye, Garet, 418. 

Rapalye, Isaac, 418. 
Rapalye, Juan, 420. 
Rapalye, Santiago, 418. 
Ratliff, Guillermo, 422. 
Ratliff, Juan, 422. 
Reed, Tomas, 427. 
Reilly, Tomas, 427. 
Rice, Manuel, 420. 
Rich, Jorge, 427.' 
Rich, Juan, 423. 
Richards, Estavan, 420. 
Richards, Job, 428. 
Richards, Mordica, 421. 
Richardson, Jaime, 422'. 
Roach, Enrique, 419. 
Rob, Nicolas, 421. 
Rob el joven, Nicolas, 421. 
Roberto, Withers, 420. 
Roberts, Benjamin, 415. 
Roberts, Juan, 424. 
Robertson, James, 415, 416. 
Robeson, Tomas, 425. 
Robinson, Archwald, 421. 
Robinson, John, 413. 
Robinson, Robert, 414. 
Rochat, Peter, 416. 
Roddy, Ricardo, 424. 
Rodey, Augusto, 421. 
Rodriguez, Juan, 424. 
Ross, Alexander, 416. 
Ross, Davis, 419. 
Ross, John, 416. 
Ross, Margarita, 419. 
Ross, Robert, 417. 
Routh, Elias, 424. 
Routh, Jeremiah, 416. 
Routh, Job, 424. 
Routh, Juan, 420. 
Routh, Margarita, 424. 
Routh, Zaccheus, 418. 
Row, John, 418. 
Rowland, Mrs. Dunbar, 405. 
Ruker, Jonathan, 424. 
Rule, Tomas, 426. 
Rumsey, James, 412. 
Rundell, Seth. 419. 
Ryan, Guillermo, 427. 
Ryan, Jaime, 419. 
Sanders, Jaime, 420. 
Savage, Ana, 421. 
Scandling, Andres, 427. 
Schnell, Jacob, 418. 
Scoggins, Juan, 426. 
Scopkil, Jose, 424. 
Scott, Thomas, 411. 



Scott, Walter, 410. 
Scriber, Estavan, 424. 
Serlot, Pedro, 420. 
Shaw, Cornelio, 427. 
Shepman, Maria, 425. 
Shilling, Jacobo, 424. 
Shilling, Polser, 426. 
Shonauer, Juan, 426. 
Silkreg, Guillermo, 427. 
Simmons, Carlos, 424. 
Sinclear, Jasper, 424. 
Slater, Hugh, 422. 
Sloan, Archwald, 427. 
Sluter, Juan, 419. 
Small, Major John, 412. 
Smil, Tomas, 423. 
Smith, Calvin. 421. 
Smith, Catalina, 427. 
Smith, David, 423. 
Smith, Ebenezer, 419. 
Smith, Elias, 419. 
Smith, Guillermo. 424, 426. 
Smith, Jaime, 419. 
Smith, Jere, 419. 
Smith, John, 411, 415. 
Smith, Joseph, 410. 
Smith, Juan, 420, 423. 
Smith, La Vuida, 427. 
Smith, Lucius, 419. 
Smith, Pedro, 419. 
Smith, Philitus, 424, 426. 
Smith, Philander, 421. 
Smith, Tomas, 420. 
Smith, Zacarias, 419. 
Solivester, 427. 
Southwell, John, 412. 
Spain, Francisco, 423. 
Spain, Jaime, 423. 
Spears, Robert, 414. 
Spires, Juan, 422. 
Splun, Tomas, 423. 
Stampley, Jacobo, 425. 
Stampley, Jorge, 424. 
Stampley, Juan, 423. 
Stampley, Margaret, 415. 
Stampley, Margarita, 422. 
Stanley, Benjamin. 418. 
Stark. Roberto, 419. 
Stephenson, 416. 
Stephenson, Estavan, 422. 
Stewart, Charles, 410. 
Stewart, Jaime, 422. 
Stiel. Lieut. Col. Win., 418. 
Stlell, Wm., 416, 417. 
Still, Benjamin, 425. 

6tock, Guillermo, 427. 

Stockstill, Jose, 422. 

Stokman, Federico, 419. 

Stoop, Jacobo, 427. 

Stout, Juan, 421. 

Stowers, Juan, 418, 426. 

Strabeker, Juan, 423. 

Strachan, Charles, 410. 

Strachan, Patrick, 412. 

Strong, Juan Conarrod, 426. 

Stuart, Charles, 413. 

Stuart, Mrs. Sarah, 416. 

Stuart, Patrick, 415. 

Sullivan, Daniel, 427. 

Sullivan, Patricio, 419, 424. 

Summers, John, 412. 

Surget, Pedro, 420. 

Sutherland, James, 417. 

Swazay, David, 421. 

Sweazey, Nathan, 416. 

Swezey, Samuel, 427. 

Swezey, Jaime Kirk Gabriel, 421. 

Swezy, Nathan, 421. 

Swezy, Ricardo, 427. 

Tabor, Isac, 425. 

Tait, Robert, 411. 

Tally, John, 415. 

Tanner, Samuel, 427. 

Taybor, Guillermo, 420. 

Taylor, Isac, 423. 

Taylor, Thomas, 410. 

Tendall, Robert, 417, 

Terry, Jeremiah, 410. 

Thomas, Guillermo, 425. 

Thompson, Richard, 412. 

Thompson, William, 411. 

Thornell, Ephraim, 417. 

Todd, Roberto, 426. 

Tomas, Juan, 427. 

Tomlinton, Nataniel, 424. 

Tomlston, Nathaniel, 420. 

Tomlston, Nataniel, 421. 

Trail, Adwardo, 419. 

Troops, Gorge, 427. 

Truly, Benito, 425. 

Truly, Jaime, 424. 

Tusk, Juan, 421. 

Tying, Edward, 414. 

Urry La Vuida, 427. 

Vanderweid, Daniel, 414. 

Varlo, Weston, 416. 

Vaucheret, Jose, 426. 

Vaucheret, Juan, 426. 

Vilaret, Luis, 427. 

Voice, Tormas, 419. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Vousdan, Guillermo, 427. 

Vousdan, William, 411, 415. 

Wade, Jaime, 426. 

Wadkins, Andres, 425. 

Wall, Juan, 419. 

Walsh, Peter, 416, 418. 

Ward, Benjamin, 410. 

W T ard, Daniel, 409. 

Ward, John, 410. 

Ward, Joshua, 410. 

Wathe, Roberto, 424. 

Watkins, James, 411. 

Watkins, John, 416. 

Waugh, David, 414. 

Weake, Guillermo, 427. 

Weed, Joel, 422. 

Wegg, Edmund Rush, 410. 

Wells, Richara, ilG. 

Welton, Juan, 419. 

West, Cato, 424. 
. West, Guillermo, 422. 

West, Little Berry, 422. 

Wheeler, John, 411. 

White, Lily, 419. 

White, Mateo, 423. 

Wilkerson, Juan, 419. 

Willey, Jaime, 427. 

Willey, Juan, 425. 

Williams, Ann, 413, 417. 

Williams, David, 426. 

Williams, Juan, 424. 

Williams, Mary, 413. 

Williams, Miguel, 422. 

Williams, William, 413. 

Willson, Guillermo, 419. 

Wilson, Juan, 427. 

Wilton, William, 412, 413. 

Winfree, Jacob, 412. 

Withers, Jese, 426. 

Witley, Solomon, 420. 

Wooley, Melling, 420. 

Yarborough, James Smith, 415 

Young, Elizabeth, 421. 

Young, Guillermo, 419. 

Young, Juan, 423. 

Zeines, Juan, 425. 
Mitchell, Charles L., 437. 
Mitchell, David, 420. 
Mitchell, John, Jr., 411. 
Momanto, Benjamin, 426. 
Monroe, Mayor, 197. 
Monson, Jese, 423. 
Monson, Roberto, 423. 
Montcalm, 463. 

Montgomery, Augustus S., 50. 
Montgomery, Sam, 434. 
Montgomery, Wm. A., 434. 
Montgomery, Wm. P., 436. 
Moody, Col. Geo. V., 196. 
Moore, 537, 538, 539. 
Moore, Alexandre 426. 
•Moore, Colonel, 519. 
Moore. Col. James. 518. 
Moore, Col. John, 44. 
Moore, General, 600. 
Moore, J. Aaron, 359. 
Moore, Tomas, 425. 

Mordecai, , 594. 

Moreau, 564. 
Moreau, Augustine, 417. 
Morgan, Guillermo, 422. 
Morgan, J. B., 529. 
Morgan, Sen. John T., 489. 
Morgan, Tomas, 422. 
Morning, Guillermo, 427. 
Morrill, Justin V., 75. 
Morton, 402. 
Morton, John O., 436. 
Mott, C. H., 458. 
Mower, General, 301. 
Moyse, Julius L., 437. 
Mulcaster, Fred. George, 417. 
Mulhollon, Le Veude, 424. 
Mulkey, David, 426. 
Munger, David R., 437. 
Munger, Eugene D., 437. 
Murdock, Hon. Abraham, 196. 
Muris, Groves, 425. 
Murphey, M., 262. 
Murrah, Guillermo, 424. 
Murray, James, 417. 
Murray, Jorge, 423. 
Murray, Toma3, 421. 
Murrey, John, 412. 
Murry, John Y., 587. 
Musser, Harry J., 437. 
Myer, Federico, 418. 
Myers, Jasper, 385. 
Mygatt, Alson, 353. 
Mygatt, Margarita, 427. 


Napoleon, 464. 

Naylor, Francisco, 420. 

Naylor, Juan, 420. 

Negley, 513. 

Neill, G. F., 493, 497. 

Nelson, Associate Justice, 250. 



Nelson, James W., 434. 
Newman, Ezekiel, 423. 
Newman, Isac, 422. 
Newton, Juan, 422. 
Nichols, Tomas, 422. 
Nicholson, Enrique, 421. 
Nicholson, Jaime, 421. 
Nilson, Pedro, 422. 
Nocquet, Major, 612. 
Norton, Major, 44. 
Novres, Jorge, 418. 
Nunn, Joseph, 418. 


Odam, David, 416, 422. 

Odum, Juan, 425. 

Oconer, Juan, 419. 

O'Connor, Charles, 305. 

O'Connor, Patrick J., 437. 

Ogden, Amos, 412. 

Ogden, Mary, 415. 

Ogdon, Daniel, 419. 

Oglerby, Jaime, 422.. 

Ohl, Dr. J. F., 39. 

Oja, Matee Jones, 422. 

Oladowsky, Col. H., 511. 

Oliver, Mary, 411. 

Olmstead, 573. 

O'Neil, 143. 

Ophill, Eliza, 426. 

Orange, 419. 

Ord, General, 64, 292, 293, 294, 295, 
297, 298, 301, 302, 303, 307, 308, 
310, 313, 323, 325, 326, 334, 336, 
337, 338, 341, 347, 355, 376, 384. 

Orr, 368. 

Orr, Governor, 189. 

Osband, Col. E. D. ; 53. 

Osberry, Juan, 426. 

Osbond, General, 101. 

Osborn, Albert H., 437. 

Osbourn, Samuel, 412. 

Osterhaus, General, 44. 

Owen, Dr. James M.. 442, 446, 455. 

Owens, Guillermo, 426. 

Packingham, General, 466. 
Palmer, Archwaldo, 421. 
Palmer, Col. J. B.. 573. 
Pamer, Miguel, 426.' 
Parker, Ellis, 437. 
Parker, P. A, 136. 

Paterson, Juan, 422. 

Patridge, J. M., 264. 

Patterson, Guillermo, 424. 

Patton, 11. 

Patton, Governor, 189. 

Patton, Rev. Dr., 453. 

Paul, Jacob, 418. 

Paul, Jacob, Jr., 414. 

Paul, Jacob, Sr., 414. 

Pausset, Francisco, 419. 
) Payne, John, 414. 
1 Pearis, Richard, 410. 
I Pearnes, Richard Freeman, 412. 
I Pegues, Col. T. E. B., 196. 
j Pegram, Major W. G., 528, 531, 586 

Pendleton, Judse Edmund. 442. 

Pendleton, Isabella, 442, 443. 

Percey, Carlos, 418, 

Percey, Jacobo, 427. 

Percy, Charles, 418. 

Perkins, Jonatha. 424. 

Perkins, Jose, 428. 

Perkins, Juan, 427. 

Perry, Daniel, 414, 424. 

Perry, Governor, 35, 36, 58, 60. 

Perry, James, 415. 

Perry, Maydelen, 423. 

Peterkin, James, 411. 

Peters, Dor, 515. 

Petrie, George, 411. 

Pettus, 537, 538, 539. 

Pettus, Gen. Edward W., 480, 600 

Peyton, E. G„ 12. 

Phelan, 601. 

Plielan, Col. James, 563. 

Phelan, John, 531. 

Phillippi, Jacob, 411. 

Phillips, Moses, 575. 

Phillips, Wendell, 246. 

Phips, Enrique, 421. 

Phips, Samuel, 421. 

Piatte, Jacabo, 420. 

Pierce, Phillip B., 437. 

Pierce, President. 500. 

Pilgrim, Eugene E., 438. 

Pilgrim, John, 438. 

Pillow, General, 505, 506. 

Pinhorn, Joseph. 418. 

Pinson, R. A., 12. 

Pips, Abner, 426. 

Pips, Windsor, 426. 

Pitchlyn, Major John, 445, 446, 447, 
448, 452. 

Pitt, Thomas, 417. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Pittman, Buker, 420. 

Platner, Enrique, 425. 

Polk, 493, 495, 507, 515, 524, 

533, 534, 564. 567, 568, 570, 
Polk, Doctor, 599. 
Polk, General, 484, 513, 552, 

611, 614. 
Polk, Gen. Leonidas, 503, 559. 
Pope, 310, 327. 
Pope, General, 303. 
Porter, Ex-Gov. Jas. D., 485. 
Porter, James D., 602, 605, 607, 
Potter, 149. 
Potter, Captain, 44. 
Potter, Ebenezer, 419. 
Potter, Hon. George L., 196. 
Pourchous, Antonio, 426. 
Pourchous, Francisco, 426. 
Prentice, George D., 44, 183. 
Prentiss, Sergeant S., 486. 
Prentiss, S. S., 596. 
Presley, Pedro, 420. 
Preston, A. W., 236, 237. 
Preston, General, 505. 
Preston, Guillermo, 421. 
Preuss, 362. 

Prevost, Augustine, 414, 416. 
Price, Leonardo, 420. 
Price, Reuben, 419. 
Proctor, Reuben, 419. 
Pruet, Bearly, 422. 
Punch, Mrs. M. E., 455. 
Purling, Tomas, 423. 
Pushmataha, Chief, 447, 448, 






Quarles, 572, 573. 


Rabby, Kedow, 427. 
Railsback, Rev. Jehiel, 335. 
Raincock, Clifton Ann, 413. 
Rainsford, Andrew, 412. 
Randell, Jesus, 419. 
Rapalye, Garet, 418. 
Rapalye, Isaac, 418. 
Rapalye, Juan, 420. 
Rapalye, Santiago, 418. 
Ratliff, Guillermo, 422. 
Ratliff, Juan, 422. 
Raum, Capt. W. C, 153. 
Rayburn, W. A., 507, 510. 

Raymond, Henry J., 194. 

Reed, Tomas, 427. 

Reilly, Tomas, 427. 

Reiter, Charles, 438. 

Rennolds, John S., 189. 

Revere, Paul, 450. 

Reynolds, 250, 572, G07, 608, 609. 

Reynolds, A. E., 12. 

Reynolds, Capt. G. W., 542. 

Reynolds, D. H., 573. 

Reynolds, Gen. Alex W., 601, 605, 

606, 612. 
Reynolds, Geo. D., 113. 
Reynolds, H. A., 531. 
Reynolds, Jno. S., 59. 
Reynolds, Lieutenant Colonel, 529. 
Reynolds, Major George W., 522. 
Rhodes, 63, 80, 112, 121, 122, 154, 

184, 185, 187, 192, 193, 204, 205, 

206, 207," 208, 313, 351, 393, 394, 

Rice, Manual. 420. 
Rich, Jorge, 427. 
Rich, Juan, 423. 
Richards, Estavan. 420. 
Richards, Eugene T., 438. 
Richards, Job, 428. 
Richards, Major, 519. 
Richards, Major W. C, 518. 
Richards, Mordica, 421. 
Richards, W. C, 604. , 

Richardson, Jaime, 422. 
Ritter, Major, 44. 
Roach, Enrique, 419. 
Rob el joven, Nicolas, 421. 
Rob, Nicolas, 421. 
Roberto, Withers, 420. 
Roberts, Benjamin, 415. 
Roberts, Juan, 424. 
Robertshaw, James Malcolm. 429. 
Robertshaw, Wm. D., 435, 440. 
Robertson, Felix H., 503. 
Robertson, James, 415, 416. 
Robeson, Robert, 518. 
Robeson, Tomas, 425. 
Robinson, Archwald, 421. 
Robinson, John, 413. 
Robinson, Robert, 414. 
Rochat, Peter, 416. 
Roddy, Ricardo, 424. 
Rodey, Augusto, 421. 
Rodgers, A. J., 75. 
Rodriguez, Juan, 424. 
Rogan, L., 587. 
Rogers, 159. 




Rogers, Captain, 588. 

Rogers, Isaac H., 438. 

Rogillio, Mrs., 57. 

Rosecrans, 497, 527, 528, 535. 

Rosecrans, General, 524, 591. 

Rosekranz, Captain, 150. 

Rosekranz, Capt. Isaac, 149. 

Ross, Alexander, 416. 

Ross, Davis, 419. 

Ross, John, 416. 

Ross, Mrs. John B., 592. 

Ross, Margarita, 419. 

Ross, Robert, 417. 

Routh, Elias, 424. 

Routh, Jeremiah, 416. 

Routh, Job, 424. 

Routh, Juan, 420. 

Routh, Margarita, 424. 

Routh, Zaccheus, 418. 

Row, John, 418. 

Rowland, Dr. Dunbar, 467. 

Rowland, Mrs. Dunbar, 404, 405. 

Royal, 381. 

Royal, Wm. L., 380. 

Ruger, Major General, 149. 

Ruggles, 502. 

Ruggles, General, 575. 

Ruker, Jonathan, 424. 

Rule, Tomas, 426. 

Rumsey, James. 412. 

Rundell, Seth, 419. 

Rush, Doctor, 149. 

Ryan, Guillermo, 427. 

Ryan, Jaime, 419. 


Sale, 615. 

Sale, Col. John B., 488, 539, 601, 610. 

Sale. Mrs., 615. 

Sanders, Jaime, 420. 

Sanderson, Lieutenant, 44. 

Sarason, Jacob, 436. 

Saulsbury, 120. 

Savage, Ana, 421. 

Scales. J. J.. 498. 514. 530, 531. 

Scandling:. Andres. 427. 

Schell. Augustus, 303. 

Schlief. August, 438. 

Schnell, Jacob, 418. 

Schofield, Gen. J. M., 292, 301, 310, 

Schurz, 87, 88, 91. 
Schurz, Maior General Carl, 84, 85, 

86, 89, 93. 

Scoggins, Juan, 426. 

Scopkil, Jose, 424. 

Scott, Colonel. 518. 

Scott, Dred, 251. 

Scott, Gen. Winfield, 598. 

Scott, Thomas, 411. 

Scott, Walter, 410. 

Scriber, Estavan, 424. 

Scruggs, J. M., 459. 

Scruggs, A. T.. 587. 

Scully, J. W., 363. 

Scury, Mat C, 435. 

Seal, Roderic, 385. 

Sear, 578. 

Sedden, Hon. James A., 556, 557. 

Seddon, 159. 

Seddon, Secretary of War, 50. 

Seeley, Capt. T. A„ 149. 

Segar, Senator, 70.' 

Serlot, Pedro, 420. 

Seward, 48, 73, 81, 108, 183, 219, 

232, 260. 
Seward, W. H., Secretary of State, 

10, 17, 24. 35, 36, 60, 69; 70, 71, 

203, 205, 216. 
Sharkey, 12, 270. 288. 
Sharkey, Judge W. L., 94, 161, 189, 

196, 290, 305. 
Sharkey, Hon. William L., 269. 
Sharkey, Gov. Wm. L., 9, 10, 14, 15, 

17, 18, 23, 24, 29, 30, 42, 47, 69, 

70, 168, 169, 190, 235, 291, 394, 

Sharp, 567, 578, 603. 604. 
Sharp, Gen. J. H., 606. 
Sharver, Mrs., 472. 
Shaw, Cornelio, 427. 
Sheehan, Fred A., 438. 
Shellabarger, 84, 182, 193. 
Shelly, 572. 
Shepman, Maria, 425. 
Sheridan, 48, 301, 310. 327, 329, 513. 
Sheridan, General. 166, 167. 198, 

199, 200, 207, 208, 293, 302, 308, 

309, 328. 
Sherman. 48, 62. 108. 173. 217, 311, 

560, 567, 571, 579. 601, 613. 
Sherman, General, 49, 54, 55, 142, 

Sherman, Senator John, 185, 279. 
Shields, Devereaux. 434. 
Shields, Hon. Walton, 431. 
Shilling Jacobo, 424. 
Shilling. Polser, 426. 
Shonauer, Juan, 426. 


Mississippi Historical Society 

Short, Mr. George P., 49. 
Shorten, John S., 438. 
Shrader, Edward, W., 438. 
Sickles, 310, 311, 327, 328. 
Sickles, Gen. Daniel E., 250, 251, 

292, 300, 329. 
Silkreg, Guillermo, 427. 
Simmons, Carlos, 424. 
Simonton, Col. John M., 14. 
Simrall, 272. 

Simrall, Hon. H. F., 20, 32, 196, 
Simrall, Judge, H. F., 396. 
Sims, Mr., 49. 
Sinclear, Jasper, 424. 
Skoboleff, 564. 
Slater, Hugh, 422. 
Slattery, 143. 
Sloan, Archwald, 427. 
Slocum, 52. 

Slocum, General, 51, 53. 
Sluter, Juan, 419. 
Small, Major John, 412. 
Smil, Tomas, 323. 
Smiley, Judge, 138. 
Smith, 250. 
Smith, A. C, 438. 
Smith, Albert W., 438. 
Smith, Brevet Col. Joseph R., 298. 
Smith, Calvin, 421. 
Smith, Catalina, 427. 
Smith, Colonel, 57, 58, 126, 519. 
Smith, Col. Robert A., 483, 515, 518 

520, 581. 
Smith, David, 423. 
Smith, Ebenezer, 419. 
Smith, Elias, 419. 
Smith, George, 262. 
Smith, George K., Jr., 438. 
Smith, Governor, 159. 
Smith, Guillermo, 424, 426. 
Smith, J. D., 530. 
Smith, Jaime, 419. 
Smith, Jere, 419. 
Smith, John, 411, 415. 
Smith, Joseph, 410. 
Smith, Juan, 420, 423. 
Smith, Kirby, 547. 
Smith, La Vuida, 427. 
Smith, Lucius, 419. . ■ 

Smith, Major, 150. 
Smith, Marion, 386. 
Smith, Pedro, 419. 
Smith, Philitus, 424, 426. 
Smith, Philander, 421. 
Smith, Tomas, 420. 

Smith, Zacarias, 419. 
Smythe, Emmet C, 438. 
Solivester, 427. 
Solomon, E. D„ 434. 
Some Main Traveled Roads, Includ- 
ing Cross-Sections of Natchez 
Trace, 463. 

Burr, Aaron, 464. 

Clayton, Col. W. L., 472. 

Clayton, Mr. Stewart, 472. 

Colbert, Levi, 474. 

Dosier, Captain, 470. 

Dunbar, Doctor, 467. 

Gaines, Gen. E. P., 467. . 

Gaines, George S., 467. 

Guion, Captain, 467. 

Hamilton, 472. 

Haughton, 464. 

Jackson, Genera), 467. 

Jackson, Gen. Andrew, 466. 

Kilpatrick, Mr. Soule, 474. 

Leftwich, George J., 463. 

Love, W. A., 467. 

Miller, C. A., 468. 

Montcalm, 463. 

Napoleon, 464. 

Packingham, General, 466. 

Sharver, Mrs., 472. 

Stewart, Rev. Mr., 472. 

"Wilkinson, General, 465. 

Wolfe, 463. 
Sossman. Eugene H., 437. 
^Southwell, John, 412. 
'Spain, Francisco, 423. 
Spain, Jaime, 423. 
Spalding, 259, 261. 
Spears, Robert, 414. 
Speed, 109. 

Speed, Attorney General, 129, 196. 
Spencer, Herbert, 349. 
Spight, Capt. Thomas, 593. 
Spight, Tho, 482. 
Spight, Thomas, 589. 
Spires, Juan, 422. 
Splun, Tomas, 423. 
Stampley, Jacobo, 425. 
Stampley, Jorge, 424. 
Stampley, Juan, 423. 
Stampley, Margaret, 415. 
Stampley, Margarita, 422. 
Stanberry, 310. 
Stanberry, Attorney General, 302, 

305, 310. 
Stanley, Benjamin, 418. 
Stanton, 48, 93, 109, 159, 196, 252, 



326, 327, 372, 373. I 

Stanton, Secretary, 62, 86, 140, 224,. 

225, 377. 
Staples, Major W. C, 530. 
Stark, Roberto, 419. 
Starling, Henry W., 435. 
Starling, Lyne Jr., 436. 
Starling, William Jr., 438. 
Starnes, William, 448. 
Statham, W. S., 517. 
Steadman, 147, 150, 152, 153. 
Steadman, General, 224. 
Stephens, 143, 172, 177. 
Stephens, Emory, 438. 
Stephens, Vice President, 161. 
Stephenson, Estavan, 422. 
Stephenson, John, 416. 
Stevens, 77, 81, 83, 106, 111, 112,; 

174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 182, 192, 

193, 207, 240, 246, 261, 262, 278, 

279, 291, 292, 305, 313, 374, 402. 
Stevens, A. H., 115, 164. 
Stevens, Thaddeus, 74, 82, 84, 157, 

171, 1S3, 218, 251, 253, 259, 312, 

376, 399, 401. 
Stevenson, 489, 535, 538, 553, 608.' 
Stevenson, Major General, 536, 537, 

Stewart, 489, 513, 553, 556, 569, 572, 

Stewart, Alex P., 559. 
Stewart, Charles, 410. 
Stewart, Jaime, 422. 
Stiel, Lieut. Col. Wm, 418. 
Stiell, William, 417. 
Still, Benjamin, 425. 
Stites, Doctor, 373. 
Stock, Guillermo, 427. 
Stockstill, Jose, 422. 
Stockton, 119. 
Stokes, Phillip, 438. 
Stokman, Federico, 419. 
Stone, Governor, 582. . 
Stoneman, 144. 

Stoneman, Major General, 61, 143. 
Stonewall, 539. 
Stoop, Jacobo, 427. 
Stout, Juan, 421. 
Stowers, Juan, 418, 426. 
Strabeker, Juan, 423. 
Strachan, Charles, 410. 
Strachan, Patrick, 412. 
Strahl, 573. 

Strickland, Delegate, 356. 
Strickland. William M., 458. 

Stricklin, 365. 

Strong, Juan Conarrod, 426. 

Strother, William, 442. 

Stuart, Charles, 413. 

Stuart, Mrs. Sarah, 416. 

Stuart, Patrick, 415. 

Stuart, Rev. Mr., 472. 

Stubbs, H. A„ 587. 

Sullivan, Daniel, 427. 

Sullivan, Patricio, 419, 424. > 

Summers, John, 412. 

Sumner, 76, 77, 81, 83, 112, 160, 

172, 192, 193, 207, 256, 402, 565. 
Sumner, Senator, 111, 115. 
Surget, Pedro, 420. 
Sutherland, James, 417. 
Sutherland, Percy P., 438. 
Sutter, William G., 438. 
Suvoroff, 564. 
Swazay, David, 421. 
Sweatman, D. C, 577. 
Sweazey, Nathan, 416. 
Swezey, Jaime Kirk Gabriel, 421. 
Swezey, Samuel, 427. 
Swezy, Nathan, 421. 
Swezv, Ricardo, 427. 
Sykes, Capt. E. T., 509, 511, 519. 
Sykes, Col. E. T., 481, 485, 605, 615. 
Sykes, Dr. G. A., 196. 
Sykes, E. T., 477, 480, 484, 491, 494, 

495, 507, 508, 510, 521, 572, 607, 

608, 609, 610, 616. 

Tabor, Isac, 425. 
Talt, Robert, 411. 
Tanner, Samuel, 427. 
Tappan, Winthrop, 149. 
Tarbell, Gen. John, 169. 
Taybor, Guillermo, 420. 
Taylor, 347. 

Taylor, Col. Zachary, 546. 
Taylor, General, 564. 
Taylor, Gen. Dick, 563. 
Taylor, Gen. Zachary, 443. 
Taylor, Isac. 108, 423. 
Taylor, Thomas, 410. 
Tecumseh, 447. 
Tendall, Robert, 417. 
Terry, 167. 
Terry, Jeremiah, 410. 
Thomas, 144, 513, 526, 527, 532, 537. 
Thomas, Colonel, 58, 99, 113, 126, 
134, 140, 145, 147, 170. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Thomas, Col. Samuel, 38, 97, 150. 
Thomas, General, 23, 24, 61, 62, 73, 

169, 207, 208, 310. 
Thomas, Gen. G. H., 60, 72, 165, 186, 

292, 517. 
Thomas, Guillermo, 425. 
Thomas, Sam, 135. , 

Thompson, Richard, 412. 
Thompson, William, 411. 
Thorn, William H., 39. 
Thornell, Ephraim, 417. 
Thurman, Allen G., 489. 
Tilden, 381. 
Tillson, General, 60. 
Timberlake, Charles, 485, 581, 583. 
Todd, Roberto, 426. 
Tomas, Juan, 427. 
Tomlinton, Nataniel, 424. 
Tomlston, Nataniel, 421. 
Tomlston, Nathaniel, 420. 
Tompkins, 219. 
Toombs, Gen. Robert, 591, 604. 
Toomer, Capt. B. F., 530. 
Tott, Julius, 438. 
Toulmin, Judge Harry, 444. 
Townsend, 366. 

Townsend, E. D., 130, 150, 156. 
Trail, Adwardo, 419. 
Travis, Edward D., 438. 
Trigg, Byrd C, 438. 
Troops, Gorge, 427. 
Trousdale, Arthur O., 438'. 
Truly, Benito, 425. 
Truly, Jaime, 424. 
Trumbull, 111. 
Trumbull, Senator, 256, 377. 
Tucker, 567. 
Tucker, W. F., 493. 
Tying, Edward, 414. 
Tyler, John, 355, 362. 

Underwood, Judge, 129, 130, 163. 
Urquhart, William, 435. 
Urry, La Vuida, 427. 

Valiant, Miss Jeanie, 459. 
Vanderweid, Daniel, 414. 
Van Dorn, Gen. Earl, 515. 
Varlo, Weston, 416. 
Vaucheret, Jose, 426. 
Vaucheret, Juan, 426. 

Vaughan, Thomas D., 438. 
Vaughn, 609. 
Vilaret, Luis, 427. 
Voice, Tormas, 419. 
Von Molke, 564. 
Voorhees, 106, 120. 
Voss, Herman, 438. 
Vousdan, Guillermo, 427. 
Vousdan, William, 411, 415. 


Wade, 246, 371. 

Wade, Ben, 119, 374, 375. 

Wade, Charles W., 438. 

Wade, Jaime, 426. 

Wade, Senator, 82. 

Wadkins, Andres, 425. 

Wadsworth, 219. 

Walker, 526, 527, 553, 556, 615. 

Walker, Gen. W. H. T., 484, 491, 524, 

539, 597, 612. 
Walker, Major General, 527, 555. 
Walker, Robert J., 305. 
Wall, Juan, 419. 
Wallin, Mayor E. W., 264. 
Walsh, Peter, 416, 418. 
Walter, Col. H. W., 458, 461. 
Walthall, 478, 481, 494, 495, 496, 498, 
499, 500, 504, 505, 507, 509, 512, 
515, 516, 517, 518, 520, 521, 524, 
526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 535, 
536, 537, 539, 540, 542, 561, 566, 
567, 569, 570, 572, 573, 575, 576, 
577, 593, 594, 598, 615. 
Walthall, B. A., 508, 510. 
Walthall's Brigade, 477. 
Adams, General, 505. 
Adams, John, 578. 
Ainsworth, F. €., 585. 
Alexander, 524, 527, 528. 
Allen, Hon. Henry W., 557, 558. 
Anderson, 505, 512, 513, 540, 587, 

601, 606. 
Anderson, Captain, 499. 
Anderson, General, 498, 500, 501, 

504, 506, 511. 
Anderson, Gen J. Patton, 483, 487, 
493, 497, 503, 522, 536, 552, 554, 
556, 591, 596, 609, 612. 
Anderson, H. R., 596. 
Anderson, Major Robert, 579. 
' Anderson, Mrs. (Gen.) J. Patton, 
Anderson, Richard H., 502. 



Au try, 507, 512, 590. 

Autry, Col. Jas. L., 483, 497, 500, 

513, 514, 522. 
Barksdale, Capt Win. R., 603. 
Barksdale, Hon. E., 558. 
Barrett, 498. 
Barrett, 0. W., 496. 
Bate, 556. 

Bate, Brigadier General, 553. 
BeanTand, Capt. W. G., 508. 
Beanland, W. G., 495. 
Beauregard, G. T., 565. 
Beauregard, General, 517, 534, 547, 

564, 579, 587. 
Benjamin, Judah P., 54S. 
Benton, 475, 575. 
Benton, Col. Samuel, 484, 496, 536, 

540, 572, 574, 586, 5SS, 589. 
Benton, General, 485, 576. 
Bishop, Colonel, 517, 518. 
Blythes, 526. 
Boker, 599. 

Boker, George H., 537. 
Boone, Thomas W., 512. 
Bowen, Captain, 531. 
Bragg, 502, 509, 515, 524, 526, 527, 

533, 545, 546, 550, 569, 575, 581, 

600, 602, 605, 614. 
Bragg, General, 484, 488, 493, 497, 

500, 501, 503, 504, 511, 516, 518, 

519, 522, 525, 532, 534, 535, 536. 

538, 540, 542, 543, 547, 549, 560, 

564, 586, 588, 597, 601, 606, 608, 

Bragg, Gen. Braxton, 485, 520, 610, 

Bragg, Judge John, 547. 
Bragg. Mrs Eliza B., 548. 
Bragg, Thomas, 548. 
Brantley, 485, 577, 578, 579, 603, 

Brantley, Col. W. F., 484, 494, 498, 

513, 528, 530, 536, 540, 572, 574. 
Brantley, General, 491, 509, 576. 
Breckenridge. 506, 611, 613. 
Breckenridge, General, 503, 504, 

505, 530. 
Bridges, Miss Sophy, 492. 
Brown, Gov. Joe, 525, 59S. 
Brown, John C, 607. 
Buchanan, J. W., 482. 569. 
Buchanan, President, 565. 
Buckner. 527, 60S, 611, 612, 615. 
Buell, 547. 
Buford, Gen. Abe, 567. 

Bullard, 581. 

Bullard, James, 519. 

Burke, 490. 

Burnside, 526, 535, 613. 

Calhoon, S. S., 604. 

Campbell, Col. J. A., 530, 535, 539, 

Canty, 572. 

Carperton, Allen T., 551. 
Carter, J. P., 509. 
Carter, T. C, 482, 491. 
Cato, Marcus, 490. 
Chalmers, 493, 498, 581. 
Chalmers, General, 499, 517, 518, 

519, 520. 
Chalmers, Jas. R., 501, 575. 
Cheatham, 489, 540, 541, 553, 556, 

Cheatham, Gen. B. F., 485, 529, 

531, 542, 543. 
Cheatham, Gen. Frank, 607. 
Chestnut, Colonel, 579. 
Cleburn, 527, 545. 553, 555, 556, 

601, 611, 614, 615. 
Cleburn, General, 484, 540, 550, 

551, 552, 554. 557, 613. 
Cleburn, Pat R., 558. 
Cleveland, 592. 
Cleveland, President, 487. 
Clinton, J. K., 509. 
Cloud, 530. 

Coleman, Col. D., 573. 
Compton, W. M., 587. 
Cooper, General, 508. 
Cooper, S., 508. 
Cooper, Samuel, 565. 
Craft, Addison, 494, 495, 577. 
Craft, Capt. Addison, 508, 576. 
Craven, 538. 
Crittenden, 527. 
Crittenden, George B., 517. 
Currie, D. M., 495, 509, 510 
Dancy, Clifton, 577, 587, 588. 
Darden, 608. 
Davis, 562, 563, 566. 
Davis, President, 490, 517, 542, 

547, 556, 561, 564, 565, 574, 575, 

Dea, 609. 

Devine, Dr. K. C, 494. 
Divine, Dr., 508, 510. 
Divine, K. C, 510. 
Dowd, Col. W. F., 539. 
Dowd, W. F., 493. 
Du Bose, Dudley M., 604. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Du Bose, Mrs., 604. 

Du Bose, Mrs. Dudley M., 591. 

Dunham, C. L., 520. 

Ectors, 528. 

Ellis, Major W. C, 548. 

Ellis, Miss Eliza B., 546. 

Ellis, Townson, 504. 

Falconer, 585. 

Falconer, Captain, 485. 

Falconer, Capt. Thomas A., 586 

Falconer, Kinlock, 511, 512. 
Falconer, Major Kinlock, 588. 
Farrell, Frank, 587. 
Featherston, 578, 603. 
Featherston, Gen. W. S., 491, 573. 
Field, Col. H. R., 573. 
Forest, General, 534. 
Forrest, 567, 573, 574. 
Fowler, Capt. W. H., 496, 536. 
Galloway, Bishop Charles B., 595. 
Garrity, Capt. James, 519. 
George, 594. 
George, Senator, 490. 
Gilchrist, Jas. G., 493, 498. 
Gladden, General, 575. 
Gordon, 526, 527, 528. 
Gordon, John B., 580. 
Govan, 509, 526, 528, 530. 
Govan, Col. Dan. C, 597. 
Govan, George M., 508, 510, 577, 

Govan, Miss Bettie, 594. 
Granger, Gen. Gordon, 484, 524. 
Grant, 536, 537, 543. 
Grant, General, 535, 550, 610. 
Grant, President, 599. 
Greary, 538. 

Griffith, Dr. J. R., 509, 510. 
Grooves, 587. 
Guist, General, 614. 
Hairston, Marshall, 511. 
Hanson, 505. 
Hardee, 494, 502, 524, 533, 556, 

568, 597, 601. 
Hardee, General, 484, "541, 543, 

545, 569, 602. 
Hardee, Lieutenant Colonel, 598. 
Hardee, Lieutenant General, 540, 

Hardy, Col. W. H., 488. 
Harper, Henry, 512. 
Harris, Isham G., 532. 
Harris, Samuel A., 550, 614. 

Harrison, Hon. Jas. T., 580. 

Harrison, Lieut. John C., 577, 602. 

Harrison, Regina L., 580. 

Hicks, J. M., 604. 

Hill, D. H., 603. •' 

Hill, General, 612. 

Hill, Gen. D. H., 610. 

Hill, Hon. B. H., 484, 545, 548, 

561, 562, 563, 565, 602. 
Hill, Lieutenant General, 611. 
Hill, Major Charles S., 554. 
Hill, Senator, 562. 
Hindman, 501, 524, 536, 552, 553, 

556, 566, 568, 611, 612, 615. 
Hindman, General, 527, 532, 609. 
Hoar, Senator, 488, 490. 
Hood, 568, 569, 570, 573, 574, 580. 
Hood, General, 484, 488, 551, 572. 
Hood, Gen. John B., 602. 
Hooker, 536, 537, 538, 545, 613. 
Hooper, J. A., 494, 508, 510, 587. 
Hooper, Major John, 577. 
Howard, 588. 

Howry, Charles B., 592, 593. 
Huntley, Col. Daniel R., 480, 600. 
Hunter, R. M. T., 551. 
Jackson, 572. 
Jackson, General, 505. 
Jackson, Gen. J. K., 484, 534, 537, 

539, 599, 600. 
Jackson, Gen. W. H„ 510, 602. 
Jackson, Stonewall, 488, 549. 
Jeffres, 608. 
Jessup, General, 565. 
Johnson, J. M., 521. 
Johnson, Major J. M. t 531, 540. 
Johnston, 572, 580, 603, 604. 
Johnston, George D., 573, 606. 
Johnston, General, 484, 488, 533, 

545, 551, 553, 556, 557, 560, 561, 
562, 563, 564, 567, 568, 570, 579. 

Johnston, Gen. Albert Sidney, 

546, 547, 565. 

Johnston, Gen. Jos. E., 555, 565, 

566, 577, 593, 602. 
Jones, A. J., 540. 
Jones/Col. T. M., 483, 493, 494, 

495, 497, 49S, 515, 521, 522, 575, 

588, 596, 597. 
Jones, Lieut. Gen. A, J., 568. 
Jones, Miss Mary L., 492, 592. 
Jones, Rev. J. Wm, 606. 
Kolb, 608. 
Lamar, Justice and Ex-Senator, 




Lamar, L. Q. C, tS7, 4S8 

Lee, 488. 520, 527. 528, 548, 562, 

565. 566. 
Lee, Caroline (Allison), 579. 
Lee, Dr. Thomas. 579. 
Lee, General, 564, 579, 604. 
Lee, Gen Robert EL, 544, 551, 558. 

561, 565, 580. 
Lee, Gen. Stephen D., 485, 491, 

572. 578, 5S0. 603. 
Lee, Hon. Blewett H., 680. 
Lee, Major, 611. 
Liddell, 526. 597. 
Liddell, General. 484. 524. 
Logan, 569. 
Longstreet, 527. 528. 533, 535, 

536, 612. 613. 
Longstreet, General. 484. 524. 
Loring, General, 549. 
Loring, Major General. 573. 
Lowry, Gov. Robt. 4S7. 
Lumsden, C. L., 496. 
Lytle, Gen. W. H.. 485, 590. 591. 
Magruder, L. W., 491, 577. 
Malone, John, 483, 515, 521. 
Maney, 514. 573. 
Manigault, 498. 499. 505, 512. 514, 

603, 604. 
Marlborough, 564. 
Martin, 527. 
Martin, Gen. Will T.. 491, 582, 

Mason. A. T., 586. 588. 
Mason, Major, 4S5, 585. 
Maury, Dabney H.. 616. 
May, Capt. Lambert, 483. 497, 499, 

500, 506. 
McCabe. Jr., 558. 
McCardle. Col. W. PI., 479. 
McDonald, 530. 
McKelvaine, R. P.. 498, 529. 530, 

MeKinley, President. 595. 
McLaurin, Governor, 594. 
McPherson. 566. 567. 
Meade, 527. 

Melton. Samuel W., 589. 
Miller, Thomas W., 586. 
Milton. John. 501. 
Moore, 537, 53S, 539. 
Moore, Colonel. 519 
Moore, Col. James. 518. 
Moore. Ceneral, 600. 

Mordeeai. , 594. 

Moreau, 564. 

Morgan, J. B., 529. 

Morgan, Sen. John T., 489. 

Murry, John Y., 587. 

Negley. 513. 

Neill, G. F., 493, 497. 

Nocquet, Major, 612. 

Oladowsky, Col. H., 511. 

Olmstead, 573. 

Palmer, Col. J. B., 573. 

Pegram, Major, 528. 

Pegram, Major W. G., 531, 586. 

Peters, Doc., 515. 

Pettus, 537, 538, ,539. 

Pettus, Gen Edward W., 480, 600, 

Phelan, Col. James, 563. 
Phelan, John, 531. 
Pbelpn, 601. 
Phillips, Moses, 575. 
Pierce, President, 500. 
Pillow, General, 505, 506. 
Polk. 493, 495, 507, 515, 524, 532, 

533, 534, 564, 567, 568, 570, 612. 
Polk, Doctor, 599. 
Polk, General, 484, 513, 552, 609, 

611, 614. 
Polk, Gen. Leonidas, 503, 559. 
Porter, Ex-Gov. Jas. D., 485. 
Porter, Governor, 608. 
Porter, James D., 602, 605, 607. 
Prentiss, Sergeant S., 486. 
Prentiss, S. S., 596. 
Preston, General, 505. 
Quarles, 572, 573. 
Rayburn, W. A., 507, 510. 
Reynolds, 572, 607, 608, 609. 
Reynolds, Alex W., 601, 605, 606. 
Reynolds, Capt. G. W., 542. 
Reynolds, D. H., 573. 
Reynolds, Gen. Alex W., 612. 
Reynolds. H. A., 531. 
Reynolds, Lieutenant Colonel, 

Reynolds, Major George W., 522. 
Richards, Major, 519. 
Richards, Major W. C, 518. 
Richards, W. C, 604. 
Robeson, Robert, 518. 
Robertson, Felix H., 503. 
Rogan, L., 587. 
Rogers, Captain, 588. 
Rosecrans, 497, 527, 528, 535. 
Rosecrans, General, 524, 591. 
Ross, Mrs. John B., 592. 
Ruggles, 502. 


Mississippi Historical Society. 

Ruggles, General, 575. 

Sale, 615. 

Sale, Col. John B., 488, 539, 600, 

601, 610. 
Sale, Mrs., 615. 
Scales, Colonel. 514. 
Scales, Col. J. J., 498, 530, 531. 
Scott, Colonel, 518. 
Scott, Gen. Winfield, 598. 
Scruggs, A. T., 587. 
Sear, 578. 

Sedden, Hon. J. A., 556, 557. 
Sharp, 567, 578, 603, 604. 
Sharp, Gen. J. H., 606. 
Shelly, 572. 
Sheridan, 513. 
Sherman, 560, 567; 571, 579, 601, 

fiherman, General, 566. 
Skoboleff, 564 
Smith, Colonel, 519. 
Smith, J. D., 530. 
Smith, Kirby, 547. 
Smith, Col. Robert A., 483, 515, 

518, 520, 5S1. 
Spight, Capt. Thomas. 593. 
Spight, Thomas, 482, 589. 
Staples, Major W. C , 530. 
Statham, W. S., 517. 
Stevenson, 489, 535, 538, 553, 608. 
Stevenson l Major General, 536, 

537, 600. 
Stewart, 489, 513, 553, 556, 569, 

572, 573. 
Stewart, Alex P., 559. 
Stone, Governor, 582. 
Strahl, 573. 
Stubbs, H. A., 587. 
Sumner, 565. 
Suvoroff, 564. 
Sweatman, D. C, 577. 
Sykes, Captain, 509, 511, 519. 
Sykes, Col. E. T., 481. 
Sykes, E. T., 477, 480, 484, 491, 

494, 495, 507, 508, 510, 521, 572, 

607, 608, 609, 610, 616. 
Sykes, Major E. T., 485. 605, 615. 
Taylor, Col. Zachary, 546. 
Taylor, General, 564. 
Taylor, Gen. Dick, 563. 
Timberlake. Charles. 485, 581, 583. 
Thomas, 513, 526, 527, 532, 537. 
Thomas, Gen. George H., 517. 
Thurman, Allen G., 489. 

Toombs, Gen. Robert, 591, 604. 

Toomer, Capt. B. F., 530. 

Tucker, 567. 

Tucker, W. F., 493. 

Van Dora, Gen. Earl, 515. 

Vaughn, 609. 

Von Molke, 564. 

Walker, 526, 527, 553, 556, 615. 

Walker, General, 597/ 

Walker, Gen. W. H. T., 484, 491, 
524, 539, 612. 

Walker, Major General, 527, 555. 

Walthall, 478, 481, 494, 495, 496, 
498, 499, 500, 504, 505, 507, 509, 
512, 515, 516, 517, 518, 520, 521, 

524, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 
535, 536, 537, 539, 540, 542, 561, 
566, 5B7, 569, 570, 572, 573, 575, 
576, 577, 593, 594, 598, 615. 

Walthall, B. A., 508, 510. 

Walthall, B. W., 486. 

Walthall, E. C, 484, 486, 487, 489, 

492, 493, 508, 534. 
Walthall, General, 479, 480, 488, 

491, 497, 502, 503, 511, 522, 523, 

525, 538, 541, 543, 568, 574, 588, 
592, 578, 600, 603. 

Walthall, Gen. E. C, 482. 
Walthall, Mrs. (Gen.) E. C, 485, 

590, 591, 592, 604. 
Walthall, Sally, 486. 
Walthall, Senator, 490. 
Wheeler, 535. 
White, Colonel, 517. 
White, Col. Thos. W., 518. 
Wilder, 527. 
Wilder, Colonel, 520. 
Wilds, Oliver, 485, 581. 
Wilds, Oliver N., 582. 
Wilkerson, 498, 505, 513. 
Wilkins, 588. 

Wilkinson, Judge E. C, 486, 596. 
Wilkinson, Sally, 486. 
Williams, Kershaw, 512. 
Williamson, R. W., 494, 577. 
Wilson, 528. 
Wilson, Billy, 501. 
Wither, 493, 495, 498, 532, 581, 589. 
Withers, 507. 
Withers, General, 503, . 504, 506, 

Witherspoon, Hon. S. A., 500. 
Wood, J. H., 495, 510. 
Wright, Daniel B., 586. 



Wright, Gen. Marcus J., 485, 607, j 

Yancy, 502. . 

Zollicoffer, Brigadier General, 517. 
Walthall, B. W., 486. I 

Walthall, E. €., 458, 484, 486, 487,' 

489, 492, 493, 508, 534. 
Walthall, General, 479, 480, 482, 488, 
491, 497, 502, 503, 511, 522, 523, 
525, 538, 541, 543, 568, 574, 578, 
588, 592, 600, 603. 
Walthall, Mrs. (Gen.) E. C., 485, 

590, 591, 592, 604. 
Walthall, Sally, 486. 
Walthall, Senator, 490. 
Ward, Benjamin, 410. 
W r ard, Daniel, 409. 
Ward, John, 410. 
Ward, Joshua, 410. 
W r armoth, 206. 
Warner, William S., 438. 
Warren, General, 53. 
W r arren, Joseph, 102. 
Washhurn, 84, 259. 
Washburn, Elihu B , 74. 
W'ashburne, Congressman, 398. 
Washington, General, 449. 
Washington, President, 442, 443. 
Wathe, Roberto, 424. 
Watkins, James, 411. 
W r atkins, John, 416. 
Watson, Judge J. W. C., 366, 394 

396, 458. 
Watson, R. L., 458. 
Waugh, David, 414. 
Weake, Gulllermo, 427. 
W r ebster, 195. 

Webster, Stonewall J., 438. 
Weed, 219. 

Weed. Joel, 422. 

Wegg, Edmund Rush, 410. 

Welles, 345. 

Welles. Secretary, 108. 

Wells. Governor. 58, 199, 308. 

Wells. J. Madison. 197. 

Wells, Richard, 416. 

Welton, Juan. 419. 

Wesson, President, 394. 

West, A. M.. 12. 

West. Cato. 424. 

West. Gulllermo. 422. 

West, Little Berry, 422. 

Wetherbee. Elliott C.. 436. 

Wheatley, George, 433 

Wheeler, 535. 

Wheeler, Captain, 149. 

Wheeler, John, 411. 

Whipple, Brig. Gen. Wm. D., 61. 

White, Colonel, 517. 

White, Col. Thos. W., 518. 

White, F. M., 129. 

White, James B., 438. 

White, Joseph B., 438. 

White, Lily, 419. 

White, Mateo, 423. 

Whitehorn, Mr., 457. 

Whittlesey, Col. E., 149. 

Wickersham, Major Charles, 148. 

Wickershaw, Major Charles J., 149. 

Wickoff, Charles A., 298. 

Wilder, 527. 

Wilder, Colonel, 520. 

Wilds, Oliver, 485, 581. 

Wilds, Oliver N., 582. 

Wilix, Oscar J., 439. 

Wilkerson, 498, 505, 513. 

Wilkerson, Juan, 419. 

Wilkins, 588. 

Wilkinson, General, 448, 465. 

Wilkinson, Sally, 486. 

Wilkinson, Judge E. C, 486, 596. 

Willey, Jaime, 427. 

Willey, Juan, 425. 

Williams, Ann, 413, 417. 

Williams, David, 426. 

Williams, Geo. H., 74. 

Williams, Juan, 424. 

Williams, Kershaw, 512. 

Williams, Lieutenant, 44. 

Williams, Mary, 413. 

Williams, Maurice, 99. 

Williams, Miguel, 422. 

Williams, N. R., 363. 

Williams, Senator, 170. 

Williams, William, 413. 

Williamson, R. W., 494, 577. 

Willson, Guillermo, 419. 

Wilmer, Bishop, 72. 

Wilson, 84, 193, 378, 528. 

Wilson, Billy, 501. 

Wilson, Juan, 427. 

Wilson, Senator, 35, 204. 

Wilton, William, 412, 413. 

W T infree, Jacob, 412. 

Winters, Sheriff, 143. 

Wither, 493. 495, 498, 532, 581, 589. 

Withers, 507 

Withers, General. 503, 504, 506, 512. 

Withers, Jese, 426. 


Mississippi Historical Society 

Witherspoon, Hon. S. A., 500. 

Witley, Solomon, 420. 

Wirz, 120. 

Wolfe, 463. 

Wood, Gen. T. J., 24, 43, 44, 73, 99, 
126, 145, 146, 147, 150, 152, 154, 
156, 212, 214, 222, 223, 236, 237, 
241, 262, 263, 264, 266, 267, 293. | 

Wood, Herbert A., 439. 

Wood, J. H., 495, 510. 

Wood, Major, 130, 139. 

Woodward, 379. 

Woodward, Major, 44. 

Wooley, Melling, 420. 

Wright, 119, 219. 

Wright, Daniel B., 586. 

Wright, Gen. Marcus J., 485, 607 

Wynn, Judge J. H., 431. 

Yancey, 502. 

Yarborough, Janes Smith, 415. 
Yerger, Abram C, 435. 
Yerger, Capt. W. G., 431. 
Yerger, Hon. Wm., 29, 196, 233. 
Yerger, Judge, 131, 304. 
Yerger, Spencer B., 439. 
Young, Col. Van E.", 43, 44. 
Young, Elizabeth, 421. 
Young, Guillermo, 419. 
Young, Juan, 423. 
Young, Upton, 264. 


Zeines, Juan, 425. 

Zollicoffer, Brigadier General, 517.